|Born||June 25, 1922|
|Died||July 20, 2015 (aged 93)|
|Alma mater||Harvard University|
|Occupation||philosopher, sociologist, historian|
Shunsuke Tsurumi (鶴見 俊輔, Tsurumi Shunsuke, June 25, 1922 – July 20, 2015) was a Japanese philosopher, historian, and sociologist.
Tsurumi Shunsuke was born in Tokyo in 1922. In 1937, his father sent him to study in the United States, where he enrolled at the Middlesex School in Concord, Massachusetts. At the age of 16, he applied to and was accepted into Harvard University, where he majored in philosophy, studying under Willard Van Orman Quine. Tsurumi had excellent grades, but in March 1942 he was arrested and had to complete his degree living in a detention center. In 1942, he succeeded in graduating with honors, but was thereafter deported on a personnel exchange vessel along with his sister Tsurumi Kazuko, Kiyoko Takeda, and Maruyama Masao.
In 1946, Tsurumi started the think tank Shisō no Kagaku Kenkyūkai ("The Science of Thought Research Association") along with seven other people, including three of those who were on board the same deportation vessel with him: Takeda, Maruyama, and his sister Kazuko. In addition, Tsurumi served as editor-in-chief of the affiliated magazine, also named Shisō no Kagaku ("The Science of Thought"). Shiso no kagaku was unusual among Japanese magazines, in that it accepted essays from anybody with no discrimination as to the author's academic or social background; authors printed within its pages included nurses, teachers, and social workers active in poor working-class areas of Tokyo.
Tsurumi taught at Kyoto University from 1948 until 1951, when he took a leave of absence due to a psychiatric illness. In 1954, he resumed his academic career as a professor at Tokyo Institute of Technology.
In 1960, Tsurumi became heavily involved in the Anpo protests against revision of the U.S.-Japan Security Treaty (known as "Anpo" in Japanese). On May 30, he resigned his position at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in protest against the May 19th Incident, when Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi rammed the new Security Treaty through the National Diet with only members of his own party present, after having had opposition lawmakers physically removed by police. Distancing himself from hierarchical leftist groups such as the Socialist and Communist parties and labor unions, Tsurumi sought to take advantage of popular outrage at Kishi's anti-democratic actions to foment a new type of "citizen's movement" (shimin undō) that would consist of ordinary citizens, unaffiliated with any preexisting organization, who would "spontaneously" (jihatsuteki ni) organize to take political action. To this end, Tsurumi and other intellectuals associated with his "Science of Thought" group helped establish a small protest group they called the "Voiceless Voices Society" (Koe Naki Koe no Kai), supposedly consisting of ordinary citizens who had spontaneously come together to protest the Security Treaty. Although the Voiceless Voices Society played only a small role in the Anpo Protests, it became the model for the much larger Beheiren anti-Vietnam War organization that Tsurumi and his associates helped establish and promote in the second half of the 1960s.
In 1961, Tsurumi took a new position as Professor of Sociology at Doshisha University in Kyoto. However in 1970, he resigned his post in protest of the university agreeing to allow police to be introduced to the campus to quell student protests.
- An Experiment in Common Man's Philosophy
- Ideology and Literature in Japan (1980)
- Japanese conceptions of Asia. Papers of the Japanese Studies Centre. 5. Melbourne: Japanese Studies Centre. 1982.
- An Intellectual History of Wartime Japan, 1931-1945. 1986.
- A Cultural History of Postwar Japan, 1945-1980. 1987. 
- Japanese kokoro. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten. 2001.
- Tsurumi's honors thesis at Harvard University; Pragmatism of William James (Book, 1942) [WorldCat.org]. OCLC 77001389.
- Shisogakusha Takeda Kiyoko-shi (2015-07-31). "Chigau bunka soncho wo (Senso to Watakushi)" [To respect different culture (Me and the War)]. Interviews on the 70th year Post-war. The Nikkei.
- Takeda Kiyoko (2014-05-16). "雑誌「思想の科学」創刊" [Magazine 'Shiso no kagaku' was published]. 戦後史証言���ロジェクト : 日本人は何をめざしてきたのか ２０１４年度「知の巨人たち」ひとびとの哲学を見つめて～鶴見俊輔と「思想の科学」～ (1). NHK. Retrieved 2017-01-24.
- Takeda Kiyoko (2014-05-16). "日本の地下水" [Groundwater of Japan]. ２０１４年度「知の巨人たち」ひとびとの哲学を見つめて～鶴見俊輔と「思想の科学」～ (5). NHK. Retrieved 2017-01-24.
- Kapur, Nick (2018). Japan at the Crossroads: Conflict and Compromise after Anpo. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 154. ISBN 9780674988484.
- Kapur, Nick (2018). Japan at the Crossroads: Conflict and Compromise after Anpo. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp. 154–55. ISBN 9780674988484.
- Kapur, Nick (2018). Japan at the Crossroads: Conflict and Compromise after Anpo. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 155. ISBN 9780674988484.
- "obituary : Shunsuke Tsurumi, Philosopher and Leading Anti-War Activist, Dies at 93". Asahi shinbun. 2015-01-24. Archived from the original on 2016-03-09. Retrieved 2017-01-26.
- "An Experiment in Common Man's Philosophy (Article, 1951) [WorldCat.org]". Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. 12 (2 (19511201)): 246–264. doi:10.2307/2103481. JSTOR 2103481. OCLC 5545308253.
- Japanese conceptions of Asia (Book, 1982) [WorldCat.org]. OCLC 10783108.
- An Intellectual history of wartime Japan, 1931-1945 (Book, 1986) [WorldCat.org]. OCLC 807518994.
- Miriam Silverberg (1988). "An Intellectual History of Wartime Japan, 1931–1945. By Shunsuke Tsurumi". The Journal of Asian Studies. 47 (3 (19880823)): 654–656. doi:10.2307/2057041. JSTOR 2057041.
- Distributed by Methuen. A cultural history of postwar Japan, 1945-1980 (Book, 1987) [WorldCat.org]. London: KPI. OCLC 15984130.
- Book Review: A Cultural History of Postwar Japan, 1945-1980. (Article, 1988) [WorldCat.org]. OCLC 5545593614.
- Book Review: A Cultural History of Postwar Japan: 1945-1980 (Article, 1988) [WorldCat.org]. OCLC 5549197466.
- Japanese Kokoro. (Book, 2001) [WorldCat.org]. OCLC 314846208.