Vokkaliga (also transliterated as Vokkaligar, Vakkaliga, Wakkaliga, Okkaligar, Okkiliyan) is a community, or a group of closely-related castes, from the Indian state of Karnataka. They are also present in the neighbouring state of Tamil Nadu.
As a community of warriors and cultivators they have historically had notable demographic, political, and economic dominance in Old Mysore (region). It is believed by some historians that the Rashtrakutas and Western Gangas were of Vokkaliga origin. The Vokkaligas occupied administrative positions in the Vijaynagar Empire. They later formed the early rulers of the Nayakas of Keladi. The Vokkaligas had the most families in the ruling classes of the 17th century when the Arasu caste of the Wodeyars was created to exclude them. Under the Kingdom of Mysore they operated autonomously and also served in the army and militia. The Vokkaligas formed the landed-gentry and warrior class of Karnataka.
Most subsects of the Vokkaliga community are designated as Forward castes by the Central Government of India. While some subsects in rural areas, are designated as Other Backward Class by the Karnataka Government.
Vokkaliga is a Kannada-language word found in some of the earliest available literary works of the language, such as the Kavirajamarga, Pampa Bharata, and Mangaraja's Nighantu. It has been used as an appellation for the cultivator community since time immemorial.[page needed][need quotation to verify] Generally, the term has come to mean an agriculturist though various etymological derivations are available, including:
- The word okka or okkalu is a Kannada word for a family or a clan[page needed] and an okkaliga is a person belonging to such a family.[page needed] This is an allusion to the totemistic exogamous clans which together form an endogamous sub group, of which there are many amongst the Vokkaligas. These clans are called Bali, Bedagu, Kutumba, Gotra or simply Okkalu all of which mean family. They are named after their progenitor, primary occupation or in most cases after various birds, animals or objects.[page needed]
- Okkalutana in Kannada means agriculture
- Alternate etymologies include okku, which means "threshing" in Kannada, and Vokkaliga means someone from a family that threshes
The term "Gowda" and its archaic forms in Old Kannada such as Gamunda, Gavunda, Gavuda, appear frequently in the inscriptions of Karnataka. The Epigraphia Carnatica is replete with references to land grants, donations to temples, hero-stones (Veeragallu), stone edicts and copper plates dating back to the age of the Western Ganga Dynasty (est. 350 CE) and earlier. The Gavundas were landlords that collected taxes and rendered military service to the Kings. Noboru Karashima says the Gavundas had functions corresponding to that of the Chola Vellala Nattars. The majority of the gavundas were derived from the Vokkaligas; but by the 10th century, the term gavunda also came to denote chiefship of a community or group and was adopted by the heads of other communities assimilated into the early medieval state.
The term Vokkaliga was used to refer to Canarese cultivators. Vokkaliga community has several sub-groups within its fold such as Gangadhikara, Namdhari Vokkaliga, Morasu Vokkaliga, Kunchitiga, Halikkar(Palikkar) Vokkaliga, Reddy Vokkaliga, Gounder, Tulu Gowda. etc.
Exogamy at the family/clan level is strictly controlled by using the idiom of Mane Devaru (the patron god of the given exogamic clan) which dictates that the followers of same Mane Devaru are siblings and marriage is thus forbidden, allowing marital alliances only with another clan and not within.
The Gangadikara Vokkaligas, also known as the Gangatkars are numerically the largest among the Vokkaliga. The Gangadikaras are mostly found in the Mysore, Mandya, Chamarajnagar, Hassan, Bangalore, Ramanagara and Tumkur districts of Karnataka. Gangawadi was the name for the area covering these districts, ruled over by the Western Ganga Dynasty and Gangadikara is a contraction of the term Gangawadikara (A man of Gangawadi). According to Burton Stein and L. K. Iyer the Ganga rulers were Gangadikara Vokkaliga chiefs. The Gangadikara Gowdas claim to be descendants of the erstwhile Ganga rulers. The administrative setup of Gangas vested power in the Ooru Gauda, Nadu Gauda, Pergade (archaic for Hegde,Pergade->Peggade->Heggade) and so on, at various levels of administration and apart from administrative duties, the Gauda was expected to raise militia when called for.
The Gangadikaras and other Vokkaligas were considered analogous to the Vellalar Chieftains of Tamil Country. They are Deccan Kshatriyas corresponding to Marathas of Maharashtra. The Gangadikaras and the Kongu Vellalars could possibly share a common origin. In fact, the word Konga is the Tamil equivalent for Ganga.
The Gangadikaras have two primary sections – the Bujjanige (or Dhaare Shastradavaru) and the Pettige (or Veelyada Shastradavaru) based on differences in rituals performed during the wedding ceremony. They can be Shaiva or Vaishnava in religious affiliation (called Mullu and Dasa sects). Cheluru Gangadikaras (also called Chelaru), another small sub-sect, are said to be strictly vegetarian, a vestige of the times when the Gangas followed Jainism. Oral traditions of the people maintain that after the decline of the Ganga power they reverted to Hinduism retaining certain Jain practices. The Gangadikara Vokkaligas have as many as 40 kulas, exogamous clans, known in Kannada as Bedagu.
The chief endogamous divisions of the Morasu Vokkaligas are Morasu proper, Musuku, Palyada sime and Reddy. They speak both Kannada and Telugu. Telugu is restricted to the two sections of Reddy and Palyada Sime. The usual caste titles are Gowda for the Kannada section and Reddy for the Telugu section.
Many Palegars belonged to the Musuku group. The Palegars of Devanhalli, Dodballapur, Yelahanka, Magadi, Hoskote, Kolar, Anekal and Koratagere were Morasu Vokkaligas. The famous Kempe Gowda I, the founder of Bangalore City, was the most distinguished of the Palegars of Magadi. The family of Kempe Gowda migrated from Kanchi in the 15th century. The Devanahalli Fort was built by Malla Bhaire Gowda to immortalise Bhaire Gowda, the headman of one of the seven clans that migrated from Kanchi.
Kunchitigas are concentrated mostly in Tumkur, Chitradurga, Bangalore and Mysore. They are also found in Salem, Coimbatore and Theni districts of Tamil Nadu. They were traditionally agriculturists and were known for being a successful and enterprising group.
The Namdhari Vokkaliga is the oldest and second largest Vokkaliga sub-group and are concentrated in Malenadu. The Namdharis were Jains who converted to Vaishnavism along with their Hoysala King Vishnuvardhana and are followers of Sri Ramanujacharya. 
The Hoysalas were possibly of Namdhari Vokkaliga origin. Historians refer to the founders of the Hoysala dynasty as natives of Malenadu based on numerous inscriptions calling them Maleparolganda or "Lord of the Male (hills) chiefs" (Malepas). Some historians believe Hoysala originated from Sosevuru (Modern Angadi, Mudigere taluk). Hoysalas also strongly supported Kannada language. The early Hoysala chiefs had alliances with the Western Ganga Dynasty and claimed to be heirs to the Gangas. Several of the major feudatories of the Hoysalas were Vokkaligas.
Hallikkar Vokkaligas or Pallikar Vokkaligas are a subsect of Vokkaligas. They were mainly engaged in the rearing of cattle. According to M. N. Srinivas, the Hallikar were related to the Gollas and Kurubas. The namesake is the best in the far-famed Amrit Mahal cattle.
Tulu and Kodagu Vokkaliga
Tulu and Arebhase Gowda (Gauda) are the subsect of the Vokkaliga community located primarily in the South Canara District, Kodagu District, Indian state of Karnataka and Bandadka village of Kasaragod, Kerala State. They are said to have 10 Kutumba and 18 Bari as their primordial root families, from which a Nūru Mane or "hundred families" arose.
Jogi (Jogi Vokkaliga)
Jogi Vokkaligas are mostly found in parts of Chitradurga, Shivamogga, Tumkur and Mandya districts. They worship Bhairava. They were the teachers (mattpati) of Adichunchanagiri matt during its early days. The Jogi are disciples of yoga and traditionally wear saffron-colored clothing.
They were residents of the ancient Kingdom of Nonambavadi which was ruled by the Pallavas up till 10th century A.D. The Pallavas also called themselves as Nonambadhi Raja, Nonamba Pallava, Pallavadhi Raja, etc. This section of the Vokkaligas are Lingayats by faith. In most respects, they follow the same customs as the Gangadhikara Vokkaligas.
They are Vokkaligas found chiefly in the Shimoga and Chitradurga Districts. They were originally Jains, though many converted to the Lingayat and Hindu faiths. The Hindus worship both Siva and Vishnu, while the Jains worship the Jain Tirthankaras and Hindu Gods as well. The non-Lingayats, are divided into Huvvinavaru ("Those of flowers") and Hongeyavaru ("Those of the Honge Mara"). Sadas had a high social status due to their strict vegetarianism and total abstinence. They have the usual Kattemane form of caste organization. The use the caste title Gowda.
James Manor said that
"Varnas – the four large traditional divisions of Hindu society, which exclude Dalits – have less importance in South India than elsewhere because there are no indigenous Kshatriyas and Vaisyas in the South"
Quoting Gail Omvedt
"In addition the three way ' caste division ( Brahman , non - Brahman , Untouchable ) seems particularly prominent here. There are no recognized 'Ksatriya' jatis anywhere in the south, and the three states (in contrast to the more inequalitarian hierarchies of Tamil Nadu and Kerala) are characterized by the dominance of large peasant jatis with landholding rights who historically supplied many of the zamindars and rulers but remained classed as 'Shudra' in the varna scheme."
Therefore Vokkaligas along with other ruling castes like Bunts, Marathas and Nairs were classified as "Upper shudra"/"Sat shudra" during the British Raj. This ritual status was not accepted by the Vokkaligas and was misleading as historically, dominant land-holding castes like the Vokkaligas, Vellalars and Reddys belonged to the ruling classes and were analogous to the Kshatriyas of the Brahmanical society.
"In the 17th Century, Chikkadevaraja created the Urs caste and classified it into 31 clans. Of these, 13 clans were deemed superior, while the remaining 18 were placed lower in the hierarchy. This latter comprised ruling families in the domain he was rapidly expanding. The most populous caste in this region, the Gowdas (the caste name Vokkaliga was later affixed to it during the British Census), clearly had more families in the ruling classes."
Before the 20th century Vokkaligas were the landed gentry and agricultural caste of Karnataka. Despite the community enjoying the status of chieftains and zamindars, there were also a lot of small landholding farmers. They, along with the Lingayats, owned most of the cultivated land in the state. Therefore they were considered forward castes and dominant-majority communities. In 1961, Karnataka passed a new Land Reforms Act under the then Revenue minister and idealist Kadidal Manjappa (a Vokkaliga). This was followed by another Land Reform Act passed in 1973 by Ex-Chief Minister Devaraj Urs. These acts redistributed land from the Vokkaliga landlords to the landless and land-poor.
- V.T, Sundaramurthy (2007). "The Genesis, Divisions, Movement and Transformation of Okkaligar Community" (PDF). The Anthropologist. 9 (4): 305–313. doi:10.1080/09720073.2007.11891017. S2CID 74219783.
- Gundimeda, Sambaiah (14 October 2015). Dalit Politics in Contemporary India. Routledge. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-317-38105-1.
- Adiga, Malini (1997). "'GAVUNDAS' IN SOUTHERN KARNATAKA: LANDLORDS AND WARRIORS (AD 600 to 1030)". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 58: 139–145. JSTOR 44143897. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
- Ludden, David (1999). An Agrarian History of South Asia (The New Cambridge History of India). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 91. ISBN 9781139053396.
- Robert, Bruce L. (1982). Agrarian organization and resource distribution in South India: Bellary District 1800-1979. University of Wisconsin--Madison. p. 88.
- Frankel, Francine R; Rao, M. S. A (1989), Dominance and state power in modern India : decline of a social order / editors, Francine R. Frankel, M.S.A. Rao, Oxford University Press, pp. 322–361, ISBN 0195620984
- K, Seshadri (April–June 1988). "Towards Understanding the Political Culture of South India". The Indian Journal of Political Science. 49 (2): 231–267. JSTOR 41855369.
- "Born to be a force to reckon with". DNA India. 26 April 2010. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- Shetty, Sadanand Ramakrishna (1994). Banavasi Through the Ages. Banavasi (India): Printwell. p. 121.:"The community of the land tillers or agriculturists was known as vokkaligas. The importance given to the cultivation of land is amply demonstrated by the fact that numerous tanks were dug and irrigational facilities were provided at various places. Some of the Rashtrakuta inscriptions found in the Banavasimandala carry the depiction of a plough at the top. There is a view that the Rashtrakutas were originally prosperous cultivators, who later on dominated the political scene. Some of the inscriptions refer to them as Kutumbinah which is interpreted as meaning cultivators."
- L. K. Ananthakrishna Iyer; H. V. Nanjundayya (1930). The Mysore Tribes And Castes. 3. Mysore: Mysore University. p. 350-351.:"Engraved on the ladle are the badges of the different castes composing this section, such as the plough of the Okkaliga, the scales of the Banajiga, the shears of a Kuruba, the spade of a Odda, the razor of a barber, the washing stone-slab and pot of an Agasa, and the wheel of a Kumbara."
- L. K. Ananthakrishna Iyer (1935). The Mysore Tribes And Castes. 1. Mysore: Mysore University. p. 69. OCLC 551178895.:"The Gangadikara seem to be a more recent stratum, whose name reminds us of the Ganga-kings, who ruled in Mysore in the 10th century. We may regard their connections with the former ancient ruling house as very similar to those of the Arasu, the present-day aristocracy of Mysore, with the present- day ruling family. "
- Stein, Burton (1980). Peasant State and Society in Medieval South India. Delhi: Oxford University Press. p. 318. ISBN 978-0-19-563507-2.:"Indeed, the very lacklustre of the Ganga rulers who preceded the Cholas and Hoysalas suggests that they were essentially peasant chiefs who neither sought nor managed to break their ties with the dominant peasant folk of the territory. That peasantry still identifies itself with the ancient Ganga designation; they are called, garigadikaras who in 1891 comprised forty-four per cent of the total population of the land-controlling peasantry of Mysore State (i.e. Vokkaligas). Gangadikara is a slight contraction of the term gangavadikara, ‘men of the Ganga country’."
- Madhava, K. G. Vasantha (1991). Western Karnataka, Its Agrarian Relations, 1500-1800 A.D. New Delhi: Navrang. p. 176. ISBN 9788170130734.:"For instance , the tax structure and the process of its collection of the Vijayanagara rulers and their feudatories enabled the Brāhamans , the Jains and the highcaste Sudras namely the Bunts the Nāyaks and the Gowdas to emerge as powerful landed gentry."
- Stein, Burton (1990). The New Cambridge History of India:Vijayanagara. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 82–83, 96–97. ISBN 9781139055611.
- Ludden, David (1999). An Agrarian History of South Asia (The New Cambridge History of India). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 91,198,205. ISBN 9781139053396.
- The quarterly journal of the Mythic society Vol.XI. Bangalore: The Mythic Society, Daly Memorial Hall. 1921. pp. 47–48.:"Venkatappa. ruled from 1504 to 1551. His son Bhadrappa died before him. During his reign the Moghals under Ranadullakhan seized Ikkeri and set up a, viceroy there. Then Virabhadrappa Nayaka ascended the Gadi and -retiring to Bidarur ruled over his country more peacefully than before.* His rule lasted for 15 years from 1551 to 1566. During his reign the rule of Vokkaligas came to an end and was replaced by the rule of Banajigas"
- Prasad, S.Shyam (2018). Enigmas of Karnataka: Mystery meets History. Chennai: Notion Press. ISBN 9781642491227.:"In the 17th Century, Chikkadevaraja created the Urs caste and classified it into 31 clans. Of these, 13 clans were deemed superior, while the remaining 18 were placed lower in the hierarchy. This latter comprised ruling families in the domain he was rapidly expanding. The most populous caste in this region, the Gowdas (the caste name Vokkaliga was later affixed to it during the British Census), clearly had more families in the ruling classes. But that did not deter Chikkadevaraja from omitting them from the new caste of 'Urs' that he had created."
- Ikegame, Aya (7 May 2013). Princely India Re-imagined: A Historical Anthropology of Mysore from 1799 to ... Routledge. pp. 76–77. ISBN 9781136239090.
- Ikegame, Aya (2007). Royalty in Colonial and Post-Colonial India: A Historical Anthropology of Mysore from 1799 to the present (PhD). University of Edinburgh. p. 77-78,99-100.
- Heitzman, James (2004). Network City: Planning the Information Society in Bangalore. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. p. 32. ISBN 9780195666069.:"The royal house came from an extremely small group, the Arasus (Urs), which claimed warrior (Kshatriya) status but were viewed by the state's two largest landowning castes, the Lingayats and the Vokkaligas, as an inferior cowherd (Yadava) caste."
- Frankel, Francine R; Rao, M. S. A (1989), Dominance and state power in modern India : decline of a social order / editors, Francine R. Frankel, M.S.A. Rao, Oxford University Press, p. 330, ISBN 0195620984:”The Lingayats and Vokkaligas enjoyed an unwritten and unspoken but very real promise of non-interference from the states princely rulers who came from a cow-herding jati-indeed, some believe that they were originally potters, an even humbler caste-and who now claimed Kshatriya status.”-James Manor
- (social activist.), Saki (1998). Making History: Stone age to mercantilism, Volume 1 of Making History: Karnataka's People and Their Past. p. 420,536.
- Report of the second backward classes commission. 3. Bangalore: Government of Karnataka. 1986. p. 48.: "Vokkaligas are the landed gentry and the agriculturist caste of Karnataka."
- Stein, Burton (1980). Peasant State and Society in Medieval South India. Delhi: Oxford University Press. pp. 131, 448–449.
- "Karnataka Caste Wise Report". karepass.cgg.gov.in (Karnataka ePASS, Electronic Payment and Application System of Scholarships). Department of Backward Classes Welfare, Government of Karnataka. 2021. Archived from the original on 25 May 2021. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
- P, Radhakrishnan (11 August 1990). "Karnataka Backward Classes". Economic and Political Weekly. 25 (32): 1749–1754. JSTOR 4396609. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
- Joshi, Bharath (17 February 2021). "Now, Vokkaligas gear up to fight for more quota". Deccan Herald. Bengaluru. Retrieved 7 May 2021.:"Not all 115 sub-sects of the Vokkaliga community have been included under OBC. As a result, many sub-sects are deprived of government benefits. All sub-sects must be included under OBC and we must campaign for this,campaign for this," the statement said. The pontiff also said that Vokkaligas in urban areas were in dire straits and they needed more reservation. At present, some 20 sub-sects of Vokkaligas come under Category 3A with a 4 per cent reservation in Karnataka.
- "PDF - National OBC list for Karnataka" (PDF).
- D K Kulkarni (1992). "Tenants movements in Uttara Kannada district and the Kagodu Satyagraha". Peasant movements in Karnataka since 1900 their nature and results (PDF). Karnatak University / Shodhganga. p. 80. Retrieved 24 October 2016.
Gowdas, literary means a village headman usually from Vokkaliga community in Southern district of Karnataka and Lingayat in Northern part
- Whitworth, George Clifford (1885). An Anglo-Indian Dictionary: A Glossary of Indian Terms Used in English, and of Such English Or Other Non-Indian Terms as Have Obtained Special Meanings in India. London: K. Paul, Trench. p. 120.
- Singh, Kumar Suresh (2001). People of India. 40, part 2. Anthropological Survey of India. p. 640. ISBN 9788185938882.:”The community has titles viz. Gowda , Gowdar , Gounder and Kounder.”
- Dr. Ambalike Hiriyanna (1999). Malenadina Vaishnava Okkaligara Samskruti. Kannada Pustaka Pradhikara, Government of Karnataka.
- Kannada Nighantu. Kannada Sahitya Parishat, Bangalore. 1970.
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- Kumar Suresh Singh; Anthropological Survey of India (2002). People of India. Anthropological Survey of India. p. 408. ISBN 978-81-85938-99-8.
- Benjamin Lewis Rice, R.Narasimhacharya (1894–1905). Epigraphia Carnatica. Government Central Press, Bangalore & Mysore.
- Karashima, Noboru (2014). A Concise History of South India: Issues and Interpretations. India: Oxford University Press. pp. 144–145. ISBN 978-0198099772.:"They are, for example, Gavunda chiefs and heggade revenue officers vis-à-vis the Chola Vellala nattars; kalnad military tenure vis-à-vis padai-parru or parigraham tenure in the Chola state"
- Adiga, Malini (1997). "'GAVUNDAS' IN SOUTHERN KARNATAKA: LANDLORDS AND WARRIORS (AD 600 to 1030)". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 58: 145, 147. JSTOR 44143897. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
- Madhvan, Karthik (2 August 2008). "Steeped in history". Frontline. Chennai, India: The Hindu Group. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- Vokkaligara Directory. Vokkaligara Sangha, Bangalore. 1999.
- Report of the Second Backward Classes Commission. 3. Bangalore: Government of Karnataka. 1986. pp. 48–49.:"'Okkalu' means cultivation or agriculture. The main sub-divisions are 'Morasu Vokkaliga', 'Ganga- dikara Vokkaliga', Kudu Vokkaliga, Kunchitiga, Hallikar(Pallikar) Vokkaliga, Namdhari Vokkaliga, Reddy Vokkaliga, Telugu Vokkaliga, Sarpa Vokkaliga, Uppinakolagada Vokkaliga, Mustiku Vokkaliga, Kapu Vokkaliga, Pakanatha Reddy Vokkaliga, Nadashetty Vokkaliga, Gowdas, Gounder and Vokkaliga Hegde."
- Balfour, Edward (1885). The Cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia. 2. Graz, Austria: Akademische Druck-u. Verlagsanstalt. p. 261.
- Lindsay, Alexander William Crawford (1874). Report on the Mysore General Census of 1871. 2–10. Mysore: Mysore Government Press. p. 72.
- Bhatt, S.C.; Bhargava, Gopal K. (2006). Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories: In 36 Volumes. Karnataka, Volume 13. Delhi: Kalpaz Publications. p. 145. ISBN 81-7835-369-5.
- Lindsay, A.W.C (1874). Report on the Coorg General Census of 1871, with Appendices. Kodagu: Mysore Government Press. p. 26.
- Banerjee, Bhavani (1966). Marriage and kinship of the Gangadikara vokkaligas of Mysore. Deccan College Postgraduate and Research Inst. p. 31. OCLC 833158967.
- Nanjundayya, H.V; Iyer, L.K Ananthakrishna (1931). The Mysore Tribes and Castes. 4. Mysore: The Mysore University. pp. 20–21.
- Nanjundayya, H.V; Iyer, L.K Ananthakrishna (1930). The Mysore Tribes and Castes. 3. Mysore: The Mysore University. pp. 175–185.
- Dr.B. Pandukumar (2007). 1600 Varshagala Vokkaligara Itihasa. Vedavati Prakashana, Bangalore.
- Kumar Suresh Singh (2003). People of India, Volume XXVI, Part 2. Anthropological Survey of India.
- E.Stanley (1962). Economic Development and Social Change in South India. University of Manchester Press, Manchester.
- B.Sheik Ali (1976). History of the Western Gangas. University Of Mysore.
- Stein, Burton (1980). Peasant State and Society in Medieval South India. Delhi: Oxford University Press. p. 449. ISBN 9780195610659.:"Sharing an equally prestigious role in Karnataka, the Vokkaligas are divided into a number of territorial divisions. The Gangadikara Vokkaiigas (Karalar) are concentrated in the south-central portion of Karnataka abutting modern Andhra having long shared the territory with Telugu speaking Reddis; Nonaba Vokkaiigas inhabit the tract on the northern bank of the Tungabhadra, medieval Nolambavadi. Other Vokkaliga groups are similarly clustered in other parts of modern Karnataka"
- Rao, C. Hayavadana (1927). Mysore Gazetteer. 1. Bangalore: Governmet Press. p. 243.
- Rodrigues, Tensing (July 2020). "Understanding the Vokkaliga": 2. doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.12698237.v1. Retrieved 17 April 2021. Cite journal requires
- Menon, P. Shungoonny (1 January 1998). History of Travancore from the Earliest Times. Asian Educational Services. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-81-206-0169-7.
- Ramamurthy, V. (1986). History of Kongu: Volume 1. p. 19.
- Jeelani, S. A (2009). "Chapter 3". Karnataka State Gazetteer: Mandya District (PDF). Karnataka, India: Government of Karnataka, Karnataka Gazetteer Department. p. 211.
- Burton Stein (1987). Vijayanagara. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York. p. 82. ISBN 9780521266932.
- "Krishnagiri District Website". Krishnagiri.tn.nic.in. 9 February 2004. Archived from the original on 12 March 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2021.:"The heart of 'Krishnagiri', 'Hosur' and 'Uthangarai' were known as 'Eyil Nadu', 'Murasu Nadu' and 'Kowoor Nadu' respectively."
- Rao, C. Hayavadana (1927). Mysore Gazetteer. 1. Bangalore: Government Press. p. 244.
- Mysore Narasimhachar Srinivas (1942). Marriage And Family in Mysore. Bombay: New Book Co. p. 25. OCLC 4565441.:"They have four endogamous groups, Musuku, Reddi, Palyadasime and Morasu. The first and fourth speak Kannada, while the second and third speak Telugu"
- Rao, C. Hayavadana (1927). Mysore Gazetteer. 1. Bangalore: Government Press. p. 246.:"The usual caste titles are Gauda (Kannada section) and Reddi (Telugu section)."
- Mysore Narasimhachar Srinivas (1942). Marriage And Family in Mysore. Bombay: New Book Co. p. 25. OCLC 4565441.:"To the Musuku group belonged several Palyegar chiefs."
- Nanjundayya, H.V; Iyer, L.K Ananthakrishna (1931). The Mysore Tribes and Castes. 4. The Mysore University. pp. 227–228.:"One of these clans, under their headman Bhaire Gauda, settled in Avati about the close of the 15th century. Near this village was a small hamlet called Devana-Doddi (ie., the cattle pen of Deva). Malla Bhaire Gauda persuaded to immortalise his memory by constructing a fort to be named after him."
- Thurston, Edgar (1909). Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume 5. 5. Madras: Government Press.
- Nanjundayya, H.V; Iyer, L.K Ananthakrishna (1931). The Mysore Tribes and Castes. 4. Mysore: The Mysore University. p. 17.
- Rice, Benjamin Lewis (1876). Mysore and Coorg: A Gazetteer Compiled for the Government of India, Volume 2. Bangalore: Mysore Government Press. p. 219.:"The large merchants , who live chiefly in Mysore city , are for the most part of the Kunchigar caste ."
- Rao, C. Hayavadana (1927). Mysore Gazetteer. 1. Bangalore: Governmet Press. p. 247.:"A good proportion of them are also educated and occupy a responsible place in society. They call themselves Kunchitigas or Kunchati Vokkalu"
- Gowda, Chandan (5 January 2015). "Ghar Vapsi: The myth of a single home". Bangalore Mirror. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
- Kamat, Suryanatha (1993). Karnataka State Gazetteers: Kodagu District. Office of the Chief Editor, Karnataka Gazetteer. p. 154.
- Rice B.L. in Kamath (2001), p123
- Keay (2000), p251
- Quotation:"The home of the Hoysalas lay in the hill tracts to the north-west of Gangavadi in Mysore" (Sen 1999, p498)
- Thapar (2003), p367
- Stien (1989), p16
- Natives of south Karnataka (Chopra 2003, p150 Part 1)
- The Hoysalas originated from Sosevuru, identified as modern Angadi in Mudigere taluk (Kamath 2001, p123)
- An indigenous ruling family of Karnataka from Sosevuru (modern Angadi) (Ayyar 1993, p600)
- Ayyar (2006), p. 600
- Pollock (2006), p. 288–289
- However by the 14th century, bilingual inscriptions lost favor and inscriptions were mostly in the local language (Thapar 2003, pp393–95)
- Seetharam Jagirdhar, M.N. Prabhakar, B.S. Krishnaswamy Iyengar in Kamath (2001), p123
- Suryanath U. Kamath, ed. (1981). Karnataka State Gazetteer: Chikmagalur. Director of Print., Stationery and Publications at the Government Press. p. 44.
Ereyanga was already 60 years old when he succeeded to the throne and ruled only for two years. He assumed the title of Veera-Ganga to indicate the Hoysala claim as heirs to the earlier Ganga kingdom.
- Adiga, Malini (2006). The Making of Southern Karnataka: Society, Polity and Culture in the Early Medieval Period. Chennai: Orient Blackswan Private Limited. p. 340. ISBN 8125029125. OCLC 67052150.
However, the significance of the earlier, formative period of the Gangas can be seen from the fact that the region gained its name Gangavadi from them, which it retained even after the demise of the dynasty; that the Hoysalas, ás heirs to the Ganga legacy, included Vira Ganga among their other royal titles speaks volumes for the lasting impact of the Gangas in this region.
- Radhika Seshan; Shraddha Kumbhojkar (2018). Re-searching Transitions in Indian History. London ; New York: Routledge. p. 45, 46. ISBN 9780429487569. OCLC 1041706962.
- Rao, C. Hayavadana (1927). Mysore Gazetteer. 1. Bangalore: Government Press. p. 246.:"Hallikara Vokkaligas.—This is a section that is mainly engaged in the rearing of cattle. The breed of that name is the best in the far-famed Amrut Mahal Cattle."
- Mysore Narasimhachar Srinivas (1942). Marriage And Family in Mysore. Bombay: New Book Co. p. 23. OCLC 4565441.:"The Hallikara Okkaligas are Okkaligas in nothing except name. They are related to the Gollas, Kadu Gollas and Kurubas with whom they perhaps had marital relations formerly."
- Gowda, Aravind (15 September 2011). "Caste war heats up as Sadananda isn't Gowda enough". India Today. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
- Gough, Kathleen (2008). Rural Society in Southeast India. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-04019-8.
- Rao, C. Hayavadana (1927). Mysore Gazetteer. 1. Bangalore: Governmet Press. p. 246.:"These are so-called because they are residents of the ancient Kingdom of Nozahambapadi or Nonambavadi. This was ruled over by the Pallavas up to the 10th century A.D. The Pallayas also called themselves as Nonambadhi Eaja, Nonamba Pallava, Pallavadhi Eaja, etc. This section of the Vokkaligas are Lingayats in religion. In most respects, they follow the same customs as the Gangadikara Vokkaligas. Their usual caste title is Gauda,"
- Rao, C. Hayavadana (1927). Mysore Gazetteer. 1. Bangalore: Governmet Press. p. 246,247.
- Omvedt, Gail (January 1994), Dalits and the democratic revolution : Dr. Ambedkar and the Dalit movement in colonial India / Gail Omvedt, Sage Publications, ISBN 0803991398:”In addition the three way ' caste division ( Brahman , non - Brahman , Untouchable ) seems particularly prominent here. There are no recognized 'Ksatriya' jatis anywhere in the south, and the three states (in contrast to the more inequalitarian hierarchies of Tamil Nadu and Kerala) are characterized by the dominance of large peasant jatis with landholding rights who historically supplied many of the zamindars and rulers but remained classed remained classed as 'Shudra' in the varna scheme.”
- Thurston, Edgar (1909). Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume 4. 4. Madras: Government Press.:”In the Madras Census Report, 1891, it is recorded that “the term Kshatriya is, of course, wholly inapplicable to the Dravidian races, who might with as much, perhaps more, accuracy call themselves Turks.”
- Manor, James (May 2012). "Accommodation and conflict".
- Fox, Richard G. (January 1969), "Varna Schemes and Ideological Integration in Indian Society", Comparative Studies in Society and History, 11 (1): 27–45, doi:10.1017/S0010417500005132: "When recognition of a regional varna scheme has been unavoidable—such as the tripartite division into Brahmins, non-Brahmins, and Untouchables in much of the South— it has been explained in terms of an historical corruption or breakdown of the standard four-class system, rather than regarded as a functional entity in its own right."
- Jalal, Ayesha (1995). Democracy and Authoritarianism in South Asia: A Comparative and Historical Perspective. Cambridge University Press. p. 204. ISBN 978-0-521-47862-5.
- Bernard, Jean Alphonse (2001). From Raj to the Republic: A Political History of India, 1935–2000. Har Anand Publications. p. 37. ISBN 9788124107669.
- Raychaudhuri, Tapan; Habib, Irfan; Kumar, Dharma (1982). The Cambridge Economic History of India: c.1200–c.1750. Cambridge University Press Archive. pp. 27–28. ISBN 978-0-521-22692-9.
- Dirks, Nicholas B. (2001). Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern India. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 205. ISBN 0691088950.:"Aside from Brahmans and Rajputs, few actual caste groups could be readily correlated with varna distinctions and few of these castes could be found across wide parts of India. Dominant caste groups in most regions were specific to those regions, as for example the Marathas of Bombay, the Vellalars of Madras, and the Vokkaligas of Mysore. Even the assumption that occupational differentiation provided both the most ready key to caste distinction and the most usable measure of caste significance for imperial purposes flew in the face of the recognition that formal caste titles only rarely indicated true occupation"
- Chatterji, Rakhahari (2001). Politics India: The State-society Interface. New Delhi: South Asian Publishers. p. 322. ISBN 9788170032458.:"Urs also reduced the proportion of upper caste Lingayat and Vokkaliga aspirants to the state government of the Congress ticket"
- Talwar Sabanna (2007). Women Education, Employment, and Gender-discrimination. New Delhi: Serial Publications. p. 78,184. ISBN 9788183870610.:"Women belonging to upper caste like Kshatriya , Lingayats , Vokkaliga caste groups are increasingly represented in modern occupations "
- Prasad, Chandra Bhan (2006). Dalit Phobia: Why Do They Hate Us?. New Delhi: Vitasta Pub. p. 81. ISBN 9788189766016.:"The Shudra castes like Kamma and Reddy ( Andhra Pradesh ) , Vokkaliga and Lingayat ( Karnataka ) , Thewar and Vanniyar ( Tamil Nadu ) , Maratha ( Maharashtra ) and Patels ( Gujarat ) are described as upper castes."
- Punja, P. R. Ranganatha (1948). India's legacy, the world's heritage : Dravidian. 1. Mangalore: Basel Mission Book Depot. p. 123.:"Like the Nairs in Malabar , the Bunts and Tulu Gowdas in Canara and the Vakkaligas ' and Gowdas of Nagara , the Coorgs are : in the brahminical scale - Sudra's"
- Dirks, Nicholas B. (2001). Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern India. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 203. ISBN 0691088950.:"Varna was evacuated of meaning and utility even as it seemed the obvious ordering principle. In order to deal with the pitfalls of varna, Waterfield attempted a desultory inven- tory of different important castes in discrete regions of India. He mentions the Babhans of Behar, the Kayasths of Bengal, the Buniyas across India, the Chandals of eastern Bengal, the Aheers and Chamars of the Northwest and of Oudh, the Koormees of Bengal and the Central Provinces, the Wakkaleegas of Mysore, and, from Madras, the Vellalars, Chetties, and Vunniars. Waterfield complained that the use of occupations in Madras was invariably misleading, as it "must not be supposed that even a majority of any particular caste now follow the occupation according to which they are thus arranged."
- Prasad, S.Shyam (2018). Enigmas of Karnataka: Mystery meets History. Chennai: Notion Press. ISBN 9781642491227.:"In the 17th Century, Chikkadevaraja created the Urs caste and classified it into 31 clans. Of these, 13 clans were deemed superior, while the remaining 18 were placed lower in the hierarchy. This latter comprised ruling families in the domain he was rapidly expanding. The most populous caste in this region, the Gowdas (the caste name Vokkaliga was later affixed to it during the British Census), clearly had more families in the ruling classes."
- Biswal, S.K.; Kusuma, K.S.; Mohanty, S. (2020). Handbook of Research on Social and Cultural Dynamics in Indian Cinema. Hershey PA, USA: Information Science Reference, an imprint of IGI Global. p. 46. ISBN 9781799835141.:"Though the Vokkaliga community enjoyed the status of Chieftains and landlords as well as Zamindars, a lot of them were small landholding farmers."
- Thimmaiah, G.; Aziz, Abdul (1983). "The Political Economy of Land Reforms in Karnataka, A South Indian State". Asian Survey. 23 (7): 810–829. doi:10.2307/2644290. ISSN 0004-4687. JSTOR 2644290.
- Manor, James (February 1980). "Pragmatic Progressives in Regional Politics: The Case of Devaraj Urs". Economic and Political Weekly. 15 (5/7): 202. JSTOR 4368367. Retrieved 9 March 2021.