(copied from mainspace to keep as userified in case of deletion) Accumulating Space Device is an artificial satellite of a planet accumulating various atmospheric gases, liquid and solid substances which are delivered from the surfice of planets at the suborbital velocity. ASD is 10-100 times cheaper than rockets in terms of cargo delivery into space.
Propulsive Fluid Accumulator (PROFAC)
Demetriades proposed method of atmospheric gases accumulation by means of low-orbit satellite. Moving around the orbit Demetriades ’ satellite takes discharged air from the boarder of dense layers of atmosphere, compresses it by means of gasdynamic compression in diffuser and compressors, cools it off and extracts liquid oxygen. The remaining nitrogen is used in nuclear electrorocket engine for compensation of losses caused by aerodynamic resistance. (See, Demetriades S.T. et al. The use of atmospherie and extraterre strial resources in space propulsion system. Electric propulsion conference, March 1962. Calif. Northrop Space Laboratories; See also Demetriades S.T.J. Brit. Interplanet Soc., 18, No. 10, 392 (1962)).
In 1959 on pages of a British Interplanetary society magazine there has been published a project of S. Demetriades named “PROFAC” (PROpulsive Fluid ACcumulator). The essence of the idea is that an electric-nuclear device is located within the limits of the atmosphere in low circumterrestrial orbit of only 120 km height and accumulates discharged air extracting oxygen out of it and using the remaining nitrogen in an electric jet engine for compensation of losses from aerodynamic resistance. For 20-30 days a reactor of 10 MW capacity can provide getting of oxygen in the amount enough for injection of 15 t of payload into circumterrestrial orbit with expenses equal to the cost of one launch of “Space Shuttle” craft. Theoretically “PROFAC” has got advantages before the other proposed nuclear transportation systems just because it eliminates the necessity of relocation of a heavy nuclear reactor to the Moon and back for each payload injection. Due to such a system utilization by the year of 2000 the cost of delivery of 1kg of cargo to the Moon can be reduced to US$ 1000.
The most urgent problem of “PROFAC” exploitation is evidently safety provision. At present hardly someone will be happy because of the perspective of a working nuclear reactor located in the orbit in the upper layers of the atmosphere. However “PROFAC” will be a far more absolute system than the modern satellites. The time period of attenuation of a “PROFAC” system orbit is quite long. In case of nuclear engine arrangement disrepair with the aid of an ordinary rocket engine functioning on the accumulated oxygen and combustible fuel available on the board the system will be transferred to a higher orbit for repair works. It would be unwise to have a system subjected to liquidation because of a simple disrepair.
It should be noted that some practical steps on a similar idea realization are undertaken in the USSR. At the end of 60-s on board an experimental rocket “Yantar’��� there has been tested “air-reactive plasma engine” capable of compensation of losses from aerodynamic resistance on a low altitude. According to the report the engine had same speed of gasses outflow as that of the “PROFAC” engine. (See, Kenneth Gatland. The Illustrated encyclopedia of space technology: A comprehensive history of space exploration. Chapter entitled "Nuclear Air Accumilator". Published by Salamander Books Ltd. London (1982))
Marwick proposed a method of delivering the substances to orbit necessary for both production of rocket fuel (like hydrogen), and for the purposes of space industrialization (like aluminium and silicon for production of mirrors and solar batteries for use in orbital electric power stations). At the same time Marwick introduced a way for cargo to be delivered for industrialization purposes not only from the Earth, but from the surface of the Moon as well.
Accumulating Space Device of Mayboroda
In Russian patents of Alexander Mayboroda (RU2398717 and RU2385275) and analogous applications for foreign patents (PCT/RU2010/000036 Pub. No.: WO/2010/082869, PCT/RU2009/000739 Pub. No.: WO/2010/095977 and PCT/RU2011/000002) there is a solution of problems impeding embodiment of progressive ASD concept up till now. The first patent applies to development of Demetriades PROFAC concept and Marwick ASD concept reflected in his patents. The second patent develops Marwick concept reflected in his application for a discovery on using of mechanical energy of extraterrestrial substance for spacecraft acceleration. Patent RU2398717 solves the problem of usage of non-nuclear energy supply source for ASD equipped by propulsion device and the problem of excessive mass for ASD accepting not gaseous substances but high solidity cargoes. Patent RU2385275 solves the problem of launching of cargoes from Earth into space basing on passing them mechanical energy from extraterrestrial substances or, what is more important, from terrestrial substances preliminary accumulated on circumterrestrial orbit. (For references, please, see: 1) http://www1.fips.ru 2)http://www.wipo.int/pctdb/en/index.jsp