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Map of Thailand highlighting Phitsanulok Province
|• Governor||Ronnachai Chitwiset (since 2020)|
|• Total||10,589 km2 (4,088 sq mi)|
|Area rank||Ranked 15th|
|• Rank||Ranked 28th|
|• Density||82/km2 (210/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||Ranked 60th|
|Human Achievement Index|
|• HAI (2017)||0.5895 "average"|
|Time zone||UTC+7 (ICT)|
|ISO 3166 code||TH-65|
Phitsanulok Province (Thai: พิษณุโลก, pronounced [pʰít.sā.nú.lôːk]), one of Thailand's seventy-six provinces, lies in lower northern Thailand. It borders Sukhothai and Uttaradit on the north, Loei and Phetchabun to the east, and Phichit and Kamphaeng Phet to the south. In the northeast it borders Laos.
Its name means 'Vishnu's heaven'. The first element, Phitsanu (Thai: พิษณุ), is a cognate of "Vishnu", a Hindu god. The second element lok (Thai: โลก) means 'globe' or 'world'.
The capital is Phitsanulok.
The lands of present-day Phitsanulok Province were inhabited since the Stone Age, although the Neolithic inhabitants of the region are not likely to have been the ancestors of the modern Thai people who reside there today. The earliest historical records relating to the area indicate that at a time prior to or during the 11th century, the present-day city of Phitsanulok was a small strategic Khmer outpost known as Song Khwae. During the next century, in 1188, Nakhon Thai, near the center of the present Phitsanulok Province, was established as the capital city of the Singhanavati Kingdom, an early city-state of Thailand. Later, during Thailand's Sukhothai Period, the city of Phitsanulok emerged as a major city in the east of the Sukhothai Kingdom, and the great temples of Wat Chula Manee, Wat Aranyik and Wat Chedi Yod Thong were constructed. In 1357, the renowned Wat Phra Sri Rattana Mahathat was erected, and the Ayutthaya Period witnessed the construction of several of the province's other chief temples. Phitsanulok served for 25 years as the capital city of the Ayutthaya Kingdom. In 1555, King Naresuan the Great was born in Phitsanulok. Naresuan played a significant role in the history of Thailand, as he expanded the kingdom (then called Siam) to its greatest territorial extent by conquering sizable portions of modern-day Burma and Cambodia. In recent times, Phitsanulok Province has become an important agricultural center, part of the "bread basket of Thailand", providing rice and other crops to consumers in Thailand and throughout the world. Extensive agricultural development over the last hundred years or so has spawned a modern infrastructure in the urban areas of the province, bringing with it an array of modern roads, universities, hospitals and other conveniences. Over the years, the Nan River and its tributaries have played a substantial role in the history and development of the region by providing a route for transportation, fertile soil for agriculture, and water for irrigation. The river waters have also served as a route for enemy invaders, and have been the source of periodic widespread flooding throughout the province.
- The provincial seal depicts Phra Buddha Chinnarat, considered one of the most beautiful Buddha figures in Thailand.
- The provincial flag is purple with the provincial seal in the middle of the flag.
- The provincial tree is the tree jasmine, Thai dok phip ดอกปีบ or kasalong กาสะลอง.
- The provincial flower is the yellow flame tree, Thai dok nonthri ดอกนนทรี.
- The provincial animal is the Thai Bangkaew Dog, in Thai sunakh bangkaew สุนัขบางแก้ว.
- The provincial mascot is the yellow white tail fighting cock, Thai kai lueng hang khao ไก่เหลืองหางขาว.
- The provincial motto is, "Phitsanulok, a town of the excellent Phra Buddha Chinnarat, the birthplace of King Naresuan the Great, a raft community, with delicious dried bananas as well as fantastic caves and waterfalls".
Phitsanulok Province, one of the provinces of Thailand in the lower northern region, is approximately 377 km (234 mi) north of Bangkok by road. The province is bordered to the north by Phichai District, Thong Saen Khan District and Nam Pat District of Uttaradit Province and Lao People's Democratic Republic; to the east by Na Haeo District and Dan Sai District of Loei Province, Khao Kho District and Wang Pong District of Phetchabun Province; to the south by Wang Sai Phun District, Sak Lek District, Sam Ngam District and Mueang Phichit District of Phichit Province; to the west by Lan Krabue District of Kamphaeng Phet Province and Khiri Mat District and Kong Krailat District of Sukhothai Province. Its area is 10,589 km2 (4,088 sq mi), or 6.16% of the area of northern Thailand and 2.05% of area in Thailand.
There are five national parks, along with five other national parks, make up region 11 of Thailand's protected areas.
- Khwae Noi National Park, 261 km2 (101 sq mi)
- Namtok Chat Trakan National Park, 543 km2 (210 sq mi)
- Phu Hin Rong Kla National Park, 307 km2 (119 sq mi)
- Phu Soi Dao National Park, 340 km2 (130 sq mi)
- Thung Salaeng Luang National Park, 1,262 km2 (487 sq mi)
|• Mueang Phitsanulok District has 83 temples and 26 samnak song, a few of the 83 temples are:|
|• Wat Phra Si Rattana Mahathat (royal temple with Buddha Chinnarat)|
|• Wat Chulamani (oldest standing temple in Phitsanulok Province)|
|• Wat Aranyik (historic temple)|
|• Wat Chan Tawan Tok (with 60 meter high sala under construction)|
The other eight districts have the following numbers of temples and samnak song:
|• Nakhon Thai district:||14 temples and 46 samnak song|
|• Chat Trakan district:||7 temples and 26 samnak song|
|• Bang Rakam district:||47 temples and 52 samnak song|
|• Bang Krathum district:||33 temples and 12 samnak song|
|• Phrom Phiram district:||56 temples and 16 samnak song|
|• Wat Bot district:||21 temples and 19 samnak song|
|• Wang Thong district:||50 temples and 43 samnak song|
|• Noen Maprang district:||17 temples and 32 samnak song|
There are 50 Christian churches in Phitsanulok Province.
|• Mueang district:||11 churches|
|• Nakhon Thai district:||16 churches|
|• Chat Trakan district:||9 churches|
|• Bang Rakam district:||3 churches|
|• Bang Krathum:||1 church|
|• Phrom Phiram:||4 churches|
|• Wat Bot district:||1 church|
|• Wang Thong district:||2 churches|
|• Noen Maprang district:||3 churches|
Muslims have their Masjid Abubak Pakistan mosque in Mueang Phitsanulok district.
Phitsanulok Province is divided into nine districts (amphoe). These are further subdivided into 93 subdistricts (tambon) and 1050 villages (muban). As of 26 November 2019 for local government there are: one Phitsanulok Provincial Administrative Organisation - PPOA (ongkan borihan suan changwat phitsanulok) and 26 municipal (thesaban) areas in the province. Phitsanulok has city (thesaban nakhon) status, Aranyik has town (thesaban mueang) status and 24 subdistrict municipalities (thesaban tambon). The non-municipal areas are administered by 76 Subdistrict Administrative Organisations - SAO (ongkan borihan suan tambon).
|Districts, Phitsanulok Province||#||Name||Thai||Population||Tambon||Muban|
The population of Phitsanulok Province is 865,247, of which Mueang Phitsanulok District is the most populated with 291,311 people. Wang Thong District also has a population exceeding 100,000 people. The remaining seven districts have populations of 35,000 to 95,000, of which Wat Bot District is the least populated district with 37,694 people.
|Data||Proportion||km2||mile2||Proportion||per km2||per mile2|
The population density of Phitsanulok Province is 80 people per square kilometer (207 people per mile2), of which Mueang Phitsanulok District has the highest density with 388 people per km2 (1,005 people per mile2) and Chat Trakan District the lowest density with 26 people per km2 (68 people per mile2)
The urban population of Phitsanulok Province is 274,802 (31.8%) There is one urban area, the city of Phitsanulok, with more than 150,000 inhabitants. The urban area around Bang Rakam has more than 30,000 people. There are also seven urban areas with 7,000 to 13,000 people. There are six urban areas with fewer than 5,500 people, of which Phrom Phiram is the smallest with about 1,100 people.
See also: Phitsanulok Local Government
|2||Bang Rakam||Bang Rakam||Bang Rakam M.M.||14,649|
|Bang Rakam||Phan Sao||6,143|
|Bang Rakam||Bueng Raman||4,390|
|Bang Rakam||Bang Rakam||4,337|
|Bang Rakam||Plak Raet||3,636|
|3||Noen Kum||Bang Krathum||Noen Kum||12,773|
|4||Ban Yaeng||Nakhon Thai||Ban Yaeng||10,235|
|5||Nakhon Thai||Nakhon Thai||Nakhon Thai||9,278|
|6||Bang Krathum||Bang Krathum||Huai Kaeo||5,332|
|Bang Krathum||Sanam Khli||2,496|
|Bang Krathum||Bang Krathum||1,417|
|7||Sai Yoi||Noen Maprang||Sai Yoi||8,636|
|8||Wat Bot||Wat Bot||Wat Bot||8,078|
|9||Ban Mung||Noen Maprang||Ban Mung||7,003|
|10||Pa Daeng||Chat Trakan||Pa Daeng||5,408|
|11||Wang Thong||Wang Thong||Wang Thong||4,626|
|12||Noen Maprang||Noen Maprang||Noen Maprang||3,478|
|13||Wong Khong||Phrom Phiram||Wong Khong||3,210|
|14||Ban Mai||Mueang||Ban Mai||1,987|
|15||Phrom Phiram||Phrom Phiram||Phrom Phiram||1,143|
Of the total population of Phitsanulok Province, 31.8% live in municipal areas. In Mueang Phitsanulok District, this is 54.4% of the people. Between 30–50% in three districts live in municipal areas. In two districts this is between 20–25%. Finally, it is less than 15% in three districts, with Wang Thong District having the lowest rate at 3.8%.
|District||Population||Municipal area||Non-municipal area|
At the beginning of the 21st century there are lower birth rates. There are more men then women up to 40 years, suggesting that slightly more boys than girls born each year. Above 40 years of age there are more women then men, which reflects the higher life expectancy of women.
In 2018, Phitsanulok Province had an economic output of 100.286 billion baht (US$3,235 billion). This amounts to per capita gross provincial product (GPP) of 111,872 baht (US$3,609). The total workforce was 476,004 of which 199,292 (41.9%) were employed in agriculture and fishing and 276,712 (58.1%) were employed in non-agriculture.
|4||Defence + public admin.||9,978,000,000||10.0|
|12||Hotel / restaurant||1,025,000,000||1.0|
|14||Other service activities||692,000,000||0.7|
|5||Hotel / restaurant||37,255||7.8|
|6||Defence + public admin.||24,918||5.2|
|8||Other service activities||12,774||2.7|
Agricultural land use, 4,893 km2 (1,889 sq mi) is 45.2% of total land of Phitsanulok Province 10,816 km2 (4,176 sq mi). This is divided as follows: paddy land: 2,846 km2 (1,099 sq mi) 58.2%, upland rice: 1,162 km2 (449 sq mi) 23.7%, orchard and perennial crop: 554 km2 (214 sq mi) 11.3%, vegetable and ornamental plant: 24 km2 (9.3 sq mi) 0.5% and farmland: 307 km2 (119 sq mi) 6.3%.:103
Agriculture in Phitsanulok Province, the biggest sector of the economy, generated 28.029 billion baht (US$904 million) or 28% of GPP with a workforce of 199,292 (41.9% of all employed persons).
Of the 54 sorts of vegetable crops, the twelve with the highest yield are: watermelon 6,452 tonnes; Chinese cabbage 3,671 tonnes; cabbage 2,332 tonnes; cucumber 1,495 tonnes; pumpkin 1,005 tonnes; bell pepper 983 tonnes; bird pepper 980 tonnes; ginger 892 tonnes; sweet corn 509 tonnes; bitter gourd 357 tonnes; lemon grass 283 tonnesand melon 236 tonnes.:109
Agricultural commodities produced in significant amounts include: pineapple 111,212 tonnes; para rubber 40,800 tonnes; mango 65,960 tonnesand banana (kluai numwa) 15,673 tonnes. Further there are: lime 2,147 tonnes; longan 1,436 tonnes; sweet banana 1,275 tonnes; tamarind 1,245 tonnes; pomelo 1,083 tonnes; rambutan 961 tonnes; sweet tamarind 900 tonnes; Indian mulberry 801 tonnes; marionberry 686 tonnes; plum mango 538 tonnesand jackfruit 340 tonnes.:110
Total catch from freshwater aquaculture was 12,169 tonnes: Wang Thong 3,650 tonnes; Bang Rakam 2,412 tonnes; Wat Bot 1,541 tonnes; Mueang Phitsanulok 1,144 tonnes; Nakhon Thai 1,007 tonnes; Phrom Phiram 990 tonnes; Noen Maprang 696 tonnes; Chat Trakan 566 tonnes; and Bang Krathum 159 tonnes.:113
Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles, the second sector of the economy generated 1.897 billion baht (US$448 million) or 13.2% of GPP with a workforce of 62,685 (13.2%).
Hotel and restaurant
Hotels and restaurants contributed 1.025 billion baht (US$33 million) or one percent of GPP, with a workforce numbering 37,255 (7.8%).
Phitsanulok Province is the educational center of the lower northern region. There are many educational institutions at all levels, from kindergarten to university level, both government and private.
There are six higher education institutes in the province with 38,553 students:
- Naresuan University with 16 faculties, 184 courses and with more than 22,000 students is leader of the universities in Phitsanulok Province.
- Pibulsongkram Rajabhat University with 6 faculties.
- Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna, campus Phitsanulok with 3 faculties.
- Phitsanulok University, a private university with 5 faculties is the last with 174 students.
- Sirindhorn College of Public Health Phitsanulok Province.
- Boromarajonani College of Nursing Buddhachinaraj.
- Total seven vocational colleges with 11,023 students.
- Total 41 upper secondary schools with 15,982 students.
- Total 164 lower secondary schools with 26,939 students.
- Total 256 primary schools with 52,508 pupils.
There are thirteen government hospitals in Phitsanulok Province with total 2,000 beds, of which Mueang Phitsanulok District has four hospitals:
- Buddhachinaraj Phitsanulok Hospital is the provincial's and city's primary public hospital with 1,000 beds, half of provincial's total.
- Naresuan University Hospital is the regional tertiary care hospital.
- Fort Somdet Phra Naresuan Maharat Hospital is the army hospital, which is open to the general public.
- Royal Thai Air Force Wing 46 Hospital is the air force hospital, which is also open to the general public.
The other eight districts each have a hospital, Wang Thong District has two hospitals as an exception.
Five private hospitals are in Mueang Phitsanulok District with 400 beds:
- Bangkok Hospital Phitsanulok.
- Phitsanulok Hospital.
- Pitsanuvej Hospital.
- Ratanavej Hospital.
- Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Hospital.
Health promoting hospitals
There are total 147 health promoting hospitals, of which:
- 24 in Mueang Phitsanulok District
- 20 in Nakhon Thai District
- 12 in Chat Trakan District
- 20 in Bang Rakam District
- 13 in Bang Krathum District
- 19 in Phrom Phiram District
- 9 in Wat Bot District
- 19 in Wang Thong District
- 11 in Noen Maprang District
Around 412 clinics are in Phitsanulok Province, of which 280 clinics (68%) in Mueang Phitsanulok Province, 17 in Nakhon Thai, six in Chat Trakan, 17 in Bang Rakam, 12 in Bang Krathum, 29 in Phrom Phiram, 13 in Wat Bot, 25 in Wang Thong and 13 in Noen Maprang Districts.
There are five major roads in the province.
- Highway 11 to the North: Phitsanulok - Uttaradit - Lampang.
- Highway 12 to the East: Phitsanulok - Phetchabun - Khon Kaen - Mukdahan.
- Highway 11 to the South: Phitsanulok - Sing Buri.
- Highway 117 to the South: Phitsanulok - Phichit - Nakhon Sawan.
- Highway 12 to the West: Phitsanulok - Sukhothai - Tak - Mae Sot.
They are all connected by Phitsanulok outer ring road 126 with viaducts.
East-West Economic Corridor (EWEC) is a transportation link between Myanmar - Thailand - Laos - Vietnam;
Mawlamyine(Moulmein) - Myawaddy/Mae Sot - Phitsanulok - Khon Kaen - Mukdahan/Savannakhet - Dong Ha - Da Nang.
Autocars and motorcycles
Registered in 2019 under the "Motor Car Act":
|Van & pick-up||62,037|
|Microbus & passenger van||2,467|
|Motortricycle taxi (tuk tuk)||93|
Buses and trucks
Registered in 2019 under the "Land Transport Act":
|Non-fixed route bus||372|
|Fixed route bus||273|
|Non-fixed route truck||1,872|
Buses provide the mass transport throughout the province. Phitsanulok is connected from three bus terminals with Bangkok and the cities of the provinces of northern Thailand (except Mae Hong Son) and upper northeastern Thailand by daily and nightly, direct bus routes. All of these bus routes are provided by eight bus companies:
- Sombat Tour.
- Phet Prasert.
- Esan Tour.
- Kingdom Tour.
- Nakhonchai Air.
- Yanyon Tour.
- Budsarakam Tour.
Phet Prasert operates also direct bus lines to eastern Thailand (Pattaya and Chantaburi).
Direct bus lines to southern Thailand (Phuket, Ko Samui, Phang Nga, Hat Yai and Surat Thani) are provided by Piya Chai Patthana.
|Year||Aircraft movements||Passengers||Freight (kgs)|
|Nok Air||Bangkok–Don Mueang|
|Thai Air Asia||Bangkok–Don Mueang|
|Thai Lion Air||Bangkok–Don Mueang|
Public rail transport
Phitsanulok city has Phitsanulok railway station on the Northern Line of the State Railway of Thailand.
Intercity service runs from Hua Lamphong railway station of Bangkok - Ayutthaya - Nakhon Sawan - Phitsanulok - Lampang - Chiang Mai.
Commuter rail runs along the Northern Line.
In the year 2019, all tickets sold were 528,819.
204 first class one way tickets were sold.
Second class tickets were also sold for one way for a total of 85,374 (16.1%).
Third class tickets sold totaled 443,445 (83.9%).
One way third class tickets totaled 393,958 (74.5%).
Roundtrip third class tickets totaled 9,389 (1.8%).
Commuter third class tickets totaled 40,098 (7.6%).
|Railway station||District of Phitsanulok||Subtotal||Second class||Third class|
|tickets||One way||One way||Roundtrip||Commuter||Subtotal|
|Ban Bung||Phrom Phiram||7,305||3,944||144||3,217||7,305|
|Nong Tom||Phrom Phiram||36,336||5,532||27,228||199||3,377||30,804|
|Phrom Phiram||Phrom Phiram||19,208||955||15,107||76||3,070||18,253|
|Ban Teng Nam||Mueang||7,303||5,657||80||1,566||7,303|
|Mae Thiap||Bang Krathum||4,490||3,091||264||1,135||4,490|
|Bang Krathum||Bang Krathum||40,221||1,588||32,449||1,717||4,467||38,633|
Freight rail transport
|Nong Tom||Phrom Phiram||42.48||42.48|
|Phrom Phiram||Phrom Phiram||24.28||24.28|
|Mae Thiap||Bang Krathum||0.84||0.84|
|Bang Krathum||Bang Krathum||124.18||124.18|
A small portion of all freight in Phitsanulok Province is transported by rail.
PTT Public Company Limited operates a crude oil depot adjacent to Bueng Phra railway station. SRT runs several oil freight services from this railway station to Mae Nam railway station in Chong Nonsi Subdistrict, Yan Nawa District, Bangkok.
There were 6,403 hotel rooms in 2018; about 3,304,883 people of which 3,088,811 Thai (93.5%) and 216,072 foreigners (6.5%) visited Phitsanulok Province and contributed 8.33 billion baht (US$268 million) to tourism revenues. Further explained: 1,999,391 tourists of which 1,838,692 Thai and 216,072 foreigners; 1,305,492 excursionists of which 1,205,119 Thai and 55,373 foreigners. Compared to the two previous years 2016 and 2017, the number of people increased by 6.3 and 5.4% respectively.
As of 2018 there were 304,425 households, of which 6,726 (2.2%) used fixed telephones, 66,149 (21.7%) used computers without internet connection and 209,090 (68.7) used computers with internet connection.:153
As of 2018 there were 835,814 people aged six years and older, of which 227,325 (27.2%) used computers, 454,569 (54.4%) used the internet and 744,576 (89.1%) used mobile phones.:152
In 2019, of the 347,266 households in Phitsanulok Province 85.7% were connected to the electricity grid. All households of Bang Krathum District were connected, but for Noen Maprang District this was 69.9%.
Provincial Waterworks Authority (PWA) supplied tap water to 63,077 households of Phitsanulok Province or 18.5%.
Mueang Phitsanulok District has 42,267 households (30.5%) connected to the water grid. Noen Maprang District has 526 households (2.4%) connected to the water grid. Almost every residential area has its own water tower connected to a drilled water source.
Human achievement index 2017
|Province Phitsanulok, with an HAI 2017 value of 0.5895 is "average", occupies place 35 in the ranking.|
Since 2003, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Thailand has tracked progress on human development at sub-national level using the Human achievement index (HAI), a composite index covering all the eight key areas of human development. National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB) has taken over this task since 2017.
|1 - 15||"high"|
|16 - 30||"somewhat high"|
|31 - 45||"average"|
|45 - 60||"somewhat low"|
|61 - 77||"low"|
|Map with provinces and HAI 2017 rankings|
|Thai Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
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- Phitsanulok Provincial Statistical Report 2562-2019. Phitsanulok Provincial Statistical Office (Report). National Statistical Office (NSO). 2020. p. 51. ISSN 1905-8314, In the 2018 yearbook, the figures for temples (352) and for samnak song (247) are incorrectly added together (600) as being the figures for temples.CS1 maint: postscript (link)
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- "Number of local government organizations by province". dla.go.th. Department of Local Administration (DLA). 26 November 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
36 Phitsanulok: 1 PAO, 1 City mun., 1 Town mun., 24 Subdistrict mun., 76 SAO.
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- Phitsanulok Provincial Statistical Report 2562-2019. Phitsanulok Provincial Statistical Office (Report). National Statistical Office (NSO). 2020. pp. 6–7. ISSN 1905-8314, the following municipalities are missing from the report: Hua Ro (30-09-2011), Tha Thong (24-08-2012), Ban Khlong (24-08-2012), Bang Rakam Mueang Mai (30-09-2011) and Huai Kaeo.CS1 maint: postscript (link)
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- Phitsanulok Provincial Statistical Report 2562-2019: Statistics of Railway Passengers:2019. Phitsanulok Provincial Statistical Office (Report). National Statistical Office (NSO). 2020. p. 144. ISSN 1905-8314.
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