Robert B. Anderson
|56th United States Secretary of the Treasury|
July 29, 1957 – January 20, 1961
|President||Dwight D. Eisenhower|
|Preceded by||George M. Humphrey|
|Succeeded by||C. Douglas Dillon|
|5th United States Deputy Secretary of Defense|
May 3, 1954 – August 4, 1955
|President||Dwight D. Eisenhower|
|Preceded by||Roger M. Kyes|
|Succeeded by||Reuben B. Robertson Jr.|
|4th United States Secretary of the Navy|
February 4, 1953 – March 3, 1954
|President||Dwight D. Eisenhower|
|Preceded by||Dan A. Kimball|
|Succeeded by||Charles Thomas|
|Member of the Texas House of Representatives|
from the 99th district
January 10, 1933 – September 11, 1933
|Preceded by||John Holland Veatch|
|Succeeded by||Edgar Emmett Hunter|
Robert Bernard Anderson
June 4, 1910
Burleson, Texas, U.S.
|Died||August 14, 1989 (aged 79)|
New York City, New York, U.S.
|Political party||Republican (1956–1989)|
|Democratic (before 1956)|
(m. 1935; died 1987)
|Education||Weatherford College (BA)|
University of Texas at Austin (LLB)
Robert Bernard Anderson (June 4, 1910 – August 14, 1989) was an American administrator, politician, and businessman. He served as the Secretary of the Navy between February 1953 and March 1954. He also served as the Secretary of the Treasury from 1957 until 1961, and was one of President Eisenhower's closest confidants. Two years before his death from cancer, he was disbarred for illegal banking operations and tax evasion.
Anderson was born in Burleson, Texas on June 4, 1910, to Robert Lee Anderson and his wife Elizabeth Haskew "Lizzy" Anderson. He was a high school teacher prior to entering the University of Texas Law School, from which he graduated in 1932. He thereafter engaged in political, governmental, law and business activities in the state of Texas.
State government service
Upon leaving the University of Texas School of Law in 1932, Anderson soon became an Assistant Attorney General for the State of Texas where he worked in 1933–1934. By 1934, he moved onward to become a State of Texas Tax Commissioner.
By 1939–1940, Anderson pursued opportunities within the private sector; he and two other partners purchased the City of Austin-based KTBC radio station from the Texas Broadcasting Company. In 1943, not able to increase KTBC's broadcasting power from the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), the three partners sold KTBC to Lady Bird Johnson, wife of then-Representative and future President Lyndon B. Johnson.
Marriage and children
Anderson married Ollie Mae Rawlins on April 10, 1935. The couple had two sons, Gerald Lee and James Richard. The Anderson family later moved to Cleburne, Texas. Ollie Anderson died in Greenwich, Connecticut of Alzheimer disease on May 31, 1987.
Federal government service
During his time as Navy Secretary, he ended the last formal vestiges of racial segregation in the Navy and advocated the force levels and technological advances necessary to maintain a flexible defense strategy. In May 1954, Anderson left his Navy post to become Deputy Secretary of Defense. He received the Medal of Freedom in 1955. From 1957 to 1961, he served as Eisenhower's Secretary of the Treasury.
Eisenhower was particularly impressed by Anderson's abilities, believing him to be more than capable of being president himself, and named him as one of his leading choices to be his running mate in 1956 if Vice-President Richard Nixon had accepted Eisenhower's recommendation to leave the vice-presidency to serve as Secretary of Defense. However, Nixon opted to remain on the ticket with Ike. As 1960 approached, although Eisenhower acknowledged that Nixon certainly had the Republican presidential nomination sewn up, Eisenhower privately pressed Anderson to enter the primaries and to challenge Nixon, but Anderson declined. Once Nixon was nominated, Eisenhower suggested that he select Anderson as his running mate, but Nixon chose Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. instead.
Eisenhower said Anderson "is just about the ablest man that I know, He would make a splendid President."
Anderson was close to Sid Richardson and Clint Murchison who was very close to FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover. Many Texas oilmen including Murchison, formerly a close associate of Lyndon B. Johnson, ended their relationships with Johnson when Johnson became vice president on John F. Kennedy's 1960 presidential ticket because Kennedy advocated tax reform on oil companies and their investments.
In 1963, President Kennedy appointed Anderson to a special committee to study the United States foreign aid program.
In 1964 following Panamanian riots, President Johnson appointed him as special ambassador to Panama where he conducted negotiations for a new treaty on the status of the Panama Canal. At the same time, Anderson served as chairman of a Congressional study commission to determine if building a sea level canal through Panama was possible. He succeeded in negotiating a preliminary treaty to transfer the Canal to the control of Panama, but, before the treaty was ratified by the legislature of Panama, General Omar Torrijos overthrew the Panamanian government in October 1968 and rejected the proposed treaty. In June 1973, he resigned his ambassador post, unable to secure agreement on another preliminary treaty proposal and was replaced by Ellsworth Bunker who agreed to Panamanian demands to a rapid transition to control by Panama and the subsequent Bunker negotiated treaty was ratified in 1978 for transfer of the Panama Canal from United States jurisdiction to Panama jurisdiction and control.
During the 1960s, he carried out diplomatic missions on behalf of President Lyndon B. Johnson, including many trips to Cairo to confer with Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser in the wake of the 1967 Six-Day War.
Private business and death
After leaving office in 1961, Anderson moved to New York City and was active in business, investment, banking affairs, oil, and real estate. Anderson owned the Anderson group, headquartered at One Rockefeller Plaza in New York City, where he had business interests in a number of international projects.
Anderson's career ended in personal suffering. He was hospitalized several times for alcoholism. From 1983 to 1985, he and his partner David B. Gould illegally operated the Commercial Exchange Bank and Trust of Anguilla, British West Indies, which had an unlicensed New York branch office. The bank lost $4.4 million and several investors lost their life savings in the mid 1980s including record producer Ethel Gabriel. The bank also laundered large amounts of cash for drug traffickers. In 1987, Anderson, who was charged by Rudolph Giuliani as the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York, pleaded guilty to criminal violations of the banking laws and to tax evasion, and was sentenced to prison. The Supreme Court of New York Appellate Division, in disbarring Anderson from the practice of law, called his disbarment "a sad but we think necessary end to the legal career of one who has in times less beclouded by poor and corrupt judgment served his country in high office as Secretary of Treasury, Deputy Secretary of the Navy and as Special Ambassador to Panama during the Panama Canal negotiations."
The Robert B. Anderson Papers 1933-89 were deposited at the Eisenhower Library at Abilene, Kansas, between 1992 and 1996 with more in July 2001 and gifted to the Eisenhower Library on December 26, 2001, by Gerald Anderson, son of Robert Anderson.
- Ambrose, Stephen E. (1990). Eisenhower: Soldier and President. Simon & Schuster. p. 501. ISBN 0-671-74758-4.
- Sterling. sfn error: no target: CITEREFSterling (help)
- Johnson, Chalmers (November 20, 2003). "The Looting of Asia": A review of Gold Warriors: America's Secret Recovery of Yamashita's Gold by Sterling Seagrave and Peggy Seagrave Verso, 332 pp. London Review of Books v. 25, no. 22. Archived from the original on November 19, 2003. Retrieved January 15, 2021.
- Anderson 2020, pp. 127-130.
- Remarks by Secretary of the Treasury, Robert B. Anderson, at Treasury-industry Top Management Meeting for Payroll Savings Program. 1960.
- Ambrose, Stephen (September 28, 1984). Eisenhower the President. 4302: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0671499013.CS1 maint: location (link)
- Kapur et al, 1997, The World Bank: Its First Half Century, Volume 1, Washington DC: Brooklings Institution
- Wolfe 1989.
- "Robert B. Anderson: papers 1933-89" (PDF). Eisenhower Library website. July 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 18, 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
- "Foreign Relations of the United States, 1964–1968, Volume XIX, Arab-Israeli Crisis and War, 1967 – Office of the Historian". history.state.gov. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
- "Hong Kong Business Directory: Robert Anderson & Company Limited". HKG Business website. Archived from the original on February 13, 2021. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
- US Department of State diplomatic cables, 17 August 1977
- Prial, Frank J. (June 26, 1987). "Ex-treasury chief gets 1-month term in bank fraud case". New York Times. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
- Reilly, William M. (June 26, 1987). "Former Ike treasury secretary sentenced". United Press International. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
- "Award Covers Some Funds Lost by Ex-U.S. Treasurer". Los Angeles Times. 1989-05-30. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2019-06-05.
- "Former Treasury Secretary Faces Prison : Robert B. Anderson, 76, Pleads Guilty to Tax Evasion, Bank Fraud". Los Angeles Times. 1987-03-27. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2019-06-05.
- Matter of Anderson, 142 A.D.2d 498, 536 N.Y.S.2d 765 (January 12, 1989).
- Seagrave, Sterling; Seagrave, Peggu (11 September 2002). Opération "Lys d'or" : Le scandaleux secret de la guerre du Pacifique ou comment les Etats-Unis ont utilisé le trésor de guerre japonais pour financer la guerre froide (in French). Yves Michalon Éditions (L'Harmattan). ISBN 978-2841861606.
- Seagrave, Sterling; Seagrave, Peggy (January 1, 2003). Gold Warriors: America's Secret Recovery of Yamashita's Gold. Verso. ASIN B00SQDO3GU.
- Seagrave, Sterling; Seagrave, Peggy (December 26, 2005). Gold Warriors: America's Secret Recovery of Yamashita's Gold. Verso. ISBN 978-1844675319.
- Anderson, Scott (2020). The Quiet Americans: Four CIA Spies at the Dawn of the Cold War - A Tragedy in Three Acts. Doubleday. ISBN 9780385540452.
- Wolfe, Jane (1989). The Murchisons: The Rise and Fall of a Texas Dynasty. St Martins Press. ISBN 978-0312034047.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Robert Bernard Anderson.|
- Papers of Robert B. Anderson, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library
- Robert B. Anderson at Find a Grave
Dan A. Kimball
| United States Secretary of the Navy
February 4, 1953 – March 3, 1954
Charles S. Thomas
Roger M. Kyes
| United States Deputy Secretary of Defense
Donald A. Quarles
George M. Humphrey
| U.S. Secretary of the Treasury
Served under: Dwight D. Eisenhower
C. Douglas Dillon