The Toyota Group (トヨタグループ, Toyota Gurūpu) is a group of companies that have supplier, vendor and investment relationships with Toyota Industries and Toyota Motor vehicle manufacturing facilities. It is similar to a keiretsu in that no particular entity has outright control over the entire group, although unlike most keiretsu it does not contain a major bank. It started with the loom manufacturing company Toyota Industries.
Major group companies
- Toyota Industries (1926) – manufactures looms, spinners, forklifts, and other equipment
- JTEKT (1935) – manufactures bearings and other components
- Toyota Motor (1937) – manufactures automobiles
- Aichi Steel (1940) – manufactures automotive steel; 30% owned by Toyota Industries and Toyota Motor
- Toyota Tsusho (1946) – trading company (sogo shosha) supporting global operations of Toyota Group companies; 33% owned by Toyota Industries and Toyota Motor
- Aisin Seiki (1949) – manufactures automotive components; 30% owned by Toyota Industries and Toyota Motor
- Toyoda Gosei (1949) – manufactures automotive components; 43% owned by Toyota Motor
- Denso (1949) – manufactures air conditioners and other automotive components
- Toyota Boshoku (1918) – original Toyota company; manufactures filters, trim, liners and other automotive components
- Towa Real Estate (1953) – commercial real estate developer in Nagoya area; holds stock in other Toyota Group companies as an anti-takeover measure
- Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc. (1960) – performs research and development for other Toyota Group companies
- Daihatsu (1907) – manufactures compact automobiles; became wholly owned subsidiary in 2016
- Toyota Financial Services (2000) – provider of automotive financing and credit cards
- Toyofuji Shipping – international shipping company for Toyota vehicles
- Toyota Housing Corporation (2003) – residential construction
Affiliates or partially owned subsidiaries
- Denso – Auto parts company – 189 subsidiaries. (Toyota Motor owns 24.55%, Toyota Industries owns 8.74%; both are the two largest single shareholders in the company)
- Kyoho kai group – Auto parts company – 211 companies.
- Kyouei kai group – Logistic/facility company – 123 companies.
- KDDI (Toyota owns 11.09% of the company)
- Nagoya Broadcasting Network (Toyota owns 34.6% and is the largest single shareholder in the company; 36.9% of the stock are directly and indirectly (through TV Asahi Holdings Corporation) owned by the Asahi Shimbun Company, making it the largest corporate group shareholder)
- Subaru Corporation, manufacturer of Subaru automobiles. (Toyota owns 20% and is the largest single shareholder in the company)
- Mazda Motor Corporation (Toyota owns 5.05% of the company)
- Suzuki Motor Corporation (Toyota owns 4.9% of the company)
- Misawa Homes Holdings, Inc. (Toyota owns 13.4% of the company)
- Primearth EV Energy Co (PEVE) – a joint venture between Toyota and Panasonic (1996 to present)
- Toyota Canada Inc. (TCI) – a joint venture between Toyota (51%) and Mitsui & Co. Ltd. (49%) (1964 to present)
- Yamaha Motor Company (Toyota owns 2.8% of the company.)
- Panasonic (Toyota owns 2.8% of the company.)
- Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (Toyota owns 2.09% of the company.)
- MS&AD Insurance Group (Toyota owns 8.88% and is the largest single shareholder in the company.)
- Fuji Pharma Co., Ltd.
Former group companies
- New United Motor Manufacturing, Inc. (NUMMI) – a joint venture between Toyota and General Motors (1984 to 2010)
- United Australian Automobile Industries (UAAI) – a joint venture between Toyota Australia and GM-Holden (1989 to 1996)
- Isuzu Motors Ltd. (Toyota owned 5.9% of the company at one time.) (2006 to 2018)
- Tesla, Inc. (Toyota owned 1.43% of the Tesla, Inc.) (2010 to 2016)
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- Costanzo, L. A.; MacCay, R. B. (2009). Handbook of research on strategy and foresight. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited. pp. 386–390. ISBN 978-1-84542-963-8.
- Hino, S. (2006). Inside the mind of Toyota: management principles for enduring growth. New York: Productivity Press. p. 229. ISBN 9781563273001.