|Directed by||Jack Conway|
|Written by||Ben Hecht|
James Kevin McGuinness
Howard Emmett Rogers
|Based on||Viva Villa! (book)|
by Edgecumb Pinchon
O. B. Stade
|Produced by||David O. Selznick|
|Cinematography||Charles G. Clarke|
James Wong Howe
|Edited by||George Amy|
|Music by||Herbert Stothart|
Viva Villa! is a 1934 American pre-Code film directed by Jack Conway and starring Wallace Beery as Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa. The screenplay was written by Ben Hecht, adapted from the 1933 book Viva Villa! by Edgecumb Pinchon and O. B. Stade. The film was shot on location in Mexico and produced by David O. Selznick. There was uncredited assistance with the script by Howard Hawks, James Kevin McGuinness, and Howard Emmett Rogers. Hawks and William A. Wellman were also uncredited directors on the film.
The film is a fictionalized biography of Pancho Villa starring Beery in the titular role and featuring Fay Wray, who had played the leading lady in King Kong the previous year. The supporting cast includes Leo Carillo, Donald Cook, Stuart Erwin, Henry B. Walthall, Joseph Schildkraut and Katherine DeMille.
After seeing his poor father lose his land and be whipped to death for protesting, young Pancho Villa stabs one of the killers, then heads off into the hills of Chihuahua, Mexico during the 1880s. As a grown man, Villa and a band of rebel bandits, including his trusted ally Sierra, kill wealthy landowners and become heroes to their fellow "peons".
A wealthy aristocrat, Don Felipe, arranges an introduction for Villa to the distinguished and eloquent Francisco Madero, who resents what has become of Mexico under the rule of president Porfirio Díaz and persuades Villa to help him fight for liberty, not just for personal gain. The coarse and illiterate Villa is humbled in the presence of Madero and agrees to fight for his cause. He also is attracted to Don Felipe's beautiful sister Teresa, although there are many women in Villa's life, including one he is married to, Rosita.
Villa's exploits are made even more colorful by an American newspaper reporter, Johnny Sykes, to whom Villa has taken a great liking. While drunk, Sykes is misinformed and reports that Villa has already overtaken the village of Santa Rosalia in a great victory for his men. Disobeying the orders of Madero and the arrogant General Pascal, simply to help his newspaper friend, Villa stages a raid on Santa Rosalia, as well as on Juarez.
Madero ultimately assumes office in Mexico City, then commands Villa to disband his personal army. Villa agrees, but when Sierra kills a bank teller just so Villa can withdraw his money, Villa himself ends up sentenced to death. A gloating General Pascal mocks the way Villa pleads for his life, then reads a telegram from Madero, ordering that Villa instead be exiled from the country.
Alone and drunk in El Paso, Texas, feeling forsaken by his homeland, Villa is visited by Sykes, who informs him that Madero has been assassinated by the power-mad Pascal and his men. Villa returns to Mexico and rebuilds his own army, recruiting tens of thousands to ride by his side. Together they storm the capital, where Pascal is subjected to a particularly gruesome death. Villa takes what he wants, but when Teresa resists and he physically assaults her, she draws a gun that her brother Don Felipe has given her for protection. Sierra intervenes and murders her.
Villa appoints himself president but is ineffectual, unable to restore Madero's dream of land reform for Mexico's poor. He ultimately agrees to step aside and go back to where he belongs, including to his wife. Before he can, with Sykes by his side, Villa is gunned down by Don Felipe out of revenge for his sister. Sykes vows to keep Villa's memory alive, telling his dying friend that he is no longer news, but history.
- Wallace Beery as Pancho Villa
- Leo Carrillo as Sierra
- Fay Wray as Teresa
- Donald Cook as Don Felipe de Castillo
- Stuart Erwin as Jonny Sykes
- Henry B. Walthall as Francisco Madero
- Joseph Schildkraut as Gen. Pascal
- Katherine DeMille as Rosita Morales (as Katherine de Mille)
- George E. Stone as Emilio Chavito
- Phillip Cooper as Pancho Villa as a boy
- David Durand as Bugle boy
- Frank Puglia as Pancho Villa's father
- Ralph Bushman as Wallace Calloway, reporter (as Francis X. Bushman Jr.)
- Adrian Rosley as Alphonso Mendoza
- Henry Armetta as Alfredo Mendosa
Production and release
Initially, Lee Tracy was cast to play a role of Jonny Sykes. However, following an incident on a Mexican balcony, from which he urinated on the cadets, he was let go of the project, and eventually was replaced by Stuart Erwin.
On September 29, 1933, Pancho Villa's son, Pancho Augustin Villa Jr. was signed to cast in a role of a young Pancho Villa.
The film also experienced change of as many as three writers and two directors, as well as being totally burned in a plane crash.
When the film was finally released in Mexican cinemas, on September 7, 1934, firecrackers had exploded, which in turn, halted the viewing.
The film was very popular at the box office.
Before film's premiere, Mexican press called it "derogatory to Mexico", and urged the production of it in a country to be halted.
The film grossed a total (domestic and foreign) of $1,875,000: $941,000 from the US and Canada and $934,000 elsewhere. It made a profit of $87,000.
- Academy Award for Best Picture
- Assistant Director (John S. Waters) (winner)
- Writing (Adaptation) (Ben Hecht)
- Sound Recording (Douglas Shearer)
In popular culture
- Let's Go with Pancho Villa - a 1936 Mexican film about Villa
- And Starring Pancho Villa as Himself, starring Antonio Banderas
- The Eddie Mannix Ledger, Los Angeles: Margaret Herrick Library, Center for Motion Picture Study.
- Brown-Norden, Helen. Hollywood's Mexico. Vanity Fair. June 1934. pp. 54-55.
- Levin, Meyer (June 1, 1934). "The Candid Cameraman". Esquire.
- Associated Press (September 29, 1933). "Villa's Son to Appear in Movie About Father". Evening Star. p. D-8. LCCN 83045462 – via Chronicling America.
- "At the Movies". The Bismarck Tribune. May 17, 1934. LCCN 85042243 – via Chronicling America.
- (September 7, 1934) Explosions Halt Film; Firecrackers Alarm Mexican Audience at "Viva Villa". The New York Times. p. 25.
- Churchill, Douglas W. The Year in Hollywood: 1934 May Be Remembered as the Beginning of the Sweetness-and-Light Era; The New York Times [New York, N.Y.] p. X5.
- "Viva Villa!". Variety. December 31, 1933.
- (November 25, 1933) Mexicans Urge Film Ban; Declare Showing of 'Viva Villa' Would Cost Nation Respect. The New York Times. p. 10.
- "The 7th Academy Awards (1935) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved August 24, 2021.
- Curtis Marez, "Pancho Villa Meets Sun Yat-Sen: Third World Revolution and the History of Hollywood Cinema," American Literary History 17.3 (2005): 486–505.