|Written in||C, C++ and assembly language|
|Working state||Historical, now developed as ArcaOS|
|Source model||Closed source|
|Initial release||December 1987|
|Latest release||4.52 / December 2001|
|Marketing target||Professionals, servers|
|Available in||Chinese, English, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian|
|Kernel type||Hybrid kernel|
|Influenced by||MS-DOS, IBM PC DOS|
|Default user interface||Workplace Shell Graphical user interface|
|Succeeded by||First by eComStation, then ArcaOS|
|Official website||OS/2 Warp (Archived)|
OS/2 (Operating System/2) is a series of computer operating systems, initially created by Microsoft and IBM under the leadership of IBM software designer Ed Iacobucci. As a result of a feud between the two companies over how to position OS/2 relative to Microsoft's new Windows 3.1 operating environment, the two companies severed the relationship in 1992 and OS/2 development fell to IBM exclusively. The name stands for "Operating System/2", because it was introduced as part of the same generation change release as IBM's "Personal System/2 (PS/2)" line of second-generation personal computers. The first version of OS/2 was released in December 1987 and newer versions were released until December 2001.
OS/2 was intended as a protected-mode successor of PC DOS. Notably, basic system calls were modeled after MS-DOS calls; their names even started with "Dos" and it was possible to create "Family Mode" applications – text mode applications that could work on both systems. Because of this heritage, OS/2 shares similarities with Unix, Xenix, and Windows NT.
IBM discontinued its support for OS/2 on 31 December 2006. Since then, OS/2 has been developed, supported and sold by two different third-party vendors under license from IBM – first by Serenity Systems as eComStation since 2001, and later by Arca Noae LLC as ArcaOS since 2017.
1985–1989: Joint development
The development of OS/2 began when IBM and Microsoft signed the "Joint Development Agreement" in August 1985. It was code-named "CP/DOS" and it took two years for the first product to be delivered.
OS/2 1.0 was announced in April 1987 and released in December. The original release is textmode-only, and a GUI was introduced with OS/2 1.1 about a year later. OS/2 features an API for controlling the video display (VIO) and handling keyboard and mouse events so that programmers writing for protected-mode need not call the BIOS or access hardware directly. Other development tools included a subset of the video and keyboard APIs as linkable libraries so that family mode programs are able to run under MS-DOS, and, in the OS/2 Extended Edition v1.0, a database engine called Database Manager or DBM (this was related to DB2, and should not be confused with the DBM family of database engines for Unix and Unix-like operating systems). A task-switcher named Program Selector was available through the Ctrl-Esc hotkey combination, allowing the user to select among multitasked text-mode sessions (or screen groups; each can run multiple programs).
The promised user interface, Presentation Manager, was introduced with OS/2 1.1 in October 1988. It had a similar user interface to Windows 2.1, which was released in May of that year. (The interface was replaced in versions 1.2 and 1.3 by a look closer in appearance to Windows 3.0).
The Extended Edition of 1.1, sold only through IBM sales channels, introduced distributed database support to IBM database systems and SNA communications support to IBM mainframe networks.
In 1989, Version 1.2 introduced Installable Filesystems and, notably, the HPFS filesystem. HPFS provided a number of improvements over the older FAT file system, including long filenames and a form of alternate data streams called Extended Attributes. In addition, extended attributes were also added to the FAT file system.
OS/2- and Windows-related books of the late 1980s acknowledged the existence of both systems and promoted OS/2 as the system of the future.
The collaboration between IBM and Microsoft unravelled in 1990, between the releases of Windows 3.0 and OS/2 1.3. During this time, Windows 3.0 became a tremendous success, selling millions of copies in its first year. Much of its success was because Windows 3.0 (along with MS-DOS) was bundled with most new computers. OS/2, on the other hand, was available only as an additional stand-alone software package. In addition, OS/2 lacked device drivers for many common devices such as printers, particularly non-IBM hardware. Windows, on the other hand, supported a much larger variety of hardware. The increasing popularity of Windows prompted Microsoft to shift its development focus from cooperating on OS/2 with IBM to building its own business based on Windows.
Several technical and practical reasons contributed to this breakup.
The two companies had significant differences in culture and vision. Microsoft favored the open hardware system approach that contributed to its success on the PC. IBM sought to use OS/2 to drive sales of its own hardware, and urged Microsoft to drop features, such as fonts, that IBM's hardware did not support. Microsoft programmers also became frustrated with IBM's bureaucracy and its use of lines of code to measure programmer productivity. IBM developers complained about the terseness and lack of comments in Microsoft's code, while Microsoft developers complained that IBM's code was bloated.
The two products have significant differences in API. OS/2 was announced when Windows 2.0 was near completion, and the Windows API already defined. However, IBM requested that this API be significantly changed for OS/2. Therefore, issues surrounding application compatibility appeared immediately. OS/2 designers hoped for source code conversion tools, allowing complete migration of Windows application source code to OS/2 at some point. However, OS/2 1.x did not gain enough momentum to allow vendors to avoid developing for both OS/2 and Windows in parallel.
OS/2 1.x targets the Intel 80286 processor and DOS fundamentally doesn't. IBM insisted on supporting the 80286 processor, with its 16-bit segmented memory mode, because of commitments made to customers who had purchased many 80286-based PS/2s as a result of IBM's promises surrounding OS/2. Until release 2.0 in April 1992, OS/2 ran in 16-bit protected mode and therefore could not benefit from the Intel 80386's much simpler 32-bit flat memory model and virtual 8086 mode features. This was especially painful in providing support for DOS applications. While, in 1988, Windows/386 2.1 could run several cooperatively multitasked DOS applications, including expanded memory (EMS) emulation, OS/2 1.3, released in 1991, was still limited to one 640 kB "DOS box".
Given these issues, Microsoft started to work in parallel on a version of Windows which was more future-oriented and more portable. The hiring of Dave Cutler, former VAX/VMS architect, in 1988 created an immediate competition with the OS/2 team, as Cutler did not think much of the OS/2 technology and wanted to build on his work on the MICA project at Digital rather than creating a "DOS plus". His NT OS/2 was a completely new architecture.
IBM grew concerned about the delays in development of OS/2 2.0. Initially, the companies agreed that IBM would take over maintenance of OS/2 1.0 and development of OS/2 2.0, while Microsoft would continue development of OS/2 3.0. In the end, Microsoft decided to recast NT OS/2 3.0 as Windows NT, leaving all future OS/2 development to IBM. From a business perspective, it was logical to concentrate on a consumer line of operating systems based on DOS and Windows, and to prepare a new high-end system in such a way as to keep good compatibility with existing Windows applications. While it waited for this new high-end system to develop, Microsoft would still receive licensing money from Xenix and OS/2 sales. Windows NT's OS/2 heritage can be seen in its initial support for the HPFS filesystem, text mode OS/2 1.x applications, and OS/2 LAN Manager network support. Some early NT materials even included OS/2 copyright notices embedded in the software. One example of NT OS/2 1.x support is in the WIN2K resource kit. Windows NT could also support OS/2 1.x Presentation Manager and AVIO applications with the addition of the Windows NT Add-On Subsystem for Presentation Manager.
1992: 32-bit era
OS/2 2.0 was released in April 1992. At the time, the suggested retail price was U.S. $195, while Windows retailed for $150.
OS/2 2.0 provided a 32-bit API for native programs, though the OS itself still contained some 16-bit code and drivers. It also included a new OOUI (object-oriented user interface) called the Workplace Shell. This was a fully object-oriented interface that was a significant departure from the previous GUI. Rather than merely providing an environment for program windows (such as the Program Manager), the Workplace Shell provided an environment in which the user could manage programs, files and devices by manipulating objects on the screen. With the Workplace Shell, everything in the system is an "object" to be manipulated.
OS/2 2.0 was touted by IBM as "a better DOS than DOS and a better Windows than Windows". It managed this by including the fully-licensed MS-DOS 5.0, which had been patched and improved upon. For the first time, OS/2 was able to run more than one DOS application at a time. This was so effective, that it allowed OS/2 to run a modified copy of Windows 3.0, itself a DOS extender, including Windows 3.0 applications.
Because of the limitations of the Intel 80286 processor, OS/2 1.x could run only one DOS program at a time, and did this in a way that allowed the DOS program to have total control over the computer. A problem in DOS mode could crash the entire computer. In contrast, OS/2 2.0 could leverage the virtual 8086 mode of the Intel 80386 processor to create a much safer virtual machine in which to run DOS programs. This included an extensive set of configuration options to optimize the performance and capabilities given to each DOS program. Any real-mode operating system (such as 8086 Xenix) could also be made to run using OS/2's virtual machine capabilities, subject to certain direct hardware access limitations.
Like most 32-bit environments, OS/2 could not run protected-mode DOS programs using the older VCPI interface, unlike the Standard mode of Windows 3.1; it only supported programs written according to DPMI. (Microsoft discouraged the use of VCPI under Windows 3.1, however, due to performance degradation.)
Unlike Windows NT, OS/2 always allowed DOS programs the possibility of masking real hardware interrupts, so any DOS program could deadlock the machine in this way. OS/2 could, however, use a hardware watchdog on selected machines (notably IBM machines) to break out of such a deadlock. Later, release 3.0 leveraged the enhancements of newer Intel 80486 and Intel Pentium processors—the Virtual Interrupt Flag (VIF), which was part of the Virtual Mode Extensions (VME)—to solve this problem.
Windows 3.x compatibility
Compatibility with Windows 3.0 (and later Windows 3.1) was achieved by adapting Windows user-mode code components to run inside a virtual DOS machine (VDM). Originally, a nearly complete version of Windows code was included with OS/2 itself: Windows 3.0 in OS/2 2.0, and Windows 3.1 in OS/2 2.1. Later, IBM developed versions of OS/2 that would use whatever Windows version the user had installed previously, patching it on the fly, and sparing the cost of an additional Windows license. It could either run full-screen, using its own set of video drivers, or "seamlessly," where Windows programs would appear directly on the OS/2 desktop. The process containing Windows was given fairly extensive access to hardware, especially video, and the result was that switching between a full-screen WinOS/2 session and the Workplace Shell could occasionally cause issues.
Because OS/2 only runs the user-mode system components of Windows, it is incompatible with Windows device drivers (VxDs) and applications that require them.
Multiple Windows applications run by default in a single Windows session – multitasking cooperatively and without memory protection – just as they would under native Windows 3.x. However, to achieve true isolation between Windows 3.x programs, OS/2 can also run multiple copies of Windows in parallel, with each copy residing in a separate VDM. The user can then optionally place each program either in its own Windows session – with preemptive multitasking and full memory protection between sessions, though not within them – or allow some applications to run together cooperatively in a shared Windows session while isolating other applications in one or more separate Windows sessions. At the cost of additional hardware resources, this approach can protect each program in any given Windows session (and each instance of Windows itself) from every other program running in any separate Windows session (though not from other programs running in the same Windows session).
Whether Windows applications are running in full-screen or windowed mode, and in one Windows session or several, it is possible to use DDE between OS/2 and Windows applications, and OLE between Windows applications only.
1994–1996: The "Warp" years
Released in 1994, OS/2 version 3.0 was labelled as OS/2 Warp to highlight the new performance benefits, and generally to freshen the product image. "Warp" had originally been the internal IBM name for the release: IBM claimed that it had used Star Trek terms as internal names for prior OS/2 releases, and that this one seemed appropriate for external use as well. At the launch of OS/2 Warp in 1994, Patrick Stewart was to be the Master of Ceremonies; however Kate Mulgrew of the then-upcoming series Star Trek: Voyager substituted him at the last minute.:p. 108
OS/2 Warp offers a host of benefits over OS/2 2.1, notably broader hardware support, greater multimedia capabilities, Internet-compatible networking, and it includes a basic office application suite known as IBM Works. It was released in two versions: the less expensive "Red Spine" and the more expensive "Blue Spine" (named for the color of their boxes). "Red Spine" was designed to support Microsoft Windows applications by utilizing any existing installation of Windows on the computer's hard drive. "Blue Spine" includes Windows support in its own installation, and so can support Windows applications without a Windows installation. As most computers were sold with Microsoft Windows pre-installed and the price was less, "Red Spine" was the more popular product. OS/2 Warp Connect—which has full LAN client support built-in—followed in mid-1995. Warp Connect was nicknamed "Grape".
In OS/2 2.0, most performance-sensitive subsystems, including the graphics (Gre) and multimedia (MMPM/2) systems, were updated to 32-bit code in a fixpack, and included as part of OS/2 2.1. Warp 3 brought about a fully 32-bit windowing system, while Warp 4 introduced the object-oriented 32-bit GRADD display driver model.
In 1996, Warp 4 added Java and speech recognition software. IBM also released server editions of Warp 3 and Warp 4 which bundled IBM's LAN Server product directly into the operating system installation. A personal version of Lotus Notes was also included, with a number of template databases for contact management, brainstorming, and so forth. The UK-distributed free demo CD-ROM of OS/2 Warp essentially contained the entire OS and was easily, even accidentally, cracked[clarification needed], meaning that even people who liked it did not have to buy it. This was seen as a backdoor tactic to increase the number of OS/2 users, in the belief that this would increase sales and demand for third-party applications, and thus strengthen OS/2's desktop numbers. This suggestion was bolstered by the fact that this demo version had replaced another which was not so easily cracked, but which had been released with trial versions of various applications. In 2000, the July edition of Australian Personal Computer magazine bundled software CD-ROMs, included a full version of Warp 4 that required no activation and was essentially a free release. Special versions of OS/2 2.11 and Warp 4 also included symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) support.
OS/2 sales were largely concentrated in networked computing used by corporate professionals; however, by the early 1990s, it was overtaken by Microsoft Windows NT. While OS/2 was arguably technically superior to Microsoft Windows 95, OS/2 failed to develop much penetration in the consumer and stand-alone desktop PC segments; there were reports that it could not be installed properly on IBM's own Aptiva series of home PCs. Microsoft made an offer in 1994 where IBM would receive the same terms as Compaq (the largest PC manufacturer at the time) for a license of Windows 95, if IBM ended development of OS/2 completely. IBM refused and instead went with an "IBM First" strategy of promoting OS/2 Warp and disparaging Windows, as IBM aimed to drive sales of its own software as well as hardware. By 1995, Windows 95 negotiations between IBM and Microsoft, which were already difficult, stalled when IBM purchased Lotus SmartSuite, which would have directly competed with Microsoft Office. As a result of the dispute, IBM signed the license agreement 15 minutes before Microsoft's Windows 95 launch event, which was later than their competitors and this badly hurt sales of IBM PCs. IBM officials later conceded that OS/2 would not have been a viable operating system to keep them in the PC business.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (April 2012)
In 1991, IBM started development on an intended replacement for OS/2 called Workplace OS. This was an entirely new product, brand new code, that borrowed only a few sections of code from both the existing OS/2 and AIX products. It used an entirely new microkernel code base, intended (eventually) to host several of IBM's operating systems (including OS/2) as microkernel "personalities". It also included major new architectural features including a system registry, JFS, support for UNIX graphics libraries, and a new driver model.
Workplace OS was developed solely for POWER platforms, and IBM intended to market a full line of PowerPCs in an effort to take over the market from Intel. A mission was formed to create prototypes of these machines and they were disclosed to several Corporate customers, all of whom raised issues with the idea of dropping Intel.
Advanced plans for the new code base would eventually include replacement of the OS/400 operating system by Workplace OS, as well as a microkernel product that would have been used in industries such as telecommunications and set-top television receivers.
A partially functional pre-alpha version of Workplace OS was demonstrated at Comdex, where a bemused Bill Gates stopped by the booth. The second and last time it would be shown in public was at an OS/2 user group in Phoenix, Arizona; the pre-alpha code refused to boot.
It was released in 1995. But with $990 million being spent per year on development of this as well as Workplace OS, and no possible profit or widespread adoption, the end of the entire Workplace OS and OS/2 product line was near.
A project was launched internally by IBM to evaluate the looming competitive situation with Microsoft Windows 95. Primary concerns included the major code quality issues in the existing OS/2 product (resulting in over 20 service packs, each requiring more diskettes than the original installation), and the ineffective and heavily matrixed development organization in Boca Raton (where the consultants reported that "basically, everybody reports to everybody") and Austin.
That study, tightly classified as "Registered Confidential" and printed only in numbered copies, identified untenable weaknesses and failures across the board in the Personal Systems Division as well as across IBM as a whole. This resulted in a decision being made at a level above the Division to cut over 95% of the overall budget for the entire product line, end all new development (including Workplace OS), eliminate the Boca Raton development lab, end all sales and marketing efforts of the product, and lay off over 1,300 development individuals (as well as sales and support personnel). $990 million had been spent in the last full year. Warp 4 became the last distributed version of OS/2.
2001: Fading out
A small and dedicated community remained faithful to OS/2 for many years after its final mainstream release, but overall, OS/2 failed to catch on in the mass market and is little used outside certain niches where IBM traditionally had a stronghold. For example, many bank installations, especially automated teller machines, run OS/2 with a customized user interface; French SNCF national railways used OS/2 1.x in thousands of ticket selling machines. Telecom companies such as Nortel used OS/2 in some voicemail systems. Also, OS/2 was used for the host PC used to control the Satellite Operations Support System equipment installed at NPR member stations from 1994 to 2007, and used to receive the network's programming via satellite.
Although IBM began indicating shortly after the release of Warp 4 that OS/2 would eventually be withdrawn, the company did not end support until December 31, 2006. Sales of OS/2 stopped on December 23, 2005. The latest IBM OS/2 Warp version is 4.52, which was released for both desktop and server systems in December 2001.
IBM is still delivering defect support for a fee. IBM urges customers to migrate their often highly complex applications to e-business technologies such as Java in a platform-neutral manner. Once application migration is completed, IBM recommends migration to a different operating system, suggesting Linux as an alternative.
After IBM discontinued development of OS/2, various third parties approached IBM to take over future development of the operating system. The OS/2 software vendor Stardock made such a proposal to IBM in 1999, but it was not followed through by the company. Serenity Systems succeeded in negotiating an agreement with IBM, and began reselling OS/2 as eComStation in 2001. eComStation is now sold by XEU.com, the most recent version (2.1) was released in 2011. In 2015, Arca Noae, LLC announced that they had secured an agreement with IBM to resell OS/2. They released the first version of their OS/2-based operating system in 2017 as ArcaOS. As of 2021, there have been multiple releases of ArcaOS, and it remains under active development.
Petitions for open source
Many people hoped that IBM would release OS/2 or a significant part of it as open source. Petitions were held in 2005 and 2007, but IBM refused them, citing legal and technical reasons. It is unlikely that the entire OS will be open at any point in the future because it contains third-party code to which IBM does not have copyright, and much of this code is from Microsoft. IBM also once engaged in a technology transfer with Commodore, licensing Amiga technology for OS/2 2.0 and above, in exchange for the REXX scripting language. This means that OS/2 may have some code that was not written by IBM, which can therefore prevent the OS from being re-announced as open-sourced in the future. On the other hand, IBM donated Object REXX for Windows and OS/2 to the Open Object REXX project maintained by the REXX Language Association on SourceForge.
There was a petition, arranged by OS2World, to open parts of the OS. Open source operating systems such as Linux have already profited from OS/2 indirectly through IBM's release of the improved JFS file system, which was ported from the OS/2 code base. As IBM didn't release the source of the OS/2 JFS driver, developers ported the Linux driver back to eComStation and added the functionality to boot from a JFS partition. This new JFS driver has been integrated into eComStation v2.0, and later into ArcaOS 5.0.
Summary of releases
|December 1987||OS/2 1.0|
|November 1988||OS/2 1.1|
|October 1989||OS/2 1.2|
|December 1990||OS/2 1.3|
|October 1991||OS/2 2.0 LA (Limited Availability)|
|April 1992||OS/2 2.0|
|October 1992||OS/2 2.00.1|
|November 1993||OS/2 for Windows|
|February 1994||OS/2 2.11|
|July 1994||OS/2 2.11 SMP|
|October 1994||OS/2 Warp 3|
|May 1995||OS/2 Warp Connect|
|December 1995||OS/2 Warp, PowerPC Edition|
|February 1996||OS/2 Warp Server 4|
|September 1996||OS/2 Warp 4|
|September 1996||OS/2 Warp Server Advanced SMP|
|November 1997||WorkSpace On-Demand 1.0|
|October 1998||WorkSpace On-Demand 2.0|
|April 1999||OS/2 Warp Server for e-Business (version 4.50)|
|November 2000||OS/2 Convenience Pack 1 (version 4.51)|
|November 2001||OS/2 Convenience Pack 2 (version 4.52)|
Features and technology
The graphic system has a layer named Presentation Manager that manages windows, fonts, and icons. This is similar in functionality to a non-networked version of X11 or the Windows GDI. On top of this lies the Workplace Shell (WPS) introduced in OS/2 2.0. WPS is an object-oriented shell allowing the user to perform traditional computing tasks such as accessing files, printers, launching legacy programs, and advanced object oriented tasks using built-in and third-party application objects that extended the shell in an integrated fashion not available on any other mainstream operating system. WPS follows IBM's Common User Access user interface standards.
WPS represents objects such as disks, folders, files, program objects, and printers using the System Object Model (SOM), which allows code to be shared among applications, possibly written in different programming languages. A distributed version called DSOM allowed objects on different computers to communicate. DSOM is based on CORBA. The object oriented aspect of SOM is similar to, and a direct competitor to, Microsoft's Component Object Model, though it is implemented in a radically different manner; for instance, one of the most notable differences between SOM and COM is SOM's support for inheritance (one of the most fundamental concepts of OO programming)—COM does not have such support. SOM and DSOM are no longer being developed.
The multimedia capabilities of OS/2 are accessible through Media Control Interface commands. The last update (bundled with the IBM version of Netscape Navigator plugins) added support for MPEG files. Support for newer formats such as PNG, progressive JPEG, DivX, Ogg, and MP3 comes from third parties. Sometimes it is integrated with the multimedia system, but in other offers it comes as standalone applications.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2019)
The TCP/IP stack is based on the open source BSD stack as visible with SCCS what compatible tools. IBM included tools such as ftp and telnet and even servers for both commands. IBM sold several networking extensions including NFS support and an X11 server.
Hardware vendors were reluctant to support device drivers for alternative operating systems including OS/2, leaving users with few choices from a select few vendors. To relieve this issue for video cards, IBM licensed a reduced version of the Scitech display drivers, allowing users to choose from a wide selection of cards supported through Scitech's modular driver design.
OS/2 has historically been more difficult to run in a virtual machine than most other legacy x86 operating systems because of its extensive reliance on the full set of features of the x86 CPU; in particular, OS/2's use of ring 2 prevented it from running in VMware. Emulators such as QEMU and Bochs don't suffer from this problem and can run OS/2. A beta of VMware Workstation 2.0 released in January 2000 was the first hypervisor that could run OS/2 at all. Later, the company decided to drop official OS/2 support.
VirtualPC from Microsoft (originally Connectix) has been able to run OS/2 without hardware virtualization support for many years. It also provided "additions" code which greatly improves host–guest OS interactions in OS/2. The additions are not provided with the current version of VirtualPC, but the version last included with a release may still be used with current releases. At one point, OS/2 was a supported host for VirtualPC in addition to a guest. Note that OS/2 runs only as a guest on those versions of VirtualPC that use virtualization (x86 based hosts) and not those doing full emulation (VirtualPC for Mac).
VirtualBox from Oracle Corporation (originally InnoTek, later Sun) supports OS/2 1.x, Warp 3 through 4.5, and eComStation as well as "Other OS/2" as guests. However, attempting to run OS/2 and eComStation can still be difficult, if not impossible, because of the strict requirements of VT-x/AMD-V hardware-enabled virtualization and only ACP2/MCP2 is reported to work in a reliable manner.
ArcaOS supports being run as a virtual machine guest inside VirtualBox, VMware ESXi and VMWare Workstation. It ships with VirtualBox Guest Additions, and driver improvements to improve performance as a guest operating system.
The difficulties in efficiently running OS/2 have, at least once, created an opportunity for a new virtualization company. A large bank in Moscow needed a way to use OS/2 on newer hardware that OS/2 did not support. As virtualization software is an easy way around this, the company desired to run OS/2 under a hypervisor. Once it was determined that VMware was not a possibility, it hired a group of Russian software developers to write a host-based hypervisor that would officially support OS/2. Thus, the Parallels, Inc. company and their Parallels Workstation product was born.
OS/2 has few native computer viruses; while it is not invulnerable by design, its reduced market share appears to have discouraged virus writers. There are, however, OS/2-based antivirus programs, dealing with DOS viruses and Windows viruses that could pass through an OS/2 server.
Some problems were classic subjects of comparison with other operating systems:
- Synchronous input queue (SIQ): if a GUI application was not servicing its window messages, the entire GUI system could get stuck and a reboot was required. This problem was considerably reduced with later Warp 3 fixpacks and refined by Warp 4, by taking control over the application after it had not responded for several seconds.
- No unified object handles (OS/2 v2.11 and earlier): The availability of threads probably led system designers to overlook mechanisms which allow a single thread to wait for different types of asynchronous events at the same time, for example the keyboard and the mouse in a "console" program. Even though select was added later, it only worked on network sockets. In case of a console program, dedicating a separate thread for waiting on each source of events made it difficult to properly release all the input devices before starting other programs in the same "session". As a result, console programs usually polled the keyboard and the mouse alternately, which resulted in wasted CPU and a characteristic "jerky" reactivity to user input. In OS/2 3.0 IBM introduced a new call for this specific problem.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (June 2011)
OS/2 has been widely used in Iran Export Bank (Bank Saderat Iran) in their teller machines, ATMs and local servers (over 30,000 working stations). As of 2011, the bank moved to virtualize and renew their infrastructure by moving OS/2 to Virtual Machines running over Windows.
OS/2 was widely used in Brazilian banks. Banco do Brasil had a peak 10,000 machines running OS/2 Warp in the 1990s. OS/2 was used in automated teller machines until 2006. The workstations and automated teller machines and attendant computers have been migrated to Linux.
OS/2 has been used in the banking industry. Suncorp bank in Australia still ran its ATM network on OS/2 as late as 2002. ATMs at Perisher Blue used OS/2 as late as 2009, and even the turn of the decade.
OS/2 ran the faulty baggage handling system at Denver International Airport. The OS was eventually scrapped, but the software written for the system led to massive delays in the opening of the new airport. The OS itself was not at fault, but the software written to run on the OS was. The baggage handling system was eventually removed.
OS/2 was used as part of the Satellite Operations Support System (SOSS) for NPR's Public Radio Satellite System. SOSS was a computer-controlled system using OS/2 that NPR member stations used to receive programming feeds via satellite. SOSS was introduced in 1994 using OS/2 3.0, and was retired in 2007, when NPR switched over to its successor, the ContentDepot.
OS/2 was used in the London Underground Jubilee Line Extension Signals Control System (JLESCS) in London, England. This control system delivered by Alcatel was in use from 1999 to 2011 i.e. between abandonment before opening of the line's unimplemented original automatic train control system and the present SelTrac system. JLESCS did not provide automatic train operation only manual train supervision. Six OS/2 local site computers were distributed along the railway between Stratford and Westminster, the shunting tower at Stratford Market Depot, and several formed the central equipment located at Neasden Depot. It was once intended to cover the rest of the line between Green Park and Stanmore but this was never introduced.
OS/2 has been used by The Co-operative Bank in the UK for its domestic call centre staff, using a bespoke program created to access customer accounts which cannot easily be migrated to Windows.
OS/2 has been used by the Stop & Shop supermarket chain (and has been installed in new stores as recently as March 2010).
OS/2 has been used on ticket machines for Tramlink in outer-London.
OS/2 has been used in New York City's subway system for MetroCards. Rather than interfacing with the user, it connects simple computers and the mainframes. When NYC MTA finishes its transition to contactless payment, OS/2 will be removed.
OS/2 was used by Trenitalia, both for the desktops at Ticket Counters and for the Automatic Ticket Counters up to 2011. Incidentally, the Automatic Ticket Counters with OS/2 were more reliable than the current ones running a flavor of Windows.
OS/2 was used as the main operating system for Abbey National General Insurance motor and home direct call centre products using the PMSC Series III insurance platform on DB2.2 from 1996-2001.
BYTE in 1989 listed OS/2 as among the "Excellence" winners of the BYTE Awards, stating that it "is today where the Macintosh was in 1984: It's a development platform in search of developers". The magazine predicted that "When it's complete and bug-free, when it can really use the 80386, and when more desktops sport OS/2-capable PCs, OS/2 will—deservedly—supersede DOS. But even as it stands, OS/2 is a milestone product".
In March 1995 OS/2 won seven awards
- InfoWorld Product of the Year.
- Five Awards at CeBIT.
- PC Professional Magazine - Innovation of the Year award.
- CHIP Magazine named OS/2 Warp the Operating System of the Year.
- DOS International named OS/2 Warp the Operating System of the Year.
- 1+1 Magazine awarded it with the Software Marketing Quality award.
- Industrie Forum awarded it with its Design Excellence.
- SPA Best Business Software Award.
IBM products utilizing OS/2
IBM has used OS/2 in a wide variety of hardware products, effectively as a form of embedded operating system.
|Product||Product Type||Usage of OS/2|
|IBM 3494||Tape Library||Used as the operating system for the Library Manager (LM) that controlled the tape accessor (robot)|
|IBM 3745||Communications Controller||Used as the operating system for the Service Processor (SP) and if installed, the Network Node Processor (NNP).|
|IBM 3890||Document Processor||The 3890/XP1 was announced November 12, 1988. It initially used OS/2 1.1 Extended Edition on a PS/2 Model 80 to emulate the stacker control software that previously ran on a System 360. IBM later switched to OS/2 Warp.|
|IBM 473x||ATM||Used in a range of Automatic Teller Machines manufactured by IBM. Was also used in later 478x ATMs manufactured with Diebold.|
|IBM 9672||Mainframe||Used as the operating system for the Support Element (SE). Was also used in later mainframe models such as the IBM 2064 and 2074.|
- History of the graphical user interface
- Multiple Virtual DOS Machine (MVDM) - OS/2 virtual DOS machine and seamless Windows integration
- Team OS/2
- Windows Libraries for OS/2
- LAN Manager
- Matthew Nawrocki (26 February 2013). "Preview: eComStation 2.2 Beta, the legacy of OS/2 lives on". TechRepublic.com. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
- Nuska, Andrew (June 21, 2013). "Ed Iacobucci, co-founder of Citrix, dies of cancer". ZD Net. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- McCracken, Harry (April 2, 2012). "25 Years of IBM's OS/2: The Strange Days and Surprising Afterlife of a Legendary Operating System". Time Magazine. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- Markoff, John (June 28, 1992). "I.B.M. and Microsoft Settle Operating-System Feud". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- Michal Necasek (2001-09-08). "OS/2 1.3: Ten Years Ago". The History of OS/2. Archived from the original on 2007-10-12.
- IBM (12 July 2005). "Changes in support for IBM OS/2 Warp 4 and OS/2 Warp Server for e-business". ibm.com. Archived from the original on 27 April 2006.
- "eComStation (eCS) history". Archived from the original on 2021-02-04. Retrieved 2020-08-29.
- James Sanders (2015). "OS/2: Blue Lion to be the next distro of the 28-year-old OS". Cite journal requires
- James Sanders (2016). "OS/2 resurrected: Blue Lion becomes ArcaOS, details emerge for upcoming release". Cite journal requires
- Sharwood, Simon (19 May 2017). "What is dead may never die: a new version of OS/2 just arrived". The Register.
- IBM and Microsoft (1985). "Joint Development Agreement Between IBM and Microsoft" (PDF). Retrieved March 25, 2013. Cite journal requires
|journal=(help)[permanent dead link]
- Michal Necasek (April 2, 1987). "Microsoft Operating System/2 With Windows Presentation Manager Provides Foundation for Next Generation of Personal Computer Industry". The History of OS/2 (Press release). Archived from the original on April 10, 2010. Retrieved March 25, 2013.
- "DBA Certification Course (Summer 2008) Chapter 1: DB2 Products and Tools" (PDF). Users.informatik.uni-halle.de. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
- Michal Necasek (2001-07-16). "OS/2 1.0". The History of OS/2. Archived from the original on 2010-08-11.
- David Both (May 2, 2012) [originally published December 19, 1996]. "A Short History of OS/2". DataBook for OS/2 Warp. Archived from the original on February 18, 2013. Retrieved April 9, 2013.
- H. Gilbert (1995). "HPFS". Das Boot. PC Lube and Tune. Archived from the original on 2006-07-14.
- Bob Eager (28 October 2000). "Implementation of extended attributes on the FAT file system". Tavi Systems.
- Iacobucci, Ed; foreword by Bill Gates (1988). "Foreword". OS/2 Programmer's Guide. McGraw-Hill Osborne Media. ISBN 0-07-881300-X.
I believe OS/2 is destined to be the most important operating system, and possibly program, of all time. As the successor to DOS, which has over 10,000,000 systems in use, it creates incredible opportunities for everyone involved with PCs.
- Bellis, Mary. "The Unusual History of Microsoft Windows". ThoughtCo. Dotdash.
- Thomas Hormby (25 May 2005). "Windows History (1985–1994)". osviews.com. Archived from the original on March 12, 2006. Retrieved April 9, 2013.
- Michal Necasek (2001-10-29). "OS/2 1.1 and 1.2: The Early Years". The History of OS/2. Archived from the original on 2006-06-13.
- Paul Thurrott (24 January 2003). "Windows Server 2003: The Road To Gold". winsupersite.com. Archived from the original on 4 June 2010.
- Gates, Bill; Myhrvold, Nathan; Rinearson, Peter (1996-10-08). The Road Ahead. ISBN 0-670-77289-5.
- Michael Lee Vasu; Debra W. Stewart; G. David Garson (1998-03-03). Organizational behavior and public management. p. 268. ISBN 978-0-8247-0135-2.
- Gordon Letwin. ""What's happening to OS/2," a Usenet post by Gordon Letwin from August 1995, the point of view of a Microsoft employee". Google Groups. Archived from the original on 2007-09-23. Retrieved 2007-10-18.
- Gates, Bill. "Bill Gates Interview". Computer History Collection (transcript of a Video History interview). Interviewed by David Allison. National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- Microsoft (2000). Inside Out, Microsoft—In Our Own Words. Warner Business Books. ISBN 0-446-52739-4.
- Microsoft. "Compatibility of OS/2-based Applications and APIs". Microsoft TechNet. Microsoft. Retrieved April 9, 2013.
- Corr, O. Casey (1992-04-06). "GIANT-KILLER? Microsoft mounts challenge to IBM". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original (Not available in the EU; check the archive URL instead) on 2020-03-05.
- Robert X. Cringely (27 April 2006). "Killer Apps: For Apple's Windows Strategy to Work, It Must Replace Microsoft Office and Buy Adobe Systems". pbs.org.
- Microsoft (6 November 1999). "Windows 3.1 Standard Mode and the VCPI". support.microsoft.com. Archived from the original on March 9, 2013.
- Christian Alice Scarborough (15 September 1998). "Team OS/2 Frequently Asked Questions".
- "OS/2 Games Setting Archive". Game Zero magazine. 6 March 1995. Archived from the original on 14 June 2006. Retrieved 9 June 2006.
- Timothy F. Sipples (20 February 1995). "OS/2 Warp Frequently Asked Questions List".
- "Biography for Kate Mulgrew". Internet Movie Database.
In 1996, was contracted by IBM to help promote the latest release of OS/2 Warp, version 4 (previously codenamed Merlin), due to associations with Star Trek.
- "In Search of Stupidity, Excerpts from Chapter 6". Insearchofstupidity.com. Archived from the original on January 27, 2013. Retrieved April 9, 2013.
- Chapman, Merrill R. In Search of Stupidity: Over 20 Years of High-tech Marketing Disasters (paperback) (2nd ed.). Berkeley, California: Apress. ISBN 9781590597217. OCLC 71275572. Lay summary – Amazon.
They rented a hall in New York City and invited hundreds to see Patrick Stewart, the then current captain of the Starship Enterprise to help roll out the product in a gala event. (Stewart was a no-show.)
- Lewis, Peter H. (8 August 1995). "PERSONAL COMPUTERS; OS/2 No Longer at Home at Home". The New York Times.
- Wasserman, Elizabeth (June 8, 1999). "MS/DoJ: Microsoft urged IBM to yank Smart Suite". PC World.
- "C. The Similar Experiences of Other Firms in Dealing with Microsoft". Albion.com. Retrieved 2013-03-20.
- Fleisch, Brett D; Allan, Mark (September 23, 1997). "Workplace Microkernel and OS: A Case Study". John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Archived from the original on August 24, 2007. Retrieved March 25, 2013. Cite journal requires
- "OS2 World Community Forum – Index". Os2world.com. Retrieved 2013-03-20.
- IBM. "End of Standard Support". Archived from the original on 2006-09-09. Retrieved 2006-08-08.
- "OS/2 Warp: Warranties and Licenses". IBM. Retrieved April 9, 2013.
- "Migration Station". Archived from the original on May 13, 2010. Retrieved April 9, 2013.
- "IBM Redbooks | OS/2 Server Transition". Redbooks.ibm.com. 2003-10-06. Archived from the original on 2014-02-01. Retrieved 2013-03-20.
- "3346/GEN/K (1–32) (Page 1)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-18. Retrieved 2013-03-20.
- Dan Casey: OS/2 Voice Press Release Archived 2011-10-08 at the Wayback Machine - 21 Sept 1999.
- "OS/2, ArcaOS and eComStation Versions and Languages". Retrieved 2020-08-24.
- "News :: eComStation 2.1 GA available". eComStation.com. Archived from the original on 2013-05-12. Retrieved 2013-03-20.
- "Roadmap: ArcaOS". arcanoae.com. 2020-12-25. Retrieved 2021-04-16.
- "Slashdot: IBM Won't Open-Source OS/2".
- "OS/2 Warp History". Archived from the original on January 27, 2013. Retrieved April 9, 2013.
- "IBM OS/2 Warp History". 2004-06-24. Archived from the original on 2008-09-19. Retrieved 2008-09-09.[failed verification]
- The Art of Unix Programming p. 66 ISBN 0-13-142901-9, ISBN 978-0-13-142901-7
- "Open Object REXX FAQ". Retrieved 2011-07-05.
- "OS/2 Timeline". OS/2 Museum. Retrieved 2016-12-19.
- "PC Magazine (archives scanned by Google)" (PDF). PC Magazine. Retrieved 2016-12-19.
- "JaTomes Help - OS/2 Batch File Commands". www.jatomes.com. Archived from the original on 2019-04-14. Retrieved 2019-04-14.
- "JaTomes Help - OS/2 Commands". www.jatomes.com. Archived from the original on 2019-04-14. Retrieved 2019-04-14.
- "OS/2 to Linux Client Transition" (PDF). IBM redbook. 2004. p. 9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-11-24. Retrieved 2011-07-05.
- The VMware Team. "A Notice to OS/2 Users". Archived from the original on 2006-04-20.
- VirtualBox. "VirtualBox Guest_OSes".
- "Virtual Machine Configuration". Retrieved 2020-09-05.
- "ArcaOS 5.0 Changes". arcanoae.com. Retrieved 2020-09-04.
- Timothy Prickett Morgan. "Breaking News—Parallels Joins the PC and Server Virtualization Fray". itjungle.com. Archived from the original on 2007-04-03.
- John F. Morar, David M. Chess. "the effect of computer viruses on OS/2 and Warp". research.ibm.com. Archived from the original on 2011-06-04.
- "OS/2 Power Wiki : ClamAV". January 2011. Archived from the original on 2010-10-03. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- see IBM Developer Connection for OS/2, Internal Fixpack 12J
- KbdGetConsole() and DosWaitMuxWaitSem(), see Control Program Programming Guide and Reference, IBM OS/2 Toolkit
- "Brazilian banks look to Linux for ATMs". Archived from the original on 2012-07-28.
- "NetIQ Manages Over 1000 Windows Servers for One of Australia's Largest Banks; ANZ Bank Completes Roll Out of NetIQ Management Software to 1,300 Servers" (fee). Business Wire. January 24, 2002. Retrieved 2010-01-24.[dead link]
- McCracken, Harry (April 2, 2012). "25 Years of IBM's OS/2: The Strange Days and Surprising Afterlife of a Legendary Operating System". Time.com. Technologizer. Retrieved April 9, 2013.
- Subway History: How OS/2 Powered The NYC Subway For Decades Archived 2019-07-30 at the Wayback Machine, Andrew Egan, Jun 13, 2019, Tedium
- "The BYTE Awards". BYTE. January 1989. p. 327.
- "IBM's Developer Support News 1995 Issue 4". POublic.dhe.ibm.com.
- "InfoWorld". Books.google.com. 25 March 1996. p. 72.
- IBM TotalStorage 3494 Tape Library: A Practical Guide to Tape Drives and Tape Automation. IBM. 2009. p. 420. ISBN 978-0-7384-3222-9.
- "IBM 3746 Software Plan" (PDF). IBM.
- "IBM Announcement Letter". IBM. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- "IBM Announcement Letter". Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- "Support Element Operations Guide". Archived from the original on 2014-03-05. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- "IBM 2074 Model 2 Console Support Controller — Consolidating and Streamlining Console Support Function". Retrieved 19 June 2014.
- Harvey M. Deitel and Michael S. Kogan (1992). The Design of OS/2. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-54889-5.
- Letwin, Gordon (1988). Inside OS/2. Microsoft Press. ISBN 1-55615-117-9.
- Pascal, Zachary (1994). Showstopper! The Breakneck Race to Create Windows NT and the Next Generation at Microsoft. Warner Books. ISBN 0-02-935671-7.
- Peter Moylan (2004-07-23). "Some fundamental OS/2 concepts".
- Michal Necasek (2005-12-03). "OS/2 Warp, PowerPC Edition". The History of OS/2. Archived from the original on August 12, 2010. Retrieved April 10, 2013.—Necasek discusses an aborted port to PowerPC machines.
- Reimer, Jeremy. "Half an operating system: The triumph and tragedy of OS/2". Archived from the original on 10 December 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- os2world.com – Community of OS/2 users
- ecomstation.ru – Community of eComStation and OS/2 users
- netlabs.org – OpenSource Software for OS/2 and eCS
- OS/2 FAQ
- hobbes.nmsu.edu – The OS/2 software repository
- EDM/2 – The source for OS/2 developers
- eCSoft/2 – The OS/2 and eComstation software guide
- osFree an open source project to build an OS/2 clone operating system
- Voyager Project, a defunct project to reimplement OS/2 on modern technology
- OS/2 to Linux API porting project
- Open Source OS/2 API implementation for Windows
- Microsoft documentation of OS/2 API compatibility with Windows NT
- The History of OS/2
- Technical details of OS/2
- OS/2 Warp 4 Installation and Update Manual; with boot disks and many links