|Look up walnut in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
A walnut is the edible seed of a drupe, and thus not a true botanical nut. It is commonly consumed as a nut. After full ripening for its edible seed when the shell has been discarded, it is used as a garnish or a snack. Nuts of the eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra) and butternuts (Juglans cinerea) are less commonly consumed.
Walnuts are rounded, single-seeded stone fruits of the walnut tree commonly used for the meat after fully ripening. Following full ripening, the removal of the husk reveals the wrinkly walnut shell, which is usually commercially found in two segments (three or four-segment shells can also form). During the ripening process, the husk will become brittle and the shell hard. The shell encloses the kernel or meat, which is usually made up of two halves separated by a partition. The seed kernels – commonly available as shelled walnuts – are enclosed in a brown seed coat which contains antioxidants. The antioxidants protect the oil-rich seed from atmospheric oxygen, thereby preventing rancidity.
Walnuts are late to grow leaves, typically not until more than halfway through the spring. They secrete chemicals into the soil to prevent competing vegetation from growing. Because of this, flowers or vegetable gardens should not be planted close to them.
History and cultivation
The two most common major species of walnuts are grown for their seeds – the Persian or English walnut and the black walnut. The English walnut (J. regia) originated in Iran (Persia), and the black walnut (J. nigra) is native to eastern North America. The black walnut is of high flavor, but due to its hard shell and poor hulling characteristics it is not grown commercially for nut production. Numerous walnut cultivars have been developed commercially, which are nearly all hybrids of the English walnut.
Other species include J. californica, the California black walnut (often used as a root stock for commercial breeding of J. regia), J. cinerea (butternuts), and J. major, the Arizona walnut. Other sources list J. californica californica as native to southern California, and Juglans californica hindsii, or just J. hindsii, as native to northern California; in at least one case these are given as "geographic variants" instead of subspecies (Botanica).
(millions of tonnes)
|Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations|
In 2019, world production of walnuts (in shell) was 4.5 million tonnes, with China contributing 56% of the total (table). Other major producers (in the order of decreasing harvest) were the United States, Iran, and Turkey.
Walnuts, like other tree nuts, must be processed and stored properly. Poor storage makes walnuts susceptible to insect and fungal mold infestations; the latter produces aflatoxin – a potent carcinogen. A mold-infested walnut batch should be entirely discarded.
The ideal temperature for the longest possible storage of walnuts is −3 to 0 °C (27 to 32 °F) with low humidity for industrial and home storage. However, such refrigeration technologies are unavailable in developing countries where walnuts are produced in large quantities; there, walnuts are best stored below 25 °C (77 °F) with low humidity. Temperatures above 30 °C (86 °F), and humidities above 70 percent can lead to rapid and high spoilage losses. Above 75 percent humidity threshold, fungal molds that release dangerous aflatoxin can form.
Walnut meats are available in two forms; in their shells or de-shelled. The meats may be whole, halved, or in smaller portions due to processing. All walnuts can be eaten on their own (raw, toasted or pickled), or as part of a mix such as muesli, or as an ingredient of a dish: e.g. walnut soup, walnut pie, walnut coffee cake, banana cake, brownie, fudge. Walnuts are often candied, or pickled. Pickled walnuts that are the whole fruit can be savory or sweet depending on the preserving solution. Walnut butters can be homemade or purchased in both raw and roasted forms.
Walnuts may be used as an ingredient in other foodstuffs. Walnut is the main ingredient in baklava, Circassian chicken, chicken in walnut sauce, and poultry or meat ball stew from Iranian cuisine.
|Nutritional value per 100 grams|
|Energy||2,738 kJ (654 kcal)|
|Vitamin A equiv.|
|Vitamin A||20 IU|
|Pantothenic acid (B5)|
|†Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. |
Source: USDA FoodData Central
Walnuts without shells are 4% water, 15% protein, 65% fat, and 14% carbohydrates, including 7% dietary fiber (table). In a 100-gram reference serving, walnuts provide 2,740 kilojoules (654 kcal) and rich content (20% or more of the Daily Value or DV) of several dietary minerals, particularly manganese at 163% DV, and B vitamins (table).
Unlike most nuts that are high in monounsaturated fatty acids, walnut oil is composed largely of polyunsaturated fatty acids (72% of total fats), particularly alpha-linolenic acid (14%) and linoleic acid (58%), although it does contain oleic acid as 13% of total fats.
In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provided a Qualified Health Claim allowing products containing walnuts to state: "Supportive but not conclusive research shows that eating 1.5 ounces (43 g) per day of walnuts, as part of a low saturated fat and low cholesterol diet and not resulting in increased caloric intake, may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease." The FDA had, in 2004, refused to authorize the claim that "Diets including walnuts can reduce the risk of heart disease" and had sent an FDA Warning Letter to Diamond Foods in 2010 stating there is "not sufficient evidence to identify a biologically active substance in walnuts that reduces the risk of coronary heart disease." A recent systematic review assessing the effect of walnut supplementation on blood pressure found insufficient evidence to support walnut consumption as a BP-lowering strategy.
Walnuts have been listed as one of the 38 substances used to prepare Bach flower remedies, a herbal remedy promoted in folk medicine practices for its supposed effect on health. According to Cancer Research UK, "there is no scientific evidence to prove that flower remedies can control, cure or prevent any type of disease, including cancer".
Inks and dyes
The United States Army once used ground walnut shells for abrasive blasting to clean aviation parts because of low cost and non-abrasive qualities. However, an investigation of a fatal Boeing CH-47 Chinook helicopter crash (September 11, 1982, in Mannheim, Germany) revealed that walnut grit clogged an oil port, leading to the accident and the discontinuation of walnut shells as a cleaning agent. Commercially, crushed walnut shells are still used outside of aviation for low-abrasive, less-toxic cleaning and blasting applications.
Walnut hulls contain diverse phytochemicals, such as polyphenols that stain hands and can cause skin irritation. Seven phenolic compounds, including ferulic acid, vanillic acid, coumaric acid, syringic acid, myricetin, and juglone were identified in walnut husks. Juglone, the predominant phenolic, was found in concentrations of 2-4% fresh weight.
Large, symmetrically shaped, and sometimes intricately carved walnut shells (mainly from J. hopeiensis ) are valued collectibles in China where they are rotated in the hand as a plaything or as decoration. They are also an investment and status symbol, with some carvings having high monetary value if unique. Pairs of walnuts are sometimes sold in their green husks for a form of gambling known as du qing pi.
- Poe 
- Robert Livermore 
- Ronde de Montignac
- Wilson's Wonder
- "Walnut; Agriculture – Transport Information Service". Association for German Insurance. 2010. Archived from the original on 2015-02-14.
- Geoponika - Agricultural Pursuits. 2. Translated by Owen, T. London: University of Oxford. 1806., pp. 49–50 (note 1)
- Ibn al-'Awwam, Yaḥyá (1864). Le livre de l'agriculture d'Ibn-al-Awam (kitab-al-felahah) (in French). Translated by J.-J. Clement-Mullet. Paris: A. Franck. pp. 271–276 (ch. 7 - Article 24). OCLC 780050566. (pp. 271–276 (Article XXIV)
- "Commodity Profile: English Walnuts" (PDF). AgMRC, University of California. 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-03-12.
- "Walnut (in shell) production in 2019, Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists)". UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT). 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
- "Food, Nutrition & Agriculture – Prevention of aflatoxin". FAO, United Nations. 1998. Archived from the original on 2011-03-07.
- Forsberg, B.; Joan Clark-Warner, M.S.R.D.C.D.E.; Beale, L. (2004). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Terrific Diabetic Meals. DK Publishing. p. 98. ISBN 978-1-61564-486-5. Archived from the original on March 31, 2018. Retrieved May 27, 2017.
- "Walnut oil recipes". BBC. Archived from the original on 17 February 2014. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- Turner, Lisa. "Oil Change". Better Nutrition. Archived from the original on 6 July 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
- "Nutrition facts: Nuts, walnuts, English dried per 100 g". Condé Nast. Archived from the original on 5 July 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
- "Nutrition facts: Nuts, walnuts, black, dried per 100 g". Condé Nast. Archived from the original on 5 July 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
- "Qualified Claims About Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Walnuts & Heart Disease Docket No. 02P-0292". US Food and Drug Administration. 9 March 2004. Archived from the original on 27 October 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
- Laura M. Tarantino (9 March 2004). "Qualified Health Claims: Letter of Enforcement Discretion – Walnuts and Coronary Heart Disease (Docket No 02P-0292)". US Food and Drug Administration, Labeling and Nutrition. Archived from the original on 7 May 2017. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
- Wagner, Roberta (22 February 2010). "FDA Warning Letter to Diamond Food, Inc". US Food and Drug Administration, Inspections, Compliance, Enforcement, and Criminal Investigations. Archived from the original on 12 January 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
the evidence supporting a relationship between walnuts and coronary heart disease is related to the omega-3 fatty acid content of walnuts. There is not sufficient evidence to identify a biologically active substance in walnuts that reduces the risk of coronary heart disease. Therefore, the above statement is an unauthorized health claimCS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- Li J, Jiang B, O Santos H, Santos D, Singh A, Wang L. Effects of walnut intake on blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Phytother Res. 2020. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6740. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32510725.
- D. S. Vohra (1 June 2004). Bach Flower Remedies: A Comprehensive Study. B. Jain Publishers. p. 3. ISBN 978-81-7021-271-3. Archived from the original on 31 December 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- "Flower remedies". Cancer Research UK. 26 January 2015. Archived from the original on 11 September 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
- "Black Walnut Ink Workshop". Guild of Natural Science Illustrators. October 2002. Archived from the original on 9 October 2014. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- "The Colors of Invention – How to Dye Fibers Naturally". Smithsonian Museum. November 13–16, 1997. Archived from the original on 21 October 2014. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- Sherrow, Victoria (2006). Encyclopedia of Hair: A Cultural History. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 267, 355. ISBN 978-0-313-33145-9. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- "In Re Air Crash Disaster at Mannheim Germany on 9/11/82. Ursula J. Schoenborn, As Executrix of the Estate of Leonedward Schoenborn, Deceased, v. the Boeing Company. Appeal of the Boeing Company. United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit. 769 F.2d 115". Justia. 1985. Archived from the original on 17 May 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- "OSHA fact sheet addresses abrasive blasting hazards". Retrieved 2018-08-20.
- Cosmulescu, Sina Niculina; Trandafir, Ion; Achim, Gheorghe; Botu, Mihai; Baciu, Adrian; Gruia, Marius (15 June 2010). "Phenolics of Green Husk in Mature Walnut Fruits". Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca. 38 (1): 53–56. doi:10.15835/nbha3814624 (inactive 31 May 2021). ISSN 1842-4309. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 11 October 2016.CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of May 2021 (link)
- Metabolism of Antioxidant and Chemopreventive Ellagitannins from Strawberries, Raspberries, Walnuts, and Oak-Aged Wine in Humans: Identification of Biomarkers and Individual Variability. Begoña Cerdá, Francisco A. Tomás-Barberán, and Juan Carlos Espín, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53 (2), pages 227–235, doi:10.1021/jf049144d
- (−)-Regiolone, an α-tetralone from Juglans regia: structure, stereochemistry and conformation. Sunil K. Talapatra, Bimala Karmacharya, Shambhu C. De and Bani Talapatra, Phytochemistry, Volume 27, Issue 12, 1988, pages 3929–3932, doi:10.1016/0031-9422(88)83047-4
- Jason Subler, Jane Lanhee Lee (Aug 28, 2012). "Status-conscious investors shell out on great walnuts of China". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2015-11-14.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- "Walnut Cultivar Table". Fruit and Nut Information Center, Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis. 2018. Archived from the original on 8 February 2018. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
- Le Verger Francais tomme II Chapitre I Fruits Locaux & Regionaux 1948
- Gale McGranahan, Charles Leslie (8 December 2009). "Walnut tree named 'Ivanhoe'; Patent number USPP21718P2". US Patent and Trade Office (Google Patents). Archived from the original on 2 February 2017.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Le Verger Francais, Tome 1 Catalogue Descriptif des Fruits Adoptes 1947
- Ramos, David D. (1997). Walnut Production Manual. UCANR. ISBN 978-1-879906-27-3.
- Smith, Jane S. (2009). The Garden of Invention Luther Burbank and the Business of Breeding Plants. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-311689-9.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Walnuts.|