|Body||μ [m3 s−2]|
For several objects in the Solar System, the value of μ is known to greater accuracy than either G or M. The SI units of the standard gravitational parameter are m3 s−2. However, units of km3 s−2 are frequently used in the scientific literature and in spacecraft navigation.
Small body orbiting a central body
The central body in an orbital system can be defined as the one whose mass (M) is much larger than the mass of the orbiting body (m), or M ≫ m. This approximation is standard for planets orbiting the Sun or most moons and greatly simplifies equations. Under Newton's law of universal gravitation, if the distance between the bodies is r, the force exerted on the smaller body is:
Thus only the product of G and M is needed to predict the motion of the smaller body. Conversely, measurements of the smaller body's orbit only provide information on the product, μ, not G and M separately. The gravitational constant, G, is difficult to measure with high accuracy, while orbits, at least in the solar system, can be measured with great precision and used to determine μ with similar precision.
For a circular orbit around a central body:
This can be generalized for elliptic orbits:
In the more general case where the bodies need not be a large one and a small one, e.g. a binary star system, we define:
- the vector r is the position of one body relative to the other
- r, v, and in the case of an elliptic orbit, the semi-major axis a, are defined accordingly (hence r is the distance)
- μ = Gm1 + Gm2 = μ1 + μ2, where m1 and m2 are the masses of the two bodies.
- for circular orbits, rv2 = r3ω2 = 4π2r3/T2 = μ
- for elliptic orbits, 4π2a3/T2 = μ (with a expressed in AU; T in years and M the total mass relative to that of the Sun, we get a3/T2 = M)
- for parabolic trajectories, rv2 is constant and equal to 2μ
- for elliptic and hyperbolic orbits, μ is twice the semi-major axis times the negative of the specific orbital energy, where the latter is defined as the total energy of the system divided by the reduced mass.
In a pendulum
Geocentric gravitational constant
The value of this constant became important with the beginning of spaceflight in the 1950s, and great effort was expended to determine it as accurately as possible during the 1960s. Sagitov (1969) cites a range of values reported from 1960s high-precision measurements, with a relative uncertainty of the order of 10−6.
During the 1970s to 1980s, the increasing number of artificial satellites in Earth orbit further facilitated high-precision measurements, and the relative uncertainty was decreased by another three orders of magnitude, to about 2×10−9 (1 in 500 million) as of 1992. Measurement involves observations of the distances from the satellite to Earth stations at different times, which can be obtained to high accuracy using radar or laser ranging.
Heliocentric gravitational constant
The relative uncertainty in GM☉, cited at below 10−10 as of 2015, is smaller than the uncertainty in GM⊕ because GM☉ is derived from the ranging of interplanetary probes, and the absolute error of the distance measures to them is about the same as the earth satellite ranging measures, while the absolute distances involved are much bigger.
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- This is mostly because μ can be measured by observational astronomy alone, as it has been for centuries. Decoupling it into G and M must be done by measuring the force of gravity in sensitive laboratory conditions, as first done in the Cavendish experiment.
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