|Carries||London Inner Ring Road|
– north side: Tower Hamlets
– south side: Southwark
|Named for||Tower of London|
|Maintained by||Bridge House Estates|
|Heritage status||Grade I listed building|
|Preceded by||London Bridge|
|Followed by||Queen Elizabeth II Bridge|
|Design||Bascule bridge / Suspension Bridge|
|Total length||800 feet (240 m)|
|Height||213 feet (65 m)|
|Construction start||21 June 1886|
|Opened||30 June 1894|
Tower Bridge is a Grade I listed combined bascule and suspension bridge in London, built between 1886 and 1894, designed by Horace Jones and engineered by John Wolfe Barry. The bridge crosses the River Thames close to the Tower of London and is one of five London bridges owned and maintained by the Bridge House Estates, a charitable trust founded in 1282. The bridge was constructed to give better access to the East End of London, which had expanded its commercial potential in the 19th century. Prince of Wales and Princess of Wales opened the bridge in 1894.
The bridge is 800 feet (240 m) in length and consists of two 213-foot (65 m) bridge towers connected at the upper level by two horizontal walkways, and a central pair of bascules that can open to allow shipping. Originally hydraulically powered, the operating mechanism was converted to an electro-hydraulic system in 1972. The bridge is part of the London Inner Ring Road and thus the boundary of the London congestion charge zone, and remains an important traffic route with 40,000 crossings every day. The bridge deck is freely accessible to both vehicles and pedestrians, whereas the bridge's twin towers, high-level walkways and Victorian engine rooms form part of the Tower Bridge Exhibition.
Tower Bridge has become a recognisable London landmark. It is sometimes confused with London Bridge, about 0.5 miles (0.80 km) upstream, which has led to a popular urban legend about an American purchasing the wrong bridge. Several stunt pilots have flown underneath the bridge, including the pioneering Francis McClean.
In the late 19th century, commercial development in the East End of London increased, leading to demand for a new river crossing downstream of London Bridge. A traditional fixed bridge at street level could not be built because it would cut off access by sailing ships to the port facilities in the Pool of London between London Bridge and the Tower of London.
A Special Bridge or Subway Committee chaired by Sir Albert Joseph Altman was formed in 1877 to find a solution. More than fifty designs were submitted, including one from civil engineer Sir Joseph Bazalgette, which was rejected because of a lack of sufficient headroom. A design was not approved until 1884, when it was decided to build a bascule bridge. Sir John Wolfe Barry was appointed engineer and Sir Horace Jones the architect (who was also one of the judges). An Act of Parliament authorising construction was passed in 1885. It specified the opening span must give a clear width of 200 feet (61 m) and a headroom of 135 feet (41 m), and construction had to be in a Gothic style. Construction was funded by the Bridge House Estates, a charity established in 1282 for maintenance of London Bridge that subsequently expanded to cover Tower Bridge, Blackfriars Bridge, Southwark Bridge and the Millennium Bridge.
Barry designed a bridge with two bridge towers built on piers. The central span was split into two equal bascules or leaves, which could be raised to allow river traffic to pass. The two side-spans were suspension bridges, with rods anchored both at the abutments and through rods contained in the bridge's upper walkways.
Construction started in 1886, with the foundation stone laid by the Prince of Wales on 21 June, and took eight years. Major contractors included Sir John Jackson (foundations), Armstrong, Mitchell and Company (hydraulics), William Webster, and Sir William Arrol & Co. 432 people worked on the site; E W Crutwell was the resident engineer for the construction.
Two piers, containing over 70,000 long tons (78,400 short tons; 71,123 t) of concrete, were sunk into the riverbed to support the construction. More than 11,000 long tons (12,320 short tons; 11,177 t) of steel were used in the framework for the towers and walkways, which were then clad in Cornish granite and Portland stone to protect the underlying steelwork.
Jones died in 1887, and George D. Stevenson took over the project. Stevenson replaced Jones's original brick façade with the more ornate Victorian Gothic style, which made the bridge a distinctive landmark, and was intended to harmonise the bridge with the nearby Tower of London. The total cost of construction was £1,184,000 (equivalent to £136 million in 2019).
Tower Bridge was officially opened on 30 June 1894 by the Prince and Princess of Wales. The opening ceremony was attended by the Lord Chamberlain, the Lord Carrington and the Home Secretary, H. H. Asquith. An Act of Parliament stipulated that a tug boat should be on station to assist vessels in danger when crossing the bridge, a requirement that remained in place until the 1960s.
The bridge connected Iron Gate, on the north bank of the river, with Horselydown Lane, on the south – now known as Tower Bridge Approach and Tower Bridge Road, respectively. Until the bridge was opened, the Tower Subway – 0.25 mi (400 m) to the west – was the shortest way to cross the river from Tower Hill to Tooley Street in Southwark. Opened in 1870, Tower Subway was among the world's earliest underground ("tube") railways, but it closed after just three months and was re-opened as a tolled pedestrian foot tunnel. Once Tower Bridge was open, the majority of foot traffic transferred to using the bridge, as there was no toll to cross. Having lost most of its income, the tunnel was closed in 1898.
The high-level open-air walkways between the towers gained a reputation for prostitutes and pickpockets. Since they were only accessible by stairs, the walkways were seldom used by regular pedestrians and were closed in 1910. The walkway reopened in 1982 as part of the Tower Bridge Exhibition.
During the Second World War, Tower Bridge was seen as a major transport link to the Port of London, and consequently was a target for enemy action. In 1940, the high-level span took a direct hit, severing the hydraulic mechanism and taking the bridge out of action. In April 1941, a parachute mine exploded close to the bridge, causing serious damage to the bascule, towers and engine room. In 1942, a third engine was installed in case the existing ones were damaged by enemy action. It was a 150 hp horizontal cross-compound engine, built by Vickers Armstrong Ltd. at their Elswick works in Newcastle upon Tyne. It was fitted with a flywheel having a 9-foot (2.7 m) diameter and weighing 9 tons, and was governed to a speed of 30 rpm. The engine became redundant when the rest of the system was modernised in 1974, and was donated to the Forncett Industrial Steam Museum by the City of London Corporation.
The southern section of the bridge, in the London Borough of Southwark, was Grade I listed on 6 December 1949. The remainder of the bridge, in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, was listed on 27 September 1973. In 1974, the original operating mechanism was largely replaced by a new electro-hydraulic drive system, designed by BHA Cromwell House, with the original final pinions driven by modern hydraulic motors.
In 1982, the Tower Bridge Exhibition opened, housed in the bridge's twin towers, the long-closed high-level walkways and the Victorian engine rooms. The latter still house the original steam engines and some of the original hydraulic machinery.
The bridge closed for a month in 2000 to repair the bascules and perform other maintenance. A computer system was installed to control the raising and lowering of the bascules remotely. However, the system proved unreliable, resulting in the bridge being stuck in the open or closed positions on several occasions during 2005 until its sensors were replaced.
In April 2008, authorities announced that the bridge would undergo a £4 million refurbishment that would take four years to complete. The work entailed stripping existing paint down to bare metal and repainting in blue and white. Before this, the bridge's colour scheme dated from 1977, when it was painted red, white and blue for Queen Elizabeth II's Silver Jubilee. Its colours were subsequently restored to blue and white. Each section was enshrouded in scaffolding and plastic sheeting to prevent the old paint falling into the Thames and causing pollution. Starting in mid-2008, contractors worked on a quarter of the bridge at a time to minimise disruption, but some road closures were inevitable. The completed work should stand for 25 years.
The renovation of the walkway interior was completed in mid-2009. A new lighting system was designed by Eleni Shiarlis, for use in exhibitions and functions, using RGB LED luminaires. These are designed to be concealed within the bridge superstructure and fixed without the need for drilling, owing to the bridge's Grade I listing. The renovation of the four suspension chains was completed in March 2010 using a state-of-the-art coating system requiring up to six different layers of paint.
On 8 July 2012, as part of the London Olympics, the west walkway was transformed into a 200-foot-long (61 m) Live Music Sculpture by the British composer Samuel Bordoli. 30 classical musicians were arranged along the length of the bridge 138 feet (42 m) above the Thames behind the Olympic rings. The sound travelled backwards and forwards along the walkway, echoing the structure of the bridge.
In 2016, Tower Bridge was closed to all road traffic from 1 October to 30 December. This was to allow structural maintenance work to take place on the timber decking, lifting mechanism and waterproofing the brick arches on the bridge's approaches. During this, the bridge was still open to water-borne traffic. It was open to pedestrians for all but three weekends, when a free ferry service was in operation.
The bridge is 800 feet (240 m) in length with two towers each 213 feet (65 m) high, built on piers. The central span of 200 feet (61 m) between the towers is split into two equal bascules, or leaves, which can be raised to an angle of 86 degrees to allow river traffic to pass. The bascules, weighing over 1,000 tons each, are counterbalanced to minimise the force required and allow raising in five minutes.
The two side-spans are suspension bridges, each 270 feet (82 m) long, with the suspension rods anchored both at the abutments and through rods contained within the bridge's upper walkways. The pedestrian walkways are 143 feet (44 m) above the river at high tide, and accessed by lifts.
One of the chimneys on the bridge, which can be mistaken for a lamp post, connects up to an old fireplace in a guardroom of the Tower of London. It is long-disused.
The original raising mechanism was powered by pressurised water stored in several hydraulic accumulators. The system was designed and installed by Hamilton Owen Rendel while working for Armstrong, Mitchell and Company of Newcastle upon Tyne. Water at a pressure of 750 psi (5.2 MPa) was pumped into the accumulators by a pair of stationary steam engines. Each drove a force pump from its piston tail rod. The accumulators each comprise a 20-inch (51 cm) ram on which sits a very heavy weight to maintain the desired pressure.
The entire hydraulic system along with the gas lighting system was installed by William Sugg & Co Ltd. The gas lighting was initially by open-flame burners within the lanterns, but was soon updated to the later incandescent system.
In 1974, the original operating mechanism was largely replaced by a new electro-hydraulic drive system, designed by BHA Cromwell House. The only remaining parts of the old system are the final pinions, which fit into the racks on the bascules and were driven by hydraulic motors and gearing. Oil is now used in place of water as the hydraulic fluid.
Signalling and control
To control the passage of river traffic through the bridge, a number of different rules and signals were employed. Daytime control was provided by red semaphore signals, mounted on small control cabins on either end of both bridge piers. At night, coloured lights were used, in either direction, on both piers: two red lights to show that the bridge was closed, and two green to show that it was open. In foggy weather, a gong was sounded as well.
Vessels passing through the bridge were required to display signals. By day, a black ball at least 2 feet (0.61 m) in diameter was to be mounted high up where it could be seen; by night, two red lights in the same position. Foggy weather required repeated blasts from the ship's steam whistle. If a black ball was suspended from the middle of each walkway (or a red light at night) this indicated that the bridge could not be opened. These signals were repeated about 1,000 yards (910 m) downstream, at Cherry Garden Pier, where boats needing to pass through the bridge had to hoist their signals/lights and sound their horn, as appropriate, to alert the Bridge Master.
Some of the control mechanism for the signalling equipment has been preserved and is housed in the bridge's museum.
Tower Bridge is still a busy crossing of the Thames, used by more than 40,000 people (motorists, cyclists and pedestrians) every day. The bridge is on the London Inner Ring Road, and is on the eastern boundary of the London congestion charge zone (drivers do not incur the charge by crossing the bridge).
To maintain the integrity of the structure, the City of London Corporation has imposed a 20-mile-per-hour (32 km/h) speed restriction, and an 18-tonne (20-short-ton) weight limit on vehicles using the bridge. A camera system measures the speed of traffic crossing the bridge, using a number plate recognition system to send fixed penalty charges to speeding drivers.
A second system monitors other vehicle parameters. Induction loops and piezoelectric sensors are used to measure the weight, the height of the chassis above ground level, and the number of axles of each vehicle.
From the outset the high level connection was a pedestrian route and was intended to allow pedestrian movement to continue while the bridge was open. This was closed in 1910 due to growing crime in this hidden area, but was reopened in 1982 when a glass floor was also installed.
The bascules are raised about a thousand times a year. River traffic is now much reduced, but it still takes priority over road traffic. Today, 24 hours' notice is required before opening the bridge, and opening times are published in advance on the bridge's website; there is no charge for vessels to open the bridge.
Proximity to Underground
The nearest London Underground tube stations to Tower Bridge are Tower Hill on the Circle and District lines, London Bridge on the Jubilee and Northern lines and Bermondsey on the Jubilee line, and the nearest Docklands Light Railway station is Tower Gateway. The nearest National Rail stations are at Fenchurch Street and London Bridge.
The Tower Bridge Exhibition is a display housed in the bridge's twin towers, the high-level walkways and the Victorian engine rooms. It uses films, photos and interactive displays to explain why and how Tower Bridge was built. Visitors can access the original steam engines that once powered the bridge bascules, housed in a building close to the south end of the bridge.
The exhibition charges an admission fee. Entrance is from the west side of the bridge deck to the northern tower, from where visitors ascend to level 4 by lift before crossing the high-level walkways to the southern tower. In the towers and walkways is an exhibition on the history of the bridge. The walkways also provide views over the city, the Tower of London and the Pool of London, and include a glass-floored section. From the south tower, visitors can visit the engine rooms, with the original steam engines, which are situated in a separate building beside the southern approach to the bridge.
Although Tower Bridge is an undoubted landmark, professional commentators in the early 20th century were critical of its aesthetics. "It represents the vice of tawdriness and pretentiousness, and of falsification of the actual facts of the structure", wrote Henry Heathcote Statham, while Frank Brangwyn stated that "A more absurd structure than the Tower Bridge was never thrown across a strategic river".
Benjamin Crisler, the New York Times film critic, wrote in 1938: "Three unique and valuable institutions the British have that we in America have not: Magna Carta, the Tower Bridge and Alfred Hitchcock." Architectural historian Dan Cruickshank selected Tower Bridge as one of his four choices for the 2002 BBC television documentary series Britain's Best Buildings.
Tower Bridge has been mistaken for the next bridge upstream, London Bridge. A popular urban legend is that in 1968, Robert P. McCulloch, the purchaser of the old London Bridge that was later shipped to Lake Havasu City in Arizona, believed that he was in fact buying Tower Bridge. This was denied by McCulloch himself and has been debunked by Ivan Luckin, the vendor of the bridge.
A partial replica of Tower Bridge has been built in the city of Suzhou in China. The replica differs from the original in having no lifting mechanism and four separate towers. The Suzhou replica was renovated in 2019, giving it a new look that differs from the original London design.
On 10 August 1912, the pioneering stunt pilot Francis McClean flew between the bascules and the high-level walkways in his Short Brothers S.33 floatplane. McClean became a celebrity overnight because of the stunt, and went on to fly underneath London Bridge, Blackfriars Bridge and Waterloo Bridge.
On 3 August 1922, a 13-year-old boy fell off a slipway next to the south side of Tower Bridge. A man jumped into the Thames to save him, but both were pulled under a barge by Butler's Wharf and drowned.
In December 1952, the bridge opened while a number 78 double-decker bus was crossing from the south bank. At that time, the gateman would ring a warning bell and close the gates when the bridge was clear before the watchman ordered the raising of the bridge. The process failed while a relief watchman was on duty. The bus was near the edge of the south bascule when it started to rise; driver Albert Gunter made a split-second decision to accelerate, clearing a 3-foot (0.91 m) gap to drop 6 feet (1.8 m) onto the north bascule, which had not yet started to rise. There were no serious injuries. Gunter was given £10 (equivalent to £290 in 2019) by the City Corporation to honour his act of bravery.
On 5 April 1968, a Royal Air Force Hawker Hunter FGA.9 jet fighter from No. 1 Squadron made an unauthorised flight through Tower Bridge. Unimpressed that senior staff were not going to celebrate the RAF's 50th birthday with a fly-past, the pilot flew at low altitude down the Thames without authorisation, past the Houses of Parliament, and continued on towards the bridge. He flew beneath the walkway, at an estimated 300 miles per hour (480 km/h). He was placed under arrest upon landing, and discharged from the RAF on medical grounds without the chance to defend himself at a court martial.
In the summer of 1973, a single-engined Beagle Pup was twice flown under the pedestrian walkway of Tower Bridge by 29-year-old stockbroker's clerk Peter Martin. Martin, who was on bail following accusations of stockmarket fraud, then "buzzed" buildings in the city before flying north towards the Lake District, where he died when his aircraft crashed some two hours later.
In May 1997, the motorcade of United States President Bill Clinton was divided by the opening of the bridge. The Thames sailing barge Gladys, on her way to a gathering at St Katharine Docks, arrived on schedule and the bridge was opened for her. Returning from a Thames-side lunch at Le Pont de la Tour restaurant with UK Prime Minister Tony Blair, President Clinton was less punctual and arrived just as the bridge was rising. The bridge opening split the motorcade in two, much to the consternation of security staff. A spokesman for Tower Bridge is quoted as saying: "We tried to contact the American Embassy, but they wouldn't answer the phone."
On 19 August 1999, Jef Smith, a Freeman of the City of London, drove a flock of two sheep across the bridge. He was exercising a claimed ancient permission, granted as a right to Freemen, to make a point about the powers of older citizens and the way in which their rights were being eroded.
Before dawn on 31 October 2003, David Chick, a Fathers 4 Justice campaigner, climbed a 100-foot (30 m) tower crane near Tower Bridge at the start of a six-day protest dressed as Spider-Man. Fearing for his safety, and that of motorists should he fall, police cordoned off the area, closing the bridge and surrounding roads and causing widespread traffic congestion across the City and east London. The Metropolitan Police were later criticised for maintaining the closure for five days when this was not strictly necessary in the eyes of some citizens.
On 11 May 2009, six people were trapped and injured after a lift fell 10 feet (3 m) inside the north tower.
Historic places adjacent to Tower Bridge
- Bracken 2011, p. 56.
- Welch, Barry & Benham 1894, p. 159.
- Welch, Barry & Benham 1894, pp. 158,160.
- Weinreb et al. 2008, p. 922.
- Roberts 2005, p. 148.
- "Bridge House Estates". Tower Bridge. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
- "Victorian London – Thames – Bridges – Tower Bridge". www.victorianlondon.org. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
Further communication across the Thames at this point had been urgently needed for many years. The necessary Act was passed in 1885, the foundation-stone laid by the Prince of Wales on June 21, 1886, and the work completed, at a cost of about a million sterling, in 1894.
- "The Opening Of The Towerbridge". The Times. 2 July 1894. p. 11. Retrieved 23 June 2021.
- "The Divers". Tower Bridge. Retrieved 23 June 2021.
- Welch, Barry & Benham 1894, p. 219.
- "Sir William Arrol". Tower Bridge. Retrieved 24 June 2021.
- Tower Bridge 1994, p. 47.
- Tim Jepson; Larry Porges (2014). London Book of Lists. The City's Best, Worst, Oldest, Greatest, and Quirkiest. National Geographic Society. ISBN 9781426213823. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
- Jones 2005, p. 285.
- Roberts 2005, p. 150.
- UK Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
- Robins 2017, p. 17.
- Smith 2001, pp. 22–23.
- "Tower Bridge: fascinating facts and figures". The Telegraph. 8 January 2018.
- Rough Guides 1998, p. 152.
- Hickman, Matt (12 November 2014). "Vertigo calling: Walkways at London's Tower Bridge outfitted with glass floors". Mother Nature Network. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
- Milne 2020, p. 153.
- "The Tower Bridge Engine". Forncett Industrial Steam Museum. Archived from the original on 25 February 2010. Retrieved 27 February 2007.
- Historic England. "Tower Bridge (that part that lies within the Borough of Southwark) (1385980)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
- Historic England. "Tower Bridge (that part that lies within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets (1357515)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
- Weinreb et al. 2008, p. 923.
- "London's Tower Bridge". Phoenix Hydraulics. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "The Firm: BHA Cromwell House". G. M. Beresford Hartwell. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
- Hartwell, Geoffrey. "Tower Bridge, London". Archived from the original on 8 December 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2007.
- "About Us". Tower Bridge Exhibition. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
- Waller, Martin (12 September 2000). "Tower Bridge stays down". The Times. p. 31. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
- "Fix to stop bridge getting stuck". BBC News. 17 January 2006. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
- "Tower Bridge restored to true colours | Tower Bridge". www.thetowerbridge.info. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
- "Finishing touches to Tower Bridge | Tower Bridge". www.thetowerbridge.info. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
- "Tower Bridge to get £4m facelift". BBC News. 7 April 2008. Retrieved 8 April 2008.
- "Tower Bridge lighting". Interior Event & Exhibition Lighting Design scheme. ES Lighting Design. 29 April 2009. Retrieved 27 August 2009.
- "Tower Bridge restored to true colours". Tower Bridge Restoration Website. 10 March 2010. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
- "Tower Bridge is London's Latest Venue – Classic FM Music News and Features". Classicfm.com. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- "Tower Bridge as a musical instrument". Classical-Music.com. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- Topping, Alexandra (13 August 2012). "London 2012: let the Paralympics preparations begin". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- "Tower Bridge closure". Transport for London. Archived from the original on 11 October 2016.
- "Tower Bridge closes until December for maintenance work". BBC News. 1 October 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- Cohen 2014, p. 50.
- Langmead & Garnaut 2001, p. 345.
- "London's Tower Bridge". Phoenix Hydraulics. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- "11 Secret Features of Famous London Landmarks". Londonist. 20 October 2015.
- "Bridge History". Towerbridge.org.uk. 1 February 2003. Archived from the original on 20 June 2012. Retrieved 13 June 2012.
- "Obituary – Hamilton Owen Rendel". The Times. 19 September 1902. p. 8. Retrieved 24 June 2021.
- Spencer-Silver & Stephens 2005, p. 85.
- Peacock 2011, p. 24.
- "History William Sugg & Co Westminster gas lighting cooking heating appliance manufacturer".
- Peacock 2011, p. 25.
- "Engine Rooms". Tower Bridge. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
- "Fleet | Sail Royal Greenwich". Archived from the original on 9 October 2012.
- "Transport for London cracks down on damage to Tower Bridge". Transport for London. 6 February 2007. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
- Speed Check Services. "Bridge Protection Scheme" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
- Tower Bridge: Gateway to London by Rob Bell
- "Bridge Lifts". Tower Bridge Official Website. Archived from the original on 12 September 2007. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
- "Bridge Lift Times". Tower Bridge Exhibition. City of London. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
- "How often does Tower Bridge open?". Tower Bridge Exhibition. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
- "Tower Bridge Exhibition website". Corporation of The City of London. Archived from the original on 12 November 2010. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
- "Getting Here". Tower Bridge. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
- "Have your say on Cycle Superhighway Route 4 from Tower Bridge to Greenwich". Transport for London. 1 August 2019. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
- "Step Inside". Tower Bridge Exhibition. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
- Smith, Hubert Shirley (1953). The World's Great Bridges. Phoenix House. p. 153.
- Wade, John (2016). The Ingenious Victorians : Weird and Wonderful Ideas from the Age of Innovation. Pen and Sword. p. 129. ISBN 978-1-473-84902-0.
- Crisler, B. R. (12 June 1938). "Hitchcock: Master Melodramatist". The New York Times.
- Cruickshank, Dan. "Choosing Britain's Best Buildings". BBC History. Archived from the original on 13 May 2007. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
- Frommer & Cochran 2007, p. 184.
- "How London Bridge was sold to the States (From This Is Local London)". Thisislocallondon.co.uk. Retrieved 13 June 2012.
- Silk, Michael; Manley, Andrew (3 June 2014). "From Tower Bridge to Sydney Harbour, welcome to China's city of clones". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
- "Renovations of Tower Bridge in Suzhou nears completion". China Plus. 30 January 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2020.
- Stewart, Oliver (1964). Of Flight and Flyers – An Aerospace Anthology. Newnes. p. 40.
- Butt, Gerald (25 February 2013). "Frank McClean: Forgotten pioneer of the sky". BBC News. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
- "Man And Boy Drowned At Tower Bridge". The Times. 4 August 1922. p. 5. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
- "The Jumping Bus". Time. 12 January 1953. Archived from the original on 22 December 2008.
- Leafe, David (19 April 2011). "Tower Bridge: a towering boy's toy". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
- Shaw, Michael (1986). No.1 Squadron. Ian Allan. p. 157.
- "RAF fighter 'buzzes' Thames bridges". The Times. 6 April 1968. p. 2. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
- "Beagle Pup G-AXIC – Keswick". www.yorkshire-aircraft.co.uk.
- "Gives Suicide Plan To Crash Plane into Tower of London, Dies in Crash 240 Miles Away". Lundington Daily News. 1 August 1973. Retrieved 14 February 2010. – but Peter, not Paul, see previous ref.
- "Presidential visits abroad". (William J. Clinton III). US Department of State. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
- Shore, John (July 1997). "Gladys takes the rise out of Bill". Regatta Online (100). Retrieved 25 September 2007.
- "Protest Freeman herds sheep over Tower Bridge". BBC News. 19 August 1999. Retrieved 6 November 2009.
- "Spiderman protest closes Tower Bridge". BBC News. 31 October 2003. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
- "Spiderman cordon criticised". BBC News. 3 November 2003. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
- "'Spiderman' cleared over protest". BBC News. 14 May 2004. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
- "Six injured in Tower Bridge lift". BBC News. 11 May 2009. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
- Bracken, G. Byrne (2011). Walking Tour London: Sketches of the city's architectural treasures... Journey Through London's Urban Landscapes. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 978-9-814-43536-9.
- Cohen, Robert D. (2014). The History and Science of Elevation. Troubador Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-1-783-06325-3.
- Smith, Denis (2001). Civil Engineering Heritage: London and the Thames Valley. Thomas Telford. ISBN 0-7277-2876-8.</ref>
- Frommer, Pauline; Cochran, Jason (2007). Pauline Frommer's London. Frommer's. ISBN 978-0-470-05228-0. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
- Jones, Nigel R. (2005). Architecture of England, Scotland, and Wales. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-31850-4.
- Langmead, Donald; Garnaut, Christine (2001). Encyclopedia of Architectural and Engineering Feats. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-576-07112-0.
- Milne, Gustav (2020). The Thames at War : Saving London From the Blitz. Pen and Sword. ISBN 978-1-526-7-6805-6.
- Peacock, Chris (2011). 10 Amazing Bridges. Andrews UK Limited. ISBN 978-1-849-89386-2.
- Roberts, Christ (2005). Cross River Traffic: A History of London's Bridges. Granta Books. ISBN 978-1-862-07800-0.
- Robins, Chris (2017). The Ships That Came to the Pool of London: From the Roman Galley to HMS Belfast. Amberley Publishing Limited. ISBN 978-1-445-66462-0.
- Spencer-Silver, Patricia; Stephens, John Hall (2005). Tower Bridge to Babylon: The Life and Work of Sir John Jackson, Civil Engineer. Six Martlets Publishing for the Newcomen Society. ISBN 978-0-954-48561-0.
- Welch, Charles; Barry, John Wolfe; Benham, William (1894). History of the Tower Bridge and of Other Bridges Over the Thames Built by the Corporation of London: Including an Account of the Bridge House Trust from the Twelfth Century. Smith, Elder and Company.
- Europe. Rough Guides. 1998. ISBN 978-1-858-28348-7.
- Weinreb, Ben; Hibbert, Christopher; Keay, John; Keay, Julia (2008). The London Encyclopaedia (3rd ed.). Pan Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-405-04924-5.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tower Bridge.|
- Official Tower Bridge Exhibition website
- Bridge Lift Times
- Video showing the interior of a bascule chamber as the bridge lifts
- Winchester, Clarence, ed. (1938). "Building the Tower Bridge". Wonders of World Engineering. London: Amalgamated Press. pp. 575–580. Describes the construction of Tower Bridge