|Born||25 September 1901|
|Died||18 December 1999 (aged 98)|
|Occupation||Film director, screenwriter|
|Spouse(s)||Leidia van der Zee (m.1926)|
Marie-Madeleine van der Mersch
Known for his ascetic approach, Bresson contributed notably to the art of cinema; his non-professional actors, ellipses, and sparse use of scoring have led his works to be regarded as preeminent examples of minimalist film. Much of his work is known for being tragic in story and nature.
Bresson is among the most highly regarded filmmakers of all time. He has the highest number of films (seven) that made the 2012 Sight & Sound critics' poll of the 250 greatest films ever made. His works A Man Escaped (1956), Pickpocket (1959) and Au Hasard Balthazar (1966) were ranked among the top 100, and other films like Mouchette (1967) and L'Argent (1983) also received many votes. Jean-Luc Godard once wrote, "He is the French cinema, as Dostoevsky is the Russian novel and Mozart is German music."
Life and career
Bresson was born at Bromont-Lamothe, Puy-de-Dôme, the son of Marie-Élisabeth (née Clausels) and Léon Bresson. Little is known of his early life. He was educated at Lycée Lakanal in Sceaux, Hauts-de-Seine, close to Paris, and turned to painting after graduating. Three formative influences in his early life seem to have a mark on his films: Catholicism, art and his experiences as a prisoner of war. Robert Bresson lived in Paris, France, in the Île Saint-Louis.
Initially also a photographer, Bresson made his first short film, Les affaires publiques (Public Affairs) in 1934. During World War II, he spent over a year in a prisoner-of-war camp−an experience which informs Un condamné à mort s'est échappé ou Le vent souffle où il veut (A Man Escaped). In a career that spanned fifty years, Bresson made only 13 feature-length films. This reflects his painstaking approach to the filmmaking process and his non-commercial preoccupations. Difficulty finding funding for his projects was also a factor.
Although many writers claim that Bresson described himself as a "Christian atheist", no source ever confirmed this assertion, neither are the circumstances clear under which Bresson would have said it. On the contrary, in an interview in 1973 he said,
There is the feeling that God is everywhere, and the more I live, the more I see that in nature, in the country. When I see a tree, I see that God exists. I try to catch and to convey the idea that we have a soul and that the soul is in contact with God. That's the first thing I want to get in my films.
Furthermore, in a 1983 interview for TSR's Spécial Cinéma, Bresson declared to have been interested in making a film based on the Book of Genesis, although he believed such a production would be too costly and time-consuming.
Bresson was sometimes accused of an "ivory tower existence". Critic Jonathan Rosenbaum, an admirer of Bresson's work, argued that the filmmaker was "a mysterious, aloof figure", and wrote that on the set of Four Nights of a Dreamer (1971) the director "seemed more isolated from his crew than any other filmmaker I've seen at work; his widow and onetime assistant director, Mylene van der Mersch, often conveyed his instructions."
Bresson died on a Saturday in December 1999, at his home in Droue-sur-Drouette southwest of Paris. He was 98. He made his last film in 1983 and had been unwell for some time.
As a Director
|1943||Angels of Sin||Les Anges du péché|
|1945||The Ladies of the Bois de Boulogne||Les Dames du Bois de Boulogne|
|1951||Diary of a Country Priest||Journal d'un curé de campagne|
|1956||A Man Escaped||Un condamné à mort s'est échappé ou Le vent souffle où il veut|
(literally, "a condemned man escapes, or, the wind blows where it will")
|1962||The Trial of Joan of Arc||Procès de Jeanne d'Arc|
|1966||Au Hasard Balthazar||"Balthazar, at random"|
|1969||A Gentle Woman||Une femme douce|
|1971||Four Nights of a Dreamer||Quatre nuits d'un rêveur|
|1974||Lancelot du Lac||Lancelot of the Lake|
|1977||The Devil Probably||Le Diable probablement|
- Les affaires publiques (Public Affairs, 1934)
- Notes sur le Cinématographe (1975)—translated as Notes on Cinematography, Notes on the Cinematographer and Notes on the Cinematograph in different English editions.
- Bresson on Bresson: Interviews, 1943-1983 (2016)—translated from the French by Anna Moschovakis, edited by Mylène Bresson, preface by Pascal Mérigeau.
Themes and style
This section needs additional citations for verification. (March 2009)
Bresson's early artistic focus was to separate the language of cinema from that of the theater, which often relies heavily upon the actor's performance to drive the work. Film scholar Tony Pipolo writes that "Bresson opposed not just professional actors, but acting itself," preferring to think of his actors as 'models'. In Notes sur le cinématographe, a collection of aphorisms written by Bresson, the director succinctly defines the difference between the two:
HUMAN MODELS: movement from the exterior to the interior. [...] ACTORS: movement from the interior to the exterior.
Bresson further elaborates on his disdain for acting in later passages of the book, wherein he appropriates a remark Chateaubriand had made about 19th century poets and applies it to professional actors (that is, "what they lack is not naturalness, but Nature.") For Bresson, "to think it's more natural for a movement to be made or a phrase to be said like this than like that" is "absurd", and "nothing rings more false in film [...] than the overstudied sentiments" of theater.
With his 'model' technique, Bresson's actors were required to repeat multiple takes of each scene until all semblances of 'performance' were stripped away, leaving a stark effect that registers as both subtle and raw. This, as well as Bresson's restraint in musical scoring, would have a significant influence on minimalist cinema. In the academic journal CrossCurrents, Shmuel Ben-gad writes:
There is a credibility in Bresson's models: They are like people we meet in life, more or less opaque creatures who speak, move, and gesture [...] Acting, on the other hand, no matter how naturalistic, actively deforms or invents by putting an overlay or filter over the person, presenting a simplification of a human being and not allowing the camera to capture the actor's human depths. Thus what Bresson sees as the essence of filmic art, the achievement of the creative transformation involved in all art through the interplay of images of real things, is destroyed by the artifice of acting. For Bresson, then, acting is, like mood music and expressive camera work, just one more way of deforming reality or inventing that has to be avoided.
Some feel that Bresson's Catholic upbringing and belief system lie behind the thematic structures of most of his films. Recurring themes under this interpretation include salvation, redemption, defining and revealing the human soul, and metaphysical transcendence of a limiting and materialistic world. An example is A Man Escaped (1956), where a seemingly simple plot of a prisoner of war's escape can be read as a metaphor for the mysterious process of salvation.
Bresson's films can also be understood as critiques of French society and the wider world, with each revealing the director's sympathetic, if unsentimental, view of its victims. That the main characters of Bresson's most contemporary films, The Devil, Probably (1977) and L'Argent (1983), reach similarly unsettling conclusions about life indicates to some the director's feelings towards the culpability of modern society in the dissolution of individuals. Indeed, of an earlier protagonist he said, "Mouchette offers evidence of misery and cruelty. She is found everywhere: wars, concentration camps, tortures, assassinations." Film historian Mark Cousins argues that "[i]f Bergman and Fellini filmed life as if it was a theatre and a circus, respectively, Bresson's microcosm was that of a prison", describing Bresson's characters as "psychologically imprisoned".
Bresson published Notes sur le cinématographe (also published in English translation as Notes on the Cinematographer) in 1975, in which he argues for a unique sense of the term "cinematography". For him, cinematography is the higher function of cinema. While a movie is in essence "only" filmed theatre, cinematography is an attempt to create a new language of moving images and sounds.
Bresson is often referred to as a patron saint of cinema, not only for the strong Catholic themes found throughout his oeuvre, but also for his notable contributions to the art of film. His style can be detected through his use of sound, associating selected sounds with images or characters; paring dramatic form to its essentials by the spare use of music; and through his infamous 'actor-model' methods of directing his almost exclusively non-professional actors. Mark Cousins writes:
So complete was Bresson’s rejection of cinema norms that he has a tendency to fall outside film history. However, his uncompromising stance has been extremely influential in some quarters.
Bresson's book Notes on the Cinematographer (1975) is one of the most respected books on film theory and criticism. His theories about film greatly influenced other filmmakers, particularly the French New Wave directors.
Opposing the established pre-war French cinema (known as Tradition de la Qualité ["tradition of quality"]) by offering his own personal responses to the question "what is cinema?", and by formulating his ascetic style, Bresson gained a high reputation with the founders of the French New Wave. He is often listed (along with Alexandre Astruc and André Bazin) as one of the main figures who influenced them. New Wave pioneers praised Bresson and posited him as a prototype for or precursor to the movement. However, Bresson was neither as overtly experimental nor as outwardly political as the New Wave filmmakers, and his religious views (Catholicism and Jansenism) were not attractive to most of the filmmakers associated with the movement.
In his development of auteur theory, François Truffaut lists Bresson among the few directors to whom the term "auteur" can genuinely be applied, and later names him as one of the only examples of directors who could approach even the so-called "unfilmable" scenes, using the film narrative at its disposal. Jean-Luc Godard also looked Bresson with high admiration ("Robert Bresson is French cinema, as Dostoevsky is the Russian novel and Mozart is the German music.") Screenwriter and director Alain Cavalier describes Bresson's role as pivotal not only in the New Wave movement, but for French cinema in general, writing, "In French cinema you have a father and a mother: the father is Bresson and the mother is Renoir, with Bresson representing the strictness of the law and Renoir warmth and generosity. All the better French cinema has and will have to connect to Bresson in some way."
Reception and Influence
Bresson has also influenced a number of other filmmakers, including Andrei Tarkovsky, Chantal Akerman, Jean Eustache, Abel Ferrara, Philippe Garrel, Hal Hartley, Monte Hellman, Jim Jarmusch, Louis Malle, Michael Haneke, Olivier Assayas, Atom Egoyan, the Dardenne brothers, Aki Kaurismäki, and Paul Schrader, whose book Transcendental Style in Film: Ozu, Bresson, Dreyer includes a detailed critical analysis. The Swedish filmmaker Ingmar Bergman praised and admired Bresson's films such as Mouchette and Diary of a Country Priest. The French filmmaker Jean Cocteau has held Bresson in high regards. The French filmmaker Alain Resnais was an strong admirer of Bresson and his work. The French filmmaker Jacques Rivette has acknowledge to Bresson's influence on his films. The Polish filmmaker Krzysztof Kieslowski was also influenced by him and ranked Bresson's film, A Man Escaped as one of the top ten films that "affected" him the most. The Hungarian filmmaker Béla Tarr was influenced by Bresson and listed Bresson film Au Hasard Balthazar on his top ten films of all time. The Iranian filmmaker Abbas Kiarostami was highly influenced by Bresson and mentioned the personal importance of Bresson's book, Notes on the Cinematographer. The Greek filmmaker Theo Angelopoulos listed Bresson's film Pickpocket on his top ten films of all time. The German filmmaker Rainer Werner Fassbinder was influenced by Bresson and championed and paid homage to Bresson's film The Devil Probably with his film The Third Generation. When Fassbinder was a member of the jury in the 1977 Berlin Film Festival, he even went so far to threatened to leave the jury (when his enthusiasm was not shared by his peers) unless his appreciation for Bresson's film was known to the public. The Dardenne brothers's film L'Enfant was influenced by Bresson's film Pickpocket. The German director Margarethe von Trotta lists Bresson as one of her favorite directors. The American filmmaker Wes Anderson listed Au Hasard Balthazar as one of his favorite films in the Criterion Collection library and called Bresson's film Mouchette, "terrific". The American filmmaker Richard Linklater was influenced by Bresson's work and listed Au hasard Balthazar and Pickpocket in his top 10 film list from the Criterion Collection. Benny Safdie of the Safdie brothers named the Bresson's film A Man Escaped as his favorite film of all time. The Italian-American filmmaker Martin Scorsese praised Bresson as "one of the cinema’s greatest artists" and an influence on his films such as Taxi Driver. Andrei Tarkovsky held Bresson in very high regard, noting he and Ingmar Bergman as his two favourite filmmakers, stating "I am only interested in the views of two people: one is called Bresson and one called Bergman". In his book Sculpting in Time, Tarkovsky describes Bresson as "perhaps the only artist in cinema, who achieved the perfect fusion of the finished work with a concept theoretically formulated beforehand."
Awards and nominations
|1957||Palme d'Or||A Man Escaped||Nominated|||
|1962||Palme d'Or||The Trial of Joan of Arc||Nominated|
|Jury Special Prize||Won|
|1974||FIPRESCI Prize||Lancelot du Lac||Nominated|
|1971||Four Nights of a Dreamer||Nominated|
|1977||Golden Bear||The Devil Probably||Nominated|
|Silver Bear Grand Jury Prize||Won|
|1951||Golden Lion||Diary of a Country Priest||Nominated|||
|Italian Film Critics Award||Won|
|1966||Golden Lion||Au Hasard Balthazar||Nominated|
|San Giorgio Prize||Won|
|New Cinema Award||Won|
|Cineforum 66 Award||Won|
|1989||Career Golden Lion Award||N/A||Won|
Works on Bresson
- Robert Bresson: A Passion for Film by Tony Pipolo (Oxford University Press; 407 pages; 2010) pays particular attention to psychosexual aspects of the French filmmaker's 13 features, from Les Anges du péché (1943) to L'Argent (1983).
- La politique des auteurs, edited by André Bazin.
- Robert Bresson (Cinematheque Ontario Monographs, No. 2), edited by James Quandt
- Transcendental Style in Film: Bresson, Ozu, Dreyer by Paul Schrader
- Robert Bresson: A Spiritual Style in Film, by Joseph Cunneen
- Robert Bresson, by Philippe Arnauld, Cahiers du cinema, 1986
- The Films of Robert Bresson, Ian Cameron (ed.), New York: Praeger Publishers, 1969.
- Robert Bresson, by Keith Reader, Manchester University Press, 2000.
- "Robert Bresson", a poem by Patti Smith from her 1978 book Babel
- "Spiritual style in the films of Robert Bresson", a chapter in Susan Sontag's Against Interpretation and other essays, New York: Picador, 1966.
- Robert Bresson (Revised), James Quandt (ed), Cinematheque Ontario Monographs, 2012 (752 pages) (ISBN 978-0-9682969-5-0)
- Neither God Nor Master: Robert Bresson and Radical Politics by Brian Price (University of Minnesota Press, 2011, 264 pages).
- Bresson on Bresson: Interviews, 1943–1983 by Robert Bresson, translated from the French by Anna Moschovakis, edited by Mylène Bresson, preface by Pascal Mérigeau (New York Review Books, 2016)
- "Robert Bresson". Les Gens du Cinéma (in French). 28 July 2004. Retrieved 19 February 2014. This site uses Bresson's birth certificate as its source of information.
- Perez, Rodrigo (17 August 2012). "Sight And Sound Top 250 By The Numbers: And The Auteur With The Most Films Is…".
- Institute, The British Film. "BFI - Sight & Sound - Robert Bresson: Alias Grace". old.bfi.org.uk. Archived from the original on 3 August 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
- "The 1,000 Greatest Films (Top 250 Directors)". They Shoot Pictures, Don't They. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
- "Votes for A Man Escaped (1956)". British Film Institute. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
- "Critics' Top 100". British Film Institute. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
- "Votes for Au hasard Balthazar (1966)". British Film Institute. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
- "Robert Bresson". British Film Institute. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
- Godard, Jean-Luc (27 June 1972). Godard on Godard; critical writings [This comment on Bresson was taken from a special issue of Cahiers du Cinéma]. Viking Press. p. 47.
- "Robert Bresson Biography (1907-1999)". www.filmreference.com. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
- Liukkonen, Petri. "Robert Bresson". Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Finland: Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from the original on 27 October 2007.
- James Quandt, Cinémathèque Ontario (1998). Robert Bresson. Cinemathèque Ontario. p. 411. ISBN 978-0-9682969-1-2.
Around the time of 'Lancelot du Lac' (1974), Bresson was said to have declared himself "a Christian atheist."CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Bert Cardullo (2009). The Films of Robert Bresson: A Casebook. Anthem Press. p. xiii. ISBN 978-1-84331-796-8.
A deeply devout man—one who paradoxically described himself as a "Christian atheist" — Bresson, in his attempt in a relatively timeless manner to address good and evil, redemption, the power of love and self-sacrifice, and other such subjects, may seem to us, and perhaps was, something of a retrogression.
- Hayman, Ronald (Summer 1973). "Robert Bresson in Conversation". Transatlantic Review (46–47): 16–23.
- Robert Bresson interview 1 (1983) with english subs. YouTube. Event occurs at 11:17.
- "Robert Bresson". The Guardian. 22 December 1999. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
- Rosenbaum, Jonathan (1 April 2004). "Defending Bresson". Chicago Reader. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
- "Robert Bresson, Film Director, Dies at 98". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
- Pipolo, Tony (2010). Robert Bresson: A Passion for Film. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195319798.
- Bresson, Robert (1997). Notes on the Cinematographer. Green Integer. ISBN 978-1557133656.
- Ben-gad, Shmuel (1997). "To See the World Profoundly: The Films of Robert Bresson". CrossCurrents. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Ebert, Roger (23 December 1999). "Robert Bresson was master of understatement". Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- James Quandt, Robert Bresson (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1998), 9.
- Dictionary of Films: ISBN 0-520-02152-5, page 228.
- Cousins, Mark (26 September 2011). The Story of Film. Pavilion. ISBN 978-1862059429.
- "Robert Bresson as a Precursor to the Nouvelle Vague: A Brief Historical Sketch". offscreen.com.
- "TSPDT - Robert Bresson". www.theyshootpictures.com. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
- Keith Reader (2 September 2000). Robert Bresson. Manchester University Press. ISBN 9780719053665.
- Alison Nastasi (25 March 2015). "Abel Ferrara on His Strauss-Kahn-Inspired 'Welcome to New York,' His Battle With Distributors, and 'Pasolini'". FlavorWire. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
- Jamie Sexton (24 April 2018). Stranger Than Paradise. Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231851022.
- Keith Reader (2 September 2000). "The 'Prison Cycle'". Robert Bresson. p. 47. ISBN 9780719053665.
Malle even suggests that he was unconsciously influenced by the Bresson film in his casting of Blaise.
- Philip Mosley (1981). Ingmar Bergman - The Cinema as Mistress. M. Boyars. p. 71. ISBN 9780714526447.
- John Simon. "Ingmar Bergman on Mouchette". RobertBresson.com. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
John Simon: "What about Bresson? How do you feel about him?" Ingmar Bergman: "Oh, Mouchette! I loved it, I loved it! But Balthazar was so boring, I slept through it." John Simon: "I liked Les Dames du Bois de Boulogne and A Man Escaped, but I would say The Diary of a Country Priest is the best one." Ingmar Bergman: "I have seen it four or five times and could see it again... and Mouchette... really..."
- Srikanth Srinivasan (17 August 2013). "Outtakes: Robert Bresson". The Hindu. Thg Publishing Pvt Ltd. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
Contemporaries such as Andrei Tarkovsky, Jean Cocteau and Marguerite Duras and the critic-filmmakers of the French New Wave held him in very high regard.
- Noel Burch; Alain Resnais (1960). "A Conversation with Alain Resnais". JSTOR. University of California Press. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
Resnais is a shy, rather nerv- ... eclectic. He admires Bresson tremendously,
- Cinematheque Ontario (1998). Robert Bresson (Revised). Toronto International Film Festival. p. 77. ISBN 9780968296912.
...Jacques Rivette have repeatedly acknowledged their debt to Bresson.
- Joseph Kickasola (2004). The Films of Krzysztof Kieslowski - The Liminal Image. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 26. ISBN 9780826415592.
- Eric Schlosser (1 October 2000). "Interview with Béla Tarr: About Werckmeister Harmonies (Cannes 2000, Director's Fortnight)". Bright Lights Film. Bright Lights Film Journal. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
Interviewer: "Béla Tarr, is your work influenced by other filmmakers?" Béla Tarr: "I remember some movies from my young years, it was the time when I saw many movies. Now I have no time, and I don’t like to go and watch movies as I used to. But people like Robert Bresson, Ozu. I like some Fassbinder movies very much. Cassavettes. Hungarian films too."
- "Béla Tarr". BFI. British Film Institute. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
- Codruţa Morari. "An Elusive Style". The Bressonians - French Cinema and the Culture of Authorship. Berghahn Books. p. 59. ISBN 9781785335723.
- Tom Paulus (9 December 2016). "Truth in Cinema: The Riddle of Kiarostami". Cinea. Cinea. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
Kiarostami’s greatest cinematic inspiration, Robert Bresson, was also convinced that the importance of the image is in its relationship to what comes before and after.
- Filmmakers; Larry Gross (6 July 2016). "Talkhouse Film Contributors Remember Abbas Kiarostami". Talkhouse. Talkhouse, Inc. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
The next day he gave a press conference, talking about the personal importance of Bresson’s book Notes on the Cinematographer for him...
- "Theo Angelopoulos". BFI. British Film Institute. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
- James Quandt (7 February 2018). "10 great films that inspired Rainer Werner Fassbinder". BFI. British Film Institute. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
Like Godard, Fassbinder flaunted his influences through homage and citation – to Jean-Pierre Melville, Bertolt Brecht and Godard in his early crime films, to Bresson and Andrei Tarkovsky in The Third Generation (1979), to many American directors throughout his career.
- Brian Price (2011). "6 - The Agony of Ideas". Neither God Nor Master - Robert Bresson and Radical Politics. University of Minnesota Press. p. 148. ISBN 9780816654611.
Fassbinder threatened to leave the jury unless his support for the film, which was entirely unappreciated by his colleagues, was made public.
- Manohla Dargis; A.O. Scott (22 May 2005). "Two Belgians Win Top Prize at Cannes for Second Time". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
"The Child," a Belgian film directed by Jean-Pierre Dardenne and Luc Dardenne, won the Palme d'Or as best film at the 58th Cannes Film Festival on Saturday night. The film, which follows a young petty thief as he struggles with the moral dilemmas of fatherhood, was inspired by Dostoyevsky's "Crime and Punishment" and influenced by the classic French film "Pickpocket," by Robert Bresson.
- Margarethe Von Trotta - Interviews. University Press of Mississippi. 19 January 2018. p. 5. ISBN 9781496815644.
Interestingly, von Trotta's favorite directors, even today, are men: Ingmar Bergman, Carlos Saura, Robert Bresson.
- Zack Sharf (24 October 2019). "Wes Anderson's Favorite Movies: 30 Films the Auteur Wants You to See". IndieWire. Penske Business Media, LLC. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
“We watched ‘Au Hasard Balthazar’ last night and loved it,” Anderson told The Criterion Collection when naming his favorite films in the library. “You hate to see that poor donkey die. He takes a beating and presses on, and your heart goes out to him.” Directed by Robert Bresson, the 1966 French drama follows a donkey and his various owners over the years. Anderson says he is also a fan of Bresson’s “terrific” companion film “Mouchette,” released in 1967.
- "Richard Linklater Presents Robert Bresson". A-BitterSweet-Life. A-BitterSweet-Life. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
- "Richard Linklater's Top 10". The Criterion Collection. The Criterion Collection. 21 November 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
- Jacqueline Coley (14 January 2020). "The Safdie Brothers' Five Favorite Films". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
Benny Safdie: "Then the second one – and let’s say, this was in no particular order – but A Man Escaped, the [Robert] Bresson movie. That has to be my favorite movie of all time, just because it always makes me cry at the end, because I feel like I’ve achieved something that the character achieves. And it tells you what happens in the title, and it makes it no less suspenseful the entire way. You’re literally feeling the sound of the gravel as he puts his foot down – those shots of the foot or the spoon going into the slot. All of these things, the editing of it, the character, the way he’s using these actors who you don’t really know, they just – you feel like they’re real people. It’s just so perfectly put together, and it’s something where I kind of feel like I’m going along with the escape in a way that’s just done by a master. In a weird way, I feel like Bresson is the Fontaine character in that movie. But what’s weird is I’ve watched it again recently, and I had a totally different feeling of it, where it was more about society and how people are talking to each other. And then you realize Bresson is just kind of making the same movie every time, just with different [settings and characters]. One’s World War II, one’s Lancelot."
- Neil Mitchell (11 January 2018). "Taxi Driver: five films that influenced Scorsese's masterpiece". BFI. British Film Institute. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
- Rodrigo Perez (18 April 2012). "The Films Of Robert Bresson: A Retrospective". IndieWire. Penske Business Media, LLC. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
“We are still coming to terms with Robert Bresson, and the peculiar power and beauty of his films,” Martin Scorsese said in the 2010 book “A Passion For Film,” describing the often overlooked French filmmaker as “one of the cinema’s greatest artists.”
- Le Cain, Maximillian. "Andrei Tarkovsky". Archived from the original on 23 March 2010.
- "Andrei Tarkovsky Quotes (Author of Sculpting in Time)". www.goodreads.com. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
- "Robert Bresson - Awards". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
- Robert Bresson at IMDb
- Robert-Bresson.com: Resource dedicated to Bresson's films
- A Bresson bibliography