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|Formation||8 May 1808|
|Royal Institute of Science, Letters and Fine Arts|
The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (Dutch: Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, abbreviated: KNAW) is an organization dedicated to the advancement of science and literature in the Netherlands. The academy is housed in the Trippenhuis in Amsterdam.
In addition to various advisory and administrative functions it operates a number of research institutes and awards many prizes, including the Lorentz Medal in theoretical physics, the Dr Hendrik Muller Prize for Behavioural and Social Science and the Heineken Prizes.
The academy advises the Dutch government on scientific matters. While its advice often pertains to genuine scientific concerns, it also counsels the government on such topics as policy on careers for researchers or the Netherlands' contribution to major international projects. The academy offers solicited and unsolicited advice to parliament, ministries, universities and research institutes, funding agencies and international organizations.
- Advising the government on matters related to scientific research
- Providing a forum for the scientific world and promoting international scientific cooperation
- Acting as an umbrella organization for the institutes primarily engaged in basic and strategic scientific research and disseminating information
Members and organization
The members are appointed for life by co-optation. Nominations for candidate membership by persons or organizations outside the academy are accepted. The acceptance criterion is delivered scientific achievements. Academy membership is therefore regarded as a great honor, and prestigious. Besides regular members, there are foreign members and corresponding members. Since a new membership system was introduced in 2011 there will be no new corresponding members. Each year a maximum of sixteen members are appointed to the academy.
The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences has long embraced the entire field of learning. The Royal Academy comprises two departments, consisting of around 500 members:
- Science (mathematics, physics, astronomy, life sciences, and engineering sciences)
- Humanities and Social Sciences (humanities, law, behavioural sciences and social sciences)
Both departments have their own board. The departments, in turn, are divided into sections. The highest organ in the academy is the general meeting of members, the united meeting of both departments. The president was Frits van Oostrom until 1 May 2008, after which he was succeeded by Robbert Dijkgraaf. Both van Oostrom in his leaving address and Dijkgraaf in his inaugural address have voiced their worries about the low level of funding in science in the Netherlands compared to almost all other western countries. Later presidents were Hans Clevers, José van Dijck, Wim van Saarloos and Ineke Sluiter (2020).
During the Kingdom of Holland, it was founded as the Koninklijk Instituut van Wetenschappen, Letterkunde en Schoone Kunsten (Royal Institute of Sciences, Literature and Fine Arts) by Lodewijk Napoleon on May 4, 1808. In 1816, after the occupation had ended, it was renamed to Koninklijk-Nederlandsch Instituut van Wetenschappen, Letteren en Schoone Kunsten. In 1851 it was disbanded and re-established as the Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen and in 1938 obtained its present name. Since 1812 the academy has resided in the Trippenhuis in Amsterdam.
- Data Archiving and Networked Services (since 2005)
- Fryske Akademy (since 1990, founded in 1938)
- Hubrecht Institute for Developmental Biology & Stem Cell Research (since 1917)
- Huygens Instituut (since 1992)
- Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis (since 1979, founded in 1935)
- Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde (since 2001, founded in 1851)
- Meertens Instituut (since 1952)
- Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience (NIN) (established in 2005 as a merger of the Netherlands Institute for Brain Research (NIH, established in 1909) and the Netherlands Ophthalmic Research Institute (IOI, established in 1988))
- Nederlands Instituut voor Ecologie (since 1992)
- Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie (since 1999, founded in 1945)
- Nederlands Instituut voor Wetenschappelijke Informatiediensten (1997-2005)
- Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut (since 2003)
- Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study in the Humanities and Social Sciences (since 1988)
- Rathenau Instituut (since 1994, previously NOTA (1987-1994))
- Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute (since 1904)
De Jonge Akademie (The Young Academy) is a society of younger science researchers, founded in 2005 as part of the KNAW. Ten members are elected each year for a term of five years; members are scientists between 25 and 45 years old and are selected for a record of excellence in their research. It was modelled after the similar German Junge Akademie, and both of these academies in turn were used as models for the Global Young Academy.
- Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO)
- Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO)
- Koninklijke Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen (Royal Holland Society of Sciences and Humanities)
- History of the Academy, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved on 2013-09-20.
- 1808 – Signed: Louis, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved on 2013-09-20.
- Contact, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved on 2013-09-20.
- "The Academy's members". Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Laureaten De Gouden Ganzenveer vanaf 1955". Stichting De Gouden Ganzenveer. 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-28.
- "The Academy Institutes". Retrieved 11 July 2016.
- "Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience". KNAW. Retrieved 11 July 2016.
- Loerts, Hanneke (June 2009), "De Jonge Akademie, a new and a leaving member meet" (PDF), Newsletter of the Graduate School for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurosciences: 1–3, archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-11-23.
- Brück, Tilman; Beaudry, Catherine; Hilgenkamp, Hans; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Salah el Din Mohamed, Hiba; Weiss, Gregory A. (April 2010), "Empowering Young Scientists" (PDF), Science, 328 (5974): 17, doi:10.1126/science.1185745, PMID 20360070.