|Type||wheeled reconnaissance vehicle, Armoured car|
|Place of origin||France|
|Used by||French Army|
Portuguese Colonial War
|Mass||from 12.7 tonnes (14.0 short tons; 12.5 long tons) to 13 tonnes (14 short tons; 13 long tons)|
|Length||6.15 m (20 ft 2 in)|
|Width||2.42 m (7 ft 11 in)|
|Height||2.24 m (7 ft 4 in)|
2.32 m (7 ft 7 in) (eight wheels deployed)
|Crew||4; driver, commander, gunner and rear driver|
|Armor||Turret front 40 mm (sloped)|
Turret sides 25 mm
Hull front 20 mm (sloped)
Hull sides 15 mm
|Mle.51: SA49 75mm rifled gun (56 rnds)|
Mle.54: SA50 L/57 75mm high-velocity rifled gun (36 rnds)
Mle.51 revalorisé: CN90 F2 90mm low-pressure gun (43 rnds)
|3× 7.5 mm MAC31 Reibel machine guns most common, sometimes 4 x 7.5 mm MGs|
4× DREB smoke dischargers
|Engine||Panhard 12 H 6000 S flat-twelve gasoline engine|
200 hp at 3700 RPM
|Transmission||two 4-speed tandem-mounted gearboxes providing a total of 16 different gear ratios|
|Suspension||coil springs and hydropneumatic, 8×8|
|Ground clearance||340 to 420 mm|
|Fuel capacity||370 l|
|700 km (430 mi)|
|Maximum speed||up to 115 km/h (71 mph)|
75 km/h (47 mph) to 85 km/h (53 mph) on secondary roads
10 km/h (6.2 mph) to 25 km/h (16 mph) on rough and uneven terrain
|front and rear axle|
The Panhard E.B.R. (Panhard Engin Blindé de Reconnaissance, French: Armored Reconnaissance Vehicle) is an armoured car designed by Panhard for the French Army and later used across the globe, notably by the French Army during the Algerian War and the Portuguese Army during the Portuguese Colonial War in Angola, Mozambique and Guinea-Bissau.
The E.B.R. is an 8x8 wheeled reconnaissance vehicle based on the previous Panhard AM 40 P/Model 201, a light armoured car born before the Second World War, but remained only at prototype level. After the war the new contest for a postwar armoured car saw the Panhard proposal as winner against other two French firms. While the two basic concepts developed with the M.201 were retained (8 wheels and oscillating turret), the new armoured car was a new project, much heavier (13 t vs 8), with a larger crew (4 vs 2) and a 75 mm gun (vs 25 mm). Other innovations included new anti-bullet tyres, very sloped armour, and double machine guns inside the hull nose and aft. The production only started after several years of testing, as Modele 51 in 1950 (limited production), followed by full production in 1954 with over 1200 vehicles being manufactured until 1960. While being lightly armoured, the E.B.R. was armed with the 90 mm FL11 or 75 mm cannon known as the FL10 or L/48, in a novel oscillating turret and supported by up to four 7.5 mm machine guns: one coaxial with the main gun, one operated by the driver, one by the co-driver, and one by the commander, though the latter was not found on all E.B.R.s. The E.B.R. had a crew of four (including two in the turret), and was powered by a 200 hp (150 kW) 6 liter 12HD horizontally opposed air-cooled 12-cylinder engine (with dual carburetors and 6.6:1 compression, enabling it to run on low-octane petrol). Based on Panhard's two-cylinder automobile engine, it was mounted under the floor of the fighting compartment, which had the unfortunate effect of requiring the turret to be removed to conduct major engine repairs.
Designed in 1951 by Panhard, OBE[clarification needed] used a symmetrical front and rear with two driver positions. The E.B.R. can reach speeds of 100 km/h (62 mph) on 14 in (36 cm)-wide, 24 in (61 cm)-diameter wheels with Michelin tyres and Veil-Picard tubes, which feature a series of nitrogen-filled cells, enabling them to absorb bullet hits and not go flat. The armoured hull is mounted on an 8-wheel drive, with 4 inner metal wheels, which can be raised for driving on the road. The four central wheels have aluminum rims with steel grousers, separated by rubber blocks; with all eight wheels deployed, ground pressure is only 0.7 kg (1.5 lb) per 1 cm2 (0.16 in2).
The 1954 model improves armaments with a lengthened 75 mm barrel, giving a muzzle velocity of 1000 m/s. Finally, the 1963 version further strengthens firepower with a 90 mm gun. An armoured personnel carrier derivative known as the Engin Transport de Troupes (ETT) was produced for export, but only 28 were ever produced (for Portugal).
France has, since 1935, engaged in the manufacture and use of a prolific line of wheeled armored reconnaissance vehicles armed with weapons with an anti-tank capability. This being the result of reforms initiated by the Light Mechanized Divisions (DLM).
French tactical doctrine required reconnaissance elements to cover and range over a large and extensive battlefield, especially within the context of the slow and high-maintenance tanks of the time. Also of note is the way that tanks are best deployed, massed and concentrated, which prevents their dispersion for safety and for screening.
It is a particular trait of French reconnaissance vehicles to be heavily armed. From the prewar MD 178 armed with an anti-tank gun of 25 mm, (which was for the period a significant caliber for such a small vehicle) to the direct successor of the E.B.R., the AMX-10RC, also used for wheeled reconnaissance, and armed with a powerful 105 mm gun with automatic firing, firepower equal to a main battle tank of the 1980s. A pattern repeated in the AML 90 and the ERC 90 Sagaie.
These reconnaissance systems are not only aimed at discovery and investigation (missions that can be fulfilled by lighter vehicles with lighter weapons), but also with security missions upon the battlefield (for example flank-security and offensive protection) which requires a substantial firepower not only to destroy the enemy advance elements, but also to oppose armoured incursions.
Portugal ordered 50 E.B.R.s and 28 ETTs in 1956. After the outbreak of the Portuguese Colonial War, most of these vehicles were sent to Portuguese oversea territories for counter-insurgency operations, especially Portuguese Mozambique. During the Carnation Revolution, an E.B.R. 75 FL10 of the Armed Forces Movement confronted an M47 Patton crewed by loyalist troops in the Praça do Comércio. The crews of both vehicles eventually stood down without incident.
Aside from Portugal and a few newly emerging Francophone states in North Africa, the only export sales of the E.B.R. were a few small quantities produced for the Indonesian Army and the West German Bundesgrenzschutz.
- Crew: 4 men (1 vehicle commander, 1 gunner, 1 driver, 1 rear driver)
- Length: 6.15 m
- Width: 2.42 m
- Height: 2.24 m
- Weight with combat: 13 tons
- Horsepower: 200 hp
- Range: 630 km
- Road speed: 115 km / h
- Tanks: 380 l
- Fuel consumption: 50l / 100 km
- Ammunition: 56 rounds (75 mm) or 43 rounds (90 mm)
- Main armament (version 1951): 1 Canon 75 mm SA 49 (Vo 600 m / s)
- Main armament (version 1954): 1 Canon 75 mm SA 50 (Vo 1000 m / s)
- Main armament (version 1963): 1 Canon 90 mm model D921/F1 (Vo 750 m / s)
- Secondary armament: 3 machine guns of 7.5 mm, shipper magazines of 149 cartridges 1 inert.
- Indonesia: 2 left known so far In Santria Mandala Museum and as a Monument in Pussenkov Bandung
- Mauritania: 15
- Morocco: 36; 
- Portugal: 51
- Tunisia: 15
- West Germany
- Petit, Pierre (May–June 2013). "EBR - Engin Blindé de Reconnaissance". Trucks & Tanks (37): 2à–39.
- Centre de Documentation sur les Engins Blindés. Les chars français du Musée des Blindés (in French). Association des Amis du Musée des Blindés. p. 29.
- Ogorkiewicz, R. M. AFV Weapons Profile 039 Panhard Armoured Cars (Windsor, Berks: Profile Publications).
- Dunstan, Simon (2019). Panhard Armoured Car: AML 60, AML 90, Eland. Haynes Manuals. pp. 26–27, 124–125. ISBN 978-1-78521-194-2.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2013-11-23.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- David Jordan (2005). The History of the French Foreign Legion: From 1831 to Present Day (2005 ed.). Amber Books Ltd. pp. 181–185. ISBN 1-59228-768-9.
- "Trade Registers". Armstrade.sipri.org. Retrieved 2013-06-20.
- Nerguizian, Aram; Cordesman, Anthony (2009). The North African Military Balance: Force Developments in the Maghreb. Washington DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-089206-552-3.
- Duncan Crow & Robert J. Icks, Encyclopaedia of Armoured Cars
- Ogorkiewicz, R. M. AFV Weapons Profile 039 Panhard Armoured Cars. Windsor, Berks: Profile Publications.