|OS grid reference|
|• London||259 miles (417 km) SE|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
Workington // is a coastal town and civil parish at the mouth of the River Derwent on the west coast of Cumbria, England, historically in Cumberland. At the 2011 census it had a population of 25,207.
The area around Workington has long been a producer of coal and steel.
Between AD 79 and 122, Roman forts, mile-forts and watchtowers were established along the Cumbrian coast.:10 They were coastal defences against attacks by the Scoti from Ireland and by the Caledonii, the most powerful tribe in what is now Scotland.:11 The 16th-century Britannia, written by William Camden describes ruins of the coastal defences at Workington.
The place-name of Workington is first attested in an Anglo-Saxon charter of 946, where it appears as Wurcingtun. It appears as Wirchingetona in about 1150, meaning "the town or settlement of Weorc or Wirc's people".
Several bridges were damaged or destroyed by the River Derwent during the 2009 Workington floods.
In 2006, Washington Square, a £50 million shopping centre and a mixed use complex, was opened to replace the run down St John's Arcade, built in the 1960s and 1970s. In 2007, the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors named Washington Square as the 'best commercial project' in North West England.
Several works of public art were installed in the town centre, including:
- Glass Canopies designed by Alexander Beleschenko.
- The Coastline by Simon Hitchens.
- The Hub by BASE Structures and Illustrious.
- The Grilles architectural metalwork at Central Car Park by Tom Lomax in association with pupils from St Patrick's Primary School and Alan Dawson.
- Central Way public toilets with tiles designed in collaboration between ceramic artist Paul Scott and writer Robert Drake, in addition to a fish tank containing species from the Solway provided by the Lake District Coast Aquarium in Maryport. by Paul Scott and Robert Drake.
- Lookout Clock, an interactive town clock designed by Andy Plant and Matt Wand.
While successful efforts have been made to find appropriate local names for the major streets of the new shopping centre, the initial planning title of Washington Square has been retained; there is concern over the use of the word Washington, an Anglo-Saxon word meaning the settlement of the people of "Wash" for the new square in Workington, which means settlement of the people of 'Weorc'.
Workington Stadium plans
In February 2019 plans for a new stadium for Workington were announced, this would in involve the demolition of Borough Park and Derwent Park.
A plan to build a 92,900 sq ft (8,630 m2) Tesco Extra store on the Cloffocks provoked controversy and opposition from local people; a planning application was placed in 2006 by Tesco, after it acquired the Cloffocks site for £18 million; Tesco had been competing with Asda to acquire the site since 2003. Campaigners opposed the sale, stating that the land was common ground and belonged to the people of Workington, in 2010 the Countess of Lonsdale invoked her rights to mine the land, in an attempt to prevent the development. In 2011 a closed meeting of Allerdale councillors took place to discuss the sale of the site, the council rescinded on its decision to sell the site to Tesco in June 2011. Tesco stated that they were still seeking a site for a store of around 60,000 sq ft (5,600 m2) in Workington to replace the established store.
Closure of MEP's European Parliament office
The town is part of the parliamentary constituency of Workington. In the 2019 United Kingdom general election, the Tory candidate for Workington, Mark Jenkinson, was elected MP, overturning a 9.4 per cent Labour majority from the 2017 election to eject Shadow Environment Secretary Sue Hayman by a margin of 4,136 votes. Until the December 2019 general election, the Labour Party had won the seat in every general election since 1979.The Conservative Party had only been elected once in Workington since World War II, at the 1976 by-election. Historically the town has been a Labour-supporting area.
For local government purposes, Workington is covered by the Seaton + Northside, St Michaels, Moorclose + Moss Bay, Harrington + Salterbeck, and St Johns wards on Allerdale Borough Council. The divisions for Cumbria County Council are Seaton, St Michaels, St Johns + Great Clifton, Moorclose + Moss Bay, and Harrington.
The town comprises various districts, many of which were established as housing estates. North of the river these districts include Seaton, Barepot, Northside, Port and Oldside. On the south side are the districts of Stainburn, Derwent Howe, Ashfield, Banklands, Frostoms (Annie Pit), Mossbay, Moorclose, Salterbeck, Bridgefoot, Lillyhall, Harrington, High Harrington, Clay Flatts, Kerry Park, Westfield and Great Clifton. The Marsh and Quay, a large working-class area of the town around the docks and a major part of the town's history, was demolished in the early 1980s. Much of its former area is now covered by Clay Flatts Industrial Estate.
Iron and steel
The Cumbria iron ore field lies to the south of Workington, and produced extremely high grade phosphorus-free haematite. The area had a long tradition of iron smelting, but this became particularly important with the invention by Sir Henry Bessemer of the Bessemer process, the first process for mass production of mild steel, which previously had been an expensive specialist product. For the first 25 years of the process, until Gilchrist and Thomas improved upon it, phosphorus-free haematite was required. With Cumbria as the world's premier source, and the local coalfield providing energy for steel production, the world's first large-scale steelworks was opened in the Moss Bay area of the town. The Bessemer converter continued to work until July 1974. The Moss Bay Steelworks closed in 1982, despite receiving significant infrastructural investment and improvements almost immediately before the closure.
During the Second World War, a strategically important electric steel furnace which produced steel for aircraft engine ball bearings was moved to Workington from Norway to prevent it falling into Axis hands.
Workington was the home of Distington Engineering Company (DEC), the engineering arm of British Steel Corporation (BSC), which specialised in the design of continuous casting equipment. DEC, known to the local people as "Chapel Bank", had an engineering design office, engineering workshops and a foundry that at one time contained six of the seven electric arc furnaces built in Workington. The seventh was situated at the Moss Bay plant of BSC. In the 1970s, as BSC adapted to a more streamlined approach to the metals industry, the engineering design company was separated from the workshops and foundry and re-designated as Distington Engineering Contracting. Employing some 200 people, its primary purpose was the design, manufacture, installation and commissioning of continuous casting machines. This business is now owned by the TATA Group and employs 400 staff.
One offshoot of the steel industry was the production of steel railway rails. Workington rails were widely exported and a common local phrase was that Workington rails 'held the world together'. Originally made from Bessemer steel, following the closure of the Moss Bay Steelworks, steel for the plant was brought by rail from Teesside. The plant was closed in August 2006. However welding work on rails produced at Corus Groups' French plant in Hayange continued at Workington for another two years, as the Scunthorpe site initially proved incapable of producing rails adequately.
After coal and steel
After the loss of the two industries on which Workington was built, coal and steel, Workington and the whole of West Cumbria became an unemployment blackspot. Industries in the town today include chemicals, cardboard, the docks (originally built by the United Steel Co.), waste management and recycling old computers for export, mainly to poorer countries. The town also houses the British Cattle Movement Service, a government agency set up to oversee the British beef and dairy industry following the BSE crisis in Britain; it is located in former steelworks offices. Many Workington residents are employed outside the town in the nuclear industry located in and around Sellafield, West Cumbria's dominant employment sector.
British Leyland opened a factory in Lillyhall, just outside Workington, initially to build the Leyland National bus in the 1970s and 1980s. Produced primarily for the state-owned National Bus Company, the Leyland National was styled by Italian designer Giovanni Michelotti, and included an roof-mounted heating unit in a pod at the rear of the bus. The Lillyhall factory later built the Leyland Titan, Leyland Olympian and Leyland Lynx buses.
In the 1980s, Leyland manufactured Pacer railbus and Sprinter-type commuter trains at Workington. The bodyshells of the Pacer trains were based on the Leyland National bus design, designed as a cheap stop-gap by British Rail.
Volvo Buses acquired Leyland Buses in 1988. By 1993, the factory had closed with the loss of 200 jobs. The former bus plant is now a warehouse for the logistics company Eddie Stobart, which bought the disused factory in 1995.
Workington is linked by the A596 road to Maryport, to Whitehaven via A595 road, by the A66 road to Penrith and continues to Scotch Corner in County Durham. The town has bus connections to other towns and villages in Cumbria, such as Cockermouth, Keswick, Penrith, Carlisle, Wigton, Maryport, Whitehaven, Frizington, Egremont and Thornhill.
Workington North railway station opened on 30 November 2009 as a temporary means of crossing the river after road bridges had been closed by flooding. A free train service between Workington (Main) and Maryport and was funded by the government.
The Workington Transport Heritage Trust, preserves the transport heritage of Workington and the surrounding area and is run by volunteers.
Workington was the headquarters of the haulage company J. Roper (Workington) Ltd, which was based in Moss Bay.
Arts and entertainment
Workington is home to three theatres: the Carnegie Theatre, Theatre Royal and Workington Opera House. In the past Workington was a big town for variety acts and theatre and hosted many top acts including Tommy Cooper and Shirley Bassey. Workington Opera House has also hosted many circus shows which included elephants and other circus animals performing on stage.
The Carnegie Theatre and Theatre Royal are still open and put on performances all year round. The Workington Opera House is currently closed after its last use as a bingo hall. The "Opera Action" group plans to restore it as a working theatre.
The town once had four cinemas (the Carnegie; the Hippodrome; the Oxford; and the Ritz), all of which have now closed. There remains only the Plaza Cinema at Dunmail Park. During the 1950s, films were also shown at the Opera House.
On 19 September 2009, Valentine Rock took place; a 19-band charity music festival. It was staged at the Ernest Valentine Ground home of Workington Cricket Club. Artists included The Chairmen, Novellos, With Lights Out, Volcanoes, Breed, Colt 45, Relics, Telf, Thir13een, Slagbank, Hangin' Threads and Hand of Fate. Profits went to the RNLI and West Cumberland Lions.
In 2008, the Paint Your Town Red Festival invited Liverpool comic and actor Ricky Tomlinson. Described as 'The biggest free festival in Workington's history', the 2008 festival included a free children's fun fair in Vulcan Park and stage and street entertainment. Attractions included "Jimmy James and his Soul Explosion", "Dearham Band" and the all-female band "Irresistible". Keswick's "Cars of the Stars" museum provided a stunt driving display.
Uppies and Downies
Workington is home to the ball game known as Uppies and Downies, a traditional version of football, with its origins in medieval football, mob football or an even earlier form. Since 2001, the matches have raised over £75,000 for local charities. An Uppies and Downies ball is made from four pieces of cow leather. It is 21 inches (53 cm) in circumference and weighs about two and a half pounds (1.1 kg). Only three hand-made balls are produced every year and each is dated.
The town has a football team, Workington A.F.C., with their stadium at Borough Park. Formerly a professional football team it now competes as a non-League club. Dronnies formed the nucleus of the original Workington F.C. in 1888. (p109) They were one of the first teams managed by Bill Shankly.
Workington is the home to the rugby union team Workington Zebras, who play on their matches on the Ellis Sports Ground.
There are two bowling greens in the town, one in Vulcan Park and another on High Cloffocks, south of the River Derwent. Teams and individuals from both greens compete in local, regional and national competitions.
Workington's first golf club was formed in 1893 and played north of the River Derwent near Siddick. Known as West Cumberland Golf Club, it used this nine-hole course until the First World War when it closed. After the war the club reformed as Workington Golf Club and moved to the present Hunday Wood location. Five-times Open Champion and renowned course architect James Braid was consulted on the layout. Considered 'one of the premier courses in Cumbria' it has been influenced by FG Hawtree during the 1950s and by Howard Swan today.
Before World War II racing was staged at Lonsdale Park, which was next to Borough Park, on the banks of the River Derwent. The sport did not return to the town until 1970, when it was introduced to Derwent Park by local entrepreneur Paul Sharp and Ian Thomas who is the present team manager (2009). In 1987, Derwent Park was a temporary home to the Glasgow Tigers who briefly became the Workington Tigers prior to their withdrawal from the league. Speedway returned to Workington and the team has operated with varying degrees of success, but in 2008, they won the Young Shield and the Premier League Four-Team and Pairs Championships. An Academy team under the banner of Northside Stars, develops young riders who show potential at the Northside training track and may make future first teams.
Workington Cricket Club's home is the Ernest Valentine Ground, on the High Cloffock near the River Derwent and the town centre. It is a thriving club with three senior teams and a growing junior section putting out six teams. It is affiliated to Cumbria Cricket League, Cumbria Cricket Board, Cumbria Junior Cricket League and the West Allerdale & Copeland Cricket Association. Coaches lead Cumbria Cricket Board Open Courses at the town's Stainburn School, which are open to Years 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 & 10 pupils.
Workington and District Sea Angling Club takes part in regular monthly matches. It meets every month in the Union Jack Club, Senhouse Street, Workington. It also arranges tuition for its anglers. Freshwater anglers are active on local rivers, especially the River Derwent.
Workington has opportunities for track and field, triathlon, road running, cross-country, fell running and orienteering. All of its schools and clubs are affiliated to the Cumbria Athletics Association, except orienteering which is organised through its own national federation. Athletes tend to join clubs which concentrate on their particular discipline. Cumberland Fell Runners; Cumberland Athletics Club; Derwent and West Cumberland AC; Seaton Athletics Club; Workington Zebras AC and West Cumberland Orienteering Club are the most popular at present.
Primary schools have a well organised inter-school programme. Secondary schools focus especially on the Allerdale District School's Championships, which lead on to the Cumbria Schools Championships. The results of Cumbria's championships guide selection of the county teams to compete in the English Schools Athletic Association Championships. Over the years, Workington athletes have earned English Schools Championship honours.
Motorbike road riding
There is a Cumbria Coalition of Motorcycle Clubs. The West Cumbrian motorcycle club, the Roadburners. was established in 1989 and regularly attends local and national motorbike rallies, and charity road runs. It welcomes new members interested in multi cylinder machines. The National Chopper Club also has local members.
In alphabetical order:
Arts and academics
- Troy Donockley (born 1964), Workington-born player of uilleann pipes, a member of Nightwish.
- Kathleen Ferrier Order of the British Empire (1912–1953) won the prestigious Gold Cup at the 1938 Workington Musical Festival.(p217)
- Arthur Guirdham (1905–1992), physician, psychiatrist, novelist and author, he wrote on the Cathar sect, alternative medicine, extrasensory perception and reincarnation.
- Percy Kelly (1918–1993), Workington-born artist, best known for his watercolours and charcoal paintings of the Lake District.
- Gordon Preston (1925–2015), mathematician, was best known for his work on semigroups.
- Alan Tarney (born 1945), songwriter and producer, was also a bass-player for The Shadows.
- Paul Dale (born 1970) was the first Chief technology officer appointed to the management board at ITV plc, the UK's largest commercial television network.
Politics and diplomacy
- Dale Norman Campbell-Savours (born 1943), Labour politician and Member of Parliament (MP) for Workington in 1979–2001, now sits in the House of Lords. Before becoming an MP he was managing director of a watch-making business.
- Thomas Cape MBE (1868–1947), Labour politician and Member of Parliament (MP) for Workington in 1918–1945
- Sir Thomas Anthony Cunningham (born 16 September 1952), known as Tony Cunningham, is a British Labour Party politician who was the Member of Parliament (MP) for Workington in 2001–2015.
- Sir Joseph Brian Donnelly KCMG, OBE, CMG (living), diplomat, was the son of a Workington steelworker, educated at Workington Grammar School and Oxford University.
- Mark Jenkinson Conservative politician and Member of Parliament (MP) for Workington since 2019.
- Fred Peart (1914–1988), was Member of Parliament for Workington from 1945 to 1976. He was made a life peer in 1976 and served as Leader of the House of Lords and Lord Privy Seal.
- Jonathon Woods (born 1889, date of death unknown), footballer
- Jim Brough (1903–1986), rugby union and rugby league English international player
- John Burridge (born 1951), goalkeeper
- Mark Cueto (born 1979), English international rugby union player
- Scott Dobie (born 1978), Carlisle United and Scotland international footballer
- Jon Roper (born 5 May 1976) was a professional rugby league footballer in the 1990s and 2000s.
- Sol Roper John Roper (born 1936), also known by the nickname Sol, was an English professional rugby league footballer in the 1950s and 1960s, who coached in the 1960s and 1970s.
- Bill Shankly (1913–1981), manager of Workington A.F.C.
- Malcolm Wilson (born 1956), rally driver and rally-team owner
- James Alexander Smith VC (1881–1968), Workington-born soldier of the 3rd Battalion, Border Regiment during World War I
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Workington.|
- Listed buildings in Workington
- The Stars Look Down, film partly filmed at St Helens Siddick Colliery at Workington.
- Workington Academy
- Derwent Park
- Borough Park (Workington)
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A top job with ITV has gone to a man with Rowrah roots.
- Sweeney, Mark (29 July 2010). "ITV names Paul Dale as chief technology officer". The Guardian. London.
This is the first time ITV has had a CTO on its management board
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