Campbell was the son of Robert Campbell Sr. (d. 1849) who came from Glasgow, Scotland, to the United States and settled at Bath in 1794. He was educated at Geneva Academy and College, then studied law, was admitted to the bar and commenced practice at Bath. He married Frances Fowler, and they had the sons Clarence Campbell and Frank Campbell.
He was delegate to the New York State Constitutional Convention of 1846 as a Democrat, but became a Free Soiler in 1848 and later joined the Republican Party. He was Lieutenant Governor of New York from 1859 to 1862 under Governor Edwin D. Morgan.
-  Political Graveyard
-  NY History Bio of Frank Campbell
-  Biographical Sketches of the State Officers and Members of the Legislature in the State of New York in 1859 by Wm. D. Murphy (pages 9ff; C. Van Benthuysen, Albany NY, 1859)
Henry R. Selden
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David R. Floyd-Jones