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E singulis communitas (Latin for "From individuals, a community")
Location of York (red), as compared with the rest of Toronto.
1 January 1967 (borough)
June 1983 (city)
|Changed Region||1954 Metropolitan Toronto from York County|
|Amalgamated||1 January 1998 into Toronto|
|• Councillors||Mike Colle, Joe Mihevc, Frances Nunziata, Cesar Palacio|
|• MPs||Carolyn Bennett, Julie Dzerowicz, Marco Mendicino, Ahmed Hussen|
|• MPPs||Laura Albanese, Mike Colle, Cristina Martins|
|• Total||23.49 km2 (9.07 sq mi)|
|• Density||6,201/km2 (16,060/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC-5 (EST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-4 (EDT)|
|Area code(s)||416, 647, 437|
York is a former city within the current city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It is located northwest of Old Toronto, southwest of North York and east of Etobicoke, where it is bounded by the Humber River. As a separate city, it was one of six municipalities that amalgamated in 1998 to form the current city of Toronto. The City of York was created by the amalgamation of several villages, including the present-day neighbourhoods of Lambton Mills and Weston.
York Township was incorporated by Canada West in 1850 (Canada West later became Ontario in 1867, due to Confederation), bounded in the west by the Humber River, in the east by what would become Victoria Park Avenue, and in the north by what would become Steeles Avenue. Etobicoke Township and Scarborough Township were located west and east, respectively, while the townships of Vaughan and Markham bordered on the north.
York Township was home to one of the original Black communities in the Toronto area, which was populated by many African American fugitive slaves. By 1861, the township had the second-largest Black population in the Toronto area, after St. John's Ward, most of whom lived in York Township West (located west of Yonge Street and north of Bloor Street). The legacy of York's original Black community continues today; as of the 2016 Census, 17% of York's population is Black, the largest percentage of Toronto's six former municipalities.
The Humewood–Cedarvale neighbourhood was developed in the 1910s to attract development in the growing township. Oakwood Village was also developed during this time. In the 1920s, the character of the township changed, with its southern reaches abutting the city of Toronto taking on a more urban character, compared with the very rural character of the north. The decision was made to split the township into two, with the northern, rural portion becoming North York in 1922. The remaining, two pockets of unincorporated urban development at the north end of the city, were split by the village of North Toronto, which was by then a part of the City of Toronto.
Within years, the Province of Ontario saw that this arrangement of having an exclave was impractical, and further subdivided York, creating the township of East York out of the eastern pocket. The Township of York contracted streetcar and bus services from the Toronto Transportation Commission (later became Toronto Transit Commission in 1954), but remained independent from Toronto. During this time, American novelist and journalist Ernest Hemingway resided in the Humewood–Cedarvale community, writing for the Toronto Star.
In 1954, York, along with other municipalities south of Steeles Avenue were severed from York County, forming the new upper-tier government of Metropolitan Toronto. In 1967, it absorbed the town of Weston, and became the Borough of York, later known as the City of York. (The map shows this area in red). York was amalgamated into the new City of Toronto on 1 January 1998. Its former council and administrative building, York Civic Centre, is located at 2700 Eglinton Avenue West, between Black Creek Drive and Keele Street.
North and west of Oakwood Village is the Fairbank community. Silverthorn is west of Fairbank. Silverthorn (and Fairbank) is described as "Toronto's hidden San Francisco" in reference to its "steep streets, staircases, and unusual views of houses built in what must be the hilliest part of the city." This is due to Toronto's topography being shaped by its deep ravines being similar to the hills of San Francisco, especially in Fairbank and Silverthorn.
Another community in York, Mount Dennis, was the base for the former campus of Kodak's Canadian operations for over 100 years. While most of the buildings were demolished, the branch head office has been repurposed for Line 5 Eglinton's Eglinton Maintenance and Storage Facility.
Four public school boards offers schooling to students residing in York, Conseil scolaire catholique MonAvenir (CSCM), Conseil scolaire Viamonde (CSV), the Toronto Catholic District School Board (TCDSB), and the Toronto District School Board (TDSB). CSV and TDSB operate as secular public school boards, the former operating French first language institution, whereas the latter operated English first-language institutions. The other two school boards, CSCM and TCDSB, operate as public separate school boards, the former operating French first language separate schools, the latter operating English first language separate schools.
Before York was amalgamated with the rest of Metropolitan Toronto, the York Board of Education oversaw public secular schools in the former city. As with the other school boards in Metro Toronto, they were amalgamated to form TDSB in 1998. Presently, the school board operates several institutions that offer primary and secondary education. Secondary schools in York that are operated by TDSB include:
TDSB formerly operated another secondary school in York, Vaughan Road Academy. Opened in 1927, the secondary school was York's first but was closed on its 90th anniversary in 2017 due to its lack of student population resulting from students in the local catchment area attending other nearby secondary schools. Vaughan Road Academy is repurposed as a temporary elementary school for students in the Yonge and Davisville area in Midtown Toronto since the 2018–19 school year to accommodate the construction of a new school building.
TCDSB operates one secondary school in York, St. Oscar Romero Catholic Secondary School. Neither CSCM nor CSV operate a secondary school in York, with CSV/CSCM students residing in York attending secondary schools located in adjacent districts of Toronto.
Public library system
Presently, the Toronto Public Library operates several branches within York. Prior to York's amalgamation of Toronto in 1997, the city operated its own library system, known as York Public Library. As a result of amalgamating the municipalities in Metropolitan Toronto, York Public Library was merged with the other library systems of the new City of Toronto to form the new Toronto Public Library.
York's first public library was the Mount Dennis branch, which operated out of rented premises since 1923. In 1945, the Township of York Public Library Board was established, and proceeded to build three new library buildings that opened in 1951, including the Jane/Dundas library, Main Library (Eglinton Avenue one block east of Dufferin Street), and the Mount Dennis Library. The Main Library was later renamed after head librarian Maria Shchuka and was later rebuilt in 2003. The Oakwood Village branch was York's newest library; opening a year before the municipalities of Metropolitan Toronto amalgamated.
York is served by the Toronto Transit Commission's buses, streetcar, and subway system. Early in the community's history, York had operated its own bus and streetcar service, until it was absorbed by the Toronto Transit Commission. Of the Toronto subway system, only the Heath Street exit of St. Clair West station on Line 1 Yonge–University is in the former city of York. The Rogers Road streetcar line served the namesake street as well.
Line 5 Eglinton
The TTC once had plans to construct the Eglinton West subway line along Eglinton Avenue in the former city of York. However, it was cancelled in 1995 under premier Mike Harris and there had been no serious discussion about reviving the line until 2007, when Line 5 Eglinton (then known as the Eglinton Crosstown LRT) was proposed as part of David Miller's Transit City.
When Rob Ford became mayor in 2010, he immediately announced the cancellation of Transit City. However, city council spared a few lines, including the Eglinton Crosstown LRT, from cancellation, despite Ford's objections.
Since 2013, the new LRT is being constructed and is expected to be opened in 2022.
The Weston GO Station along the Kitchener line is the only GO Transit train station within the former city of York. There are also plans to construct the Caledonia GO Station along the Barrie line, which would connect with Line 5's Caledonia station, along with the Mount Dennis GO Station along the Kitchener line to connect with Line 5's Mount Dennis station.
York was formerly an incorporated municipality, now a part of the City of Toronto. The community was first incorporated as a township in 1793. The township was initially a township under the County of York until 1954. In 1954 York was formally severed from the county, along with other municipalities situated south of Steeles Avenue to form the upper-tier government of Metropolitan Toronto. In 1967, the township was formally made into a borough of Metropolitan Toronto, and later a city in 1983. In 1997, York, along with the remaining municipalities of Metropolitan Toronto were formally amalgamated to form the new City of Toronto.
On a provincial and federal level of governance, eligible residents of York are also able to vote for members of the Parliament of Canada, and the Legislative Assembly of Ontario. Additionally, as a part of the City of Toronto, York takes part in Toronto municipal elections, with eligible residents able to vote on the Mayor of Toronto, as well as councillors to the Toronto City Council. Prior to York's amalgamation with Toronto, York operated its own municipal council, with a mayor heading York's council. Prior to the municipality's incorporation as a borough, the chief magistrate of the council was referred to as a reeve.
The following individuals served as the reeves of the Township of York:
- Franklin Jackes (1850–1851) – first reeve
- William James (1852–1860)
- William Tyrrell (1860–1864) – architect, later first reeve of Weston
- Bartholomew Bull, Jr. (1865–1872)
- William Tyrell (1873–1878) – second tenure
- Henry Duncan (1879–1886)
- Henry Frankland (1887)
- A.L. Wilson (1888–1889)
- Simon Thomas Humberstone (1890–1894)
- William James Hill (1894–1897) – later MPP for York West
- Henry Duncan (1898–1902) – second tenure
- William Sylvester (1903–1904)
- George Syme (1905)
- George Stewart Henry (1906–1910) – later MPP for York East and Premier of Ontario
- John T. Watson (1911–1912)
- George Syme (1913–1914) – second tenure
- Thomas Griffiths (1915–1918)
- Fred H. Miller (1919–1922)
- W.S. Jury (1923)
- William M. Graham (1924–1927)
- Ernest C. Westbury (1928–1929)
- W.J. Gilbert Dean (1930–1931)
- A.J.B. Gray (1932–1933)
- R.J. Stuart (1934–1935)
- W. Marsh Magwood (1936–1937)
- F.J. MacRae (1938–1946)
- C.J. McMaster (1947–1948)
- William George Beech (1949–1951) - later MPP for York South
- Fred W. Hall (1952–1956) - was reeve when Metropolitan Toronto was created, with York as a member municipality. Subsequently became chairman of the Metro Licensing Committee. Hall was later tried on charges of municipal corruption for allegedly accepting bribes for building permits during his tenure as reeve.
- Chris A. Tonks (1957–1960) - focus of a scandal after he was accused of conflict of interest for voting for a by-law that allowed him to purchase property from the township. Unseated by a court order after a judicoial probe but then reinstated on appeal.
- Frederick Charles Taylor (1961) - Owner of a construction form, he was elected on a reform aganda after allegations of corruption against York Township council, having first demanded a judicial probe of the township in 1956. Died in office.
- Walter Saunders (1962) - Previously Councillor for Ward 2, council voted Saunders in as reeve in January 1962, following the death of Reeve Taylor. A travel agent by profession, Saunders had run for reeve in previous general elections but had not been successful.
- Jack Mould (1963–1966) - Mould ran against former reeve Chris Tonks and was elected by 44 votes, after a recount. Mould was York's last reeve and would be its first mayor. Ran for the position of Metropolitan Toronto Chairman in July 1969 but was forced to withdrew from the contest after Member of Parliament Jack Cowan accused him of tax evasion.
The following individuals served as York's mayor:
The following individual served as the Deputy Mayor of York:
- Joe Mihevc (1991–1997)
Board of Control
The Board of Control was created in 1969 and abolished in 1988. The following individuals served as on the Board of Control:
Names in boldface indicate Controllers who were or became Mayor of York in other years.
X = elected as Controller
A = appointed Controller to fill a vacancy
M = sitting as Reeve or Mayor
*Brown served as mayor from 1988 to 1994
- This school is located within Old Toronto proper, but its catchment area includes much of the eastern half of York since the closure of Vaughan Road Academy in 2017
- Reverend Mitchell Harriet Tubman Institute. Accessed 28 February 2016.
- "Neighbourhood Profiles". 14 November 2017.
- Micallef, Shawn (26 September 2014). "A walk with Ward 12 candidate Lekan Olawoye". Toronto Star. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
- "New School". 10 May 2011.
- "History". Mount Dennis. Toronto: Toronto Public Library. 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
- "History". Jane/Dundas. Toronto: Toronto Public Library. 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
- "History". Maria Shchuka. Toronto: Toronto Public Library. 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
- Adam, G. Mercer, and Charles Pelham Mulvany. History of Toronto and County of York, Ontario. Manotick, Ont.: Archive CD Canada, 2008. Print.
- Adam, Graeme Mercer; Mulvany, Charles Pelham; Robinson, Christopher Blackett (1885). "History of Toronto and County of York, Ontario: Containing an Outline of the History of the Dominion of Canada; a History of the City of Toronto and the County of York, with the Townships, Towns, General and Local Statistics; Biographical Sketches".
- YORK AND PEEL: FIRST MEETING OF THE COUNCIL OF 1866 THE NAMES OF MEMBERS ELECTION OF WARDEN A COMMITTEE TO NOMINATE STANDING COMMITTEES ASSESSMENT ROLL NOTICES OF MOTION The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]24 Jan 1866: 1.
- YORK TOWNSHIP COUNCIL: FIRST MEETING COMMUNICATION RECEIVED From Messrs. Bull and Johnson, end PETITIONS MISCELLANEOUS The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]23 Jan 1878: 4.
- YORK TOWNSHIP COUNCIL: FIRST MEETING The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]22 Jan 1879: 3.
- MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS: Farther Lists at the ... and Councillers of Ontario Municipalities CORRECTION The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]06 Jan 1886: 2.
- Full TextHistorical Newspapers BANQUET AND PRESENTATION: A Pleasant Affair In Honor of Mr. Henry Dunoan, Ex-Reeve of York Township A GLOWING TRIBUTE MR. DUNCAN The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]03 Feb 1887: 3.
- LOCAL BRIEFS The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]04 Jan 1887: 5.
- The York Township Election Local Briefs The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]03 Jan 1888: 2.
- Kennedy, Scott (22 October 2016). 200 Years at St. John's York Mills: The Oldest Church in Toronto. ISBN 9781459737600.
- LIBERALS AT WESTON: Annual Meeting of West York Reformers--Officers Re-elected--Mr. McMullen's Speech--Banquet in the Evening Those Who Were Present Re-electing Officers Good Work Done Mr. M'Mullen's Speech Effective Comparisons The Banquet The Land We Love Root, Hog or Die North York Liberal Convention The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]18 Jan 1898: 2.
- YORK FARMERS COMBINE: Protective Association Formed on Saturday--They Decide to Support Mr. White in His Case The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]20 June 1898: 7.
- YORK TOWNSHIP: A Quiet Nomination at Eglinton Town Hall-- Councillors Re-elected by Acclamation The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]27 Dec 1898: 6.
- YORK TOWNSHIP RESULTS: REEVE DUNCAN RETURNED BY A SHALL MAJORITY A Keen Contest For the Reeveship--Mr. A. E. Ames Writes a Letter to the Ratepayers--A Close Ran For Councillors The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]07 Jan 1902: 2.
- LOCAL OPTION DEFEATED: LIQUOR MEN WIN IN YORK TOWNSHIP Lively Tilt Between Auditor and Clergyman All the Old Council Elected Except Mr. Wallace Maclean The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]05 Jan 1904: 12.
- TO IMPROVE CAR SERVICE The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]10 Jan 1905: 12.
- YORK COUNCIL INAUGURAL The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]10 Jan 1911: 8.
- PHILLIPS, KEITH STILL IN CONTEST: Each Wants to be Clerk of York County NO DEADLOCK THIS TIME New County Council Will Have Thirty-one Members and. Will Decide the Question on First Ballot on January 23 The Globe (1844-1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]04 Jan 1912: 7.
- PARCEL OF CITY PROPERTY STILL IN YORK TOWNSHIP: Discovery of Old Documents Shows That Deeds to Land Almost in Centre of City Were Never Surrendered The Globe (1844-1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]14 Jan 1913: 9.
- THE LATE GEORGE SYME, SEN: Ex-Reeve of York Township Had Long and Useful Life The Globe (1844-1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]09 Mar 1915: 6.
- MARKHAM MAN IS WARDEN OF YORK: MR. JONATHAN NIGH IS UNANIMOUS CHOICE OF COUNCILLORS' The Globe (1844-1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]27 Jan 1915: 6.
- COUNTY PROTESTS CITY SEWER PLAN: Refuses Permit for 15-inch Main for Kitchener School The Globe (1844-1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]20 May 1919: 9.
- YORK COUNCIL RETAINS OFFICE: All Canadidates Endorsed by A.R.A. Receive Sound Beatings The Globe (1844-1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]02 Jan 1920: 22.
- UP GO TAXES IN TOWNSHIP The Globe (1844-1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]30 Aug 1921: 6.
- YORK TOWNSHIP SETTING PACE: Members of Council Rushed Through Mass of Varied Business NEW SPEED RECORD MADE The Globe (1844-1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]17 Jan 1922: 11.
- YORK TOWNSHIP COUNCIL BURIED IN BALLOT GALE; JURY IS ELECTED REEVE: Former Reeve Fred Miller Is Defeated by Majority of 3,086 Votes and Whole Personnel of Council Is Changed-- Oshawa Elects W. J. Trick as Mayor RESULTS OF VOTE IN NEARBY PLACES The Globe (1844-1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]02 Jan 1923: 10.
- SUBURBAN VOTERS MAKE THEIR CHOICE OF YEAR'S RULERS: All of York Township's Councillors Are Returned to Office GRAHAM GETS BIG VOTE The Globe (1844-1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]02 Jan 1925: 28.
- TOWNSHIP'S VOTERS REPOSE CONFIDENCE IN FORMER COUNCIL: Reeve Graham and All Other York Members Offering Are Returned DIFFERENT IN EAST YORK The Globe (1844-1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]02 Jan 1926: 36.
- Neighboring District Voters Elect New Administrations And Approve New By-Laws: Vote, While Weak in Spots, Shows Generally Increasing Interest in Affairs in York, Peel, Halton and Ontario Counties--Many Surprises in Yorks YORK TOWNSHIP ELECTS WESTBURY The Globe (1844-1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]03 Jan 1928: 50.
- SUBURBS RETURN LARGE MAJORITY OF '28 MEMBERS: Public Utilities Commission Approved in York Township SEVERAL CLOSE FIGHTS The Globe (1844-1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]02 Jan 1929: 2.
- TOWNSHIP QUESTIONS MORTGAGE EVICTIONS The Globe (1844-1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]09 Oct 1931: 12.
- FOLK WHO ARE PROMINENT IN THE NEWS OF THE DAY IN TORONTO AND VICINITY The Globe (1844-1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]03 Jan 1930: 41.
- MORE RELIEF ASKED FOR YORK VETERANS The Globe (1844-1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]31 Oct 1933: 13.
- PHYSICIANS IN YORK STUDY RELIEF FEES The Globe (1844-1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]13 Oct 1932: 11.
- "Fred Taylor, York Twp. Reeve". Toronto Daily Star, pg 29. 15 December 1961. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
- "New York Township Reeve Favors 'Posh' Apartments". Toronto Daily Star, pg 19. 3 January 1962. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
- "Charge by Cowan: Mould denies Council wrote off firm's taxes". The Globe and Mail, September 24, 1969.
- "Mould reddens as support lost; Goodhead dejected", The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]01 Oct 1969: 5.
- "Writ filed by Mould charges libel, slander". The Globe and Mail, September 27, 1969.
- "War pilot Jack Mould was York's first mayor": [FIN Edition], Toronto Star; Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]02 Aug 1990: A19., "Political credentials are sound: Smiling Jack Mould is the man to watch in the contest for Metro chairman", Baker, Alden. The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]04 Aug 1969: 5., "Mould Declared Township Reeve After Recount", The Globe and Mail (1936-Current); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]31 Dec 1962: 5, "Metro chairman campaign shaping up as a 2-man contest", Baker, Alden. The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]02 July 1969: 5. ,"Charge by Cowan: Mould denies Council wrote off firm's taxes", The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]24 Sep 1969: 5, "Tax writeoff disclosure sought: Resignation of Mould is demanded by York ratepayers", The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]30 Sep 1969: 5 "Writ filed by Mould charges libel, slander", The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]27 Sep 1969: 5. "White urges inquiry as more tax write-offs queried by residents", Baker, Alden The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]24 Oct 1969: 4 "Remains in Metro race: Mould denies interest in firm given tax deal", The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]25 Sep 1969: 1. "Mould reddens as support lost; Goodhead dejected:, The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]01 Oct 1969: 5. "Mould asked to call meeting to explain disclosure on taxes", The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]09 Oct 1969: 5. "Mould subject of report ordered by York Council", The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]15 Oct 1969: 5 "White to seek mayor's chair", The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]21 Oct 1969: 2. "Won't seek re-election, Mould says", The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]22 Oct 1969: 1. "Launched to quash comment: Grys and Mould suits similar, Cowan says", The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]16 Feb 1972: 5. "Believed typical of several 'swing' ridings: Wait-and-see attitude of York South delegates has strategists worried", Zaritsky, John. The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]10 Feb 1971: 8.
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