A mobile operating system is an operating system for mobile phones, tablets, smartwatches, 2-in-1 PCs, smart speakers, or other mobile devices. While computers such as typical laptops are 'mobile', the operating systems used on them are generally not considered mobile ones, as they were originally designed for desktop computers that historically did not have or need specific mobile features. This distinction is becoming blurred in some newer operating systems that are hybrids made for both uses.
Mobile operating systems combine features of a personal computer operating system with other features useful for mobile or handheld use, and usually including a wireless inbuilt modem and SIM tray for telephony and data connection. By Q1 2018, over 383 million smartphones were sold with 86.2 percent running Android and 12.9 percent running iOS. Android alone is more popular than the popular desktop operating system Microsoft Windows, and in general smartphone use (even without tablets) outnumbers desktop use.
Mobile devices, with mobile communications abilities (e.g., smartphones), contain two mobile operating systems – the main user-facing software platform is supplemented by a second low-level proprietary real-time operating system which operates the radio and other hardware. Research has shown that these low-level systems may contain a range of security vulnerabilities permitting malicious base stations to gain high levels of control over the mobile device.
Mobile operating systems have majority use since 2017 (measured by web use); with even only the smartphones running them (excluding tablets) having majority use, more used than any other kind of device. Thus traditional desktop OS is now a minority-used kind of OS; see usage share of operating systems. However, variations occur in popularity by regions, while desktop-minority also applies on some days in countries such as United States and United Kingdom.
- 1997 – EPOC32 first appears on the Psion Series 5 PDA. Release 6 of EPOC32 will later be renamed to Symbian OS.
- 1998 – Symbian Ltd. is formed as a joint venture by Psion, Ericsson, Motorola, and Nokia, Psion's EPOC32 OS becomes Symbian's EPOC operating system, and is later renamed to Symbian OS. Symbian's OS was used by those companies and several other major mobile phone brands, but especially Nokia.
- June – Qualcomm's pdQ becomes the first smartphone with Palm OS.
- October – Nokia S40 Platform is officially introduced along with the Nokia 7110, the first phone with T9 Predictive text input and a Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) browser for accessing specially formatted Internet data.
- 2000 – The Ericsson R380 is released with EPOC32 Release 5, marking the first use on a phone of what's to become known as Symbian OS (as of Release 6).
- June – Nokia's Symbian Series 80 platform is first released on the Nokia 9210 Communicator This is the first phone running an OS branded as Symbian, and the first phone using that OS that allows user installation of additional software.
- September – Qualcomm's Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless (BREW) platform on their REX real-time operating system (RTOS) is first released on the Kyocera QCP-3035.
- Microsoft's first Windows CE (Pocket PC) smartphones are introduced.
- Nokia's Symbian Series 60 (S60) platform is released with the Nokia 7650, Nokia's first phone with a camera and Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS). S60 would form the basis of the OS on most of Nokia's smartphones until 2011, when they adopted Microsoft's Windows Phone 7. S60 was also used on some phones from Samsung and others, and later by Sony Ericsson after the consolidation of different Symbian UI variants in 2008.
- October – The Danger Hiptop (T-Mobile Sidekick in U.S.) is first released by Danger, Inc., running DangerOS.
- 2003 – Motorola introduces first linux based cellphone Motorola A760 base on Linux MontaVista distribution.
- January – Apple's iPhone with iOS (named "iPhone OS" for its first three releases) is introduced as a "widescreen iPod," "mobile phone," and "Internet communicator".
- February – Microsoft announces Windows Mobile 6.0.
- May – Palm announces the Palm Foleo, a "Mobile Companion" device similar to a subnotebook computer, running a modified Linux kernel and relying on a companion Palm Treo smartphone to send and retrieve mail, as well as provide data connectivity when away from WiFi. Palm canceled Foleo development on September 4, 2007 after facing public criticism.
- June - World’s very first iPhone is released in the United States.
- November – Open Handset Alliance (OHA) is established, led by Google with 34 members (HTC, Sony, Dell, Intel, Motorola, Samsung, LG, etc.)
- February – LiMo Foundation announces the first phones running the LiMo mobile Linux distribution, from Motorola, NEC, Panasonic Mobile, and Samsung, released later in the year. The LiMo Foundation later became the Tizen Association and LiMo was subsumed by Tizen.
- June – Nokia becomes the sole owner of Symbian Ltd. The Symbian Foundation was then formed to co-ordinate the future development of the Symbian platform among the corporations using it, in a manner similar to the Open Handset Alliance with Android. Nokia remained the major contributor to Symbian's code.
- July – Apple releases iPhone OS 2 with the iPhone 3G, making available Apple's App Store.
- October – OHA releases Android (based on Linux kernel) 1.0 with the HTC Dream (T-Mobile G1) as the first Android phone.
- November – Symbian^1, the Symbian Foundation's touch-specific S60-based platform (equivalent to S60 5th edition) is first released on Nokia's first touchscreen Symbian phone, the Nokia 5800 XpressMusic, with a resistive screen and a stylus. Symbian^1 being derived from S60 meant that support for UIQ disappeared and no further devices using UIQ were released.
- Intel announces Moblin 2, specifically created for netbooks that run the company's Atom processor. In April 2009 Intel turned Moblin over to the Linux Foundation.
- Palm introduces webOS with the Palm Pre (released in June). The new OS is not backwards compatible with their previous Palm OS.
- Palm announces that no further devices with Palm OS are going to be released by the company. (The last was the Palm Centro, released October 14, 2007.)
- Microsoft announces Windows Mobile 6.5, an "unwanted stopgap" update to Windows Mobile 6.1 intended to bridge the gap between version 6.1 and the then yet-to-be released Windows Mobile 7 (later canceled in favor of Windows Phone 7). The first devices running it appeared in late October 2009.
- May – DangerOS 5.0 becomes available, based on NetBSD.
- June – Apple releases iPhone OS 3 with the iPhone 3GS.
- November – Nokia releases the Nokia N900, its first and only smartphone running the Maemo OS intended for "handheld computers...with voice capability," while stating that they remain focused on Symbian S60 as their smartphone OS. (Nokia had previously released three Mobile Internet devices running Maemo, without cellular network connectivity.)
- MeeGo is announced, a mobile Linux distribution merging Maemo from Nokia and Moblin from Intel and Linux Foundation, to be hosted by Linux Foundation. MeeGo is not backwards compatible with any previous operating system.
- Samsung introduces the Bada OS and shows the first Bada smartphone, the Samsung S8500. It's later released in May 2010.
- Apple releases the iPad (first generation) with iPhone OS 3.2. This is the first version of the OS to support tablet computers. For its next major version (4.0) iPhone OS will be renamed iOS.
- HP acquires Palm in order to use webOS in multiple new products, including smartphones, tablets, and printers, later stating their intent to use it as the universal platform for all their devices.
- May – Microsoft Kin phone line with KIN OS (based on Windows CE and a "close cousin" to Windows Phone) become available.
- June – Apple releases iOS 4, renamed from iPhone OS, with the iPhone 4.
- July – Microsoft Kin phones and KIN OS are discontinued.
- Apple releases a variant of iOS powering the new 2nd generation Apple TV.
- Symbian^3 is first released on the Nokia N8. This would be Nokia's last flagship device running Symbian (though not their last Symbian phone), before switching to Windows Phone 7 for future flagship phones.
- The Danger Hiptop line and DangerOS are discontinued as a result of Microsoft's acquisition of Danger, Inc. in 2008.
- April – BlackBerry Tablet OS, based on QNX Neutrino is released on the BlackBerry PlayBook.
- August – HP announces that webOS device development and production lines would be halted. The last HP webOS version, 3.0.5, is released on January 12, 2012.
- MeeGo is introduced with the limited-release Nokia N9, Nokia's first and only consumer device to use the OS. (A small number of the Nokia N950, a MeeGo phone available only to developers, were released in mid-2011.)
- After Nokia's abandonment of MeeGo, Intel and the Linux Foundation announce a partnership with Samsung to launch Tizen, shifting their focus from MeeGo (Intel and Linux Foundation) and Bada (Samsung) during 2011 and 2012.
- November – Fire OS, a fork of the Android operating system, is released by Amazon.com on the Kindle Fire tablet.
- May – Nokia releases the Nokia 808 PureView, later confirmed (in January 2013) to be the last Symbian smartphone. This phone was followed by a single last Symbian software update, "Nokia Belle, Feature Pack 2," later in 2012.
- Finnish start-up Jolla, formed by former Nokia employees, announces that MeeGo's community-driven successor Mer would be the basis of their new Sailfish smartphone OS.
- Mozilla announces that the project formerly named Boot to Gecko (which is built atop an Android Linux kernel using Android drivers and services; however it uses no Java-like code of Android) is now Firefox OS (since discontinued) and has several handset OEMs on board.
- August – Samsung announces they won't ship further phones using their Bada OS, instead focusing on Windows Phone 8 and Android.
- September – Apple releases iOS 6 with the iPhone 5.
- January – BlackBerry releases their new operating system for smartphones, BlackBerry 10, with their Q10 and Z10 smartphones. BlackBerry 10 is not backwards compatible with the BlackBerry OS used on their previous smartphones.
- February – HP sells webOS to LG.
- September – Apple releases iOS 7 with the iPhone 5S and iPhone 5C.
- November – Jolla releases Sailfish OS on the Jolla smartphone.
- Microsoft releases Windows Phone 8.1
- Nokia introduces their Nokia X platform OS as an Android 4.1.2 Jelly Bean fork on the Nokia X family of smartphones. Similar to Amazon.com's Fire OS, it replaces Google's apps and services with ones from Nokia (such as HERE Maps, Nokia Xpress and MixRadio, and Nokia's own app store) and Microsoft (such as Skype and Outlook), with a user interface that mimics the Windows Phone UI. After the acquisition of Nokia's devices unit, Microsoft announced in July 2014 that no more Nokia X smartphones would be introduced, marking the end of the platform just a few months later.
- August – The Samsung SM-Z9005 Z is the first phone released running Tizen, with v2.2.1 of the OS.
- November – Google releases Android 5.0 "Lollipop"
- February – Google releases Android 5.1 "Lollipop".
- October – BlackBerry announces that there are no plans to release new APIs and software development kits for BlackBerry 10, and future updates would focus on security and privacy enhancements only.
- November – Microsoft releases Windows 10 Mobile.
- February – Microsoft releases the Lumia 650, their last Windows 10 Mobile phone before discontinuing all mobile hardware production the following year.
- July – The BlackBerry Classic, the last device to date running a BlackBerry OS is discontinued. While BlackBerry Limited claimed to still be committed to the BlackBerry 10 operating system, they have since only shipped Android devices after releasing the BlackBerry Priv, their first Android smartphone in November 2015.
- September – Apple releases iOS 10 with the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, and watchOS 3 with the Apple Watch Series 1 and 2.
- Samsung announces Tizen 4.0 at Tizen Developer Conference 2017.
- Google releases Android 8.0 "Oreo".
- Microsoft announces that Windows 10 Mobile development is going into maintenance mode only, ending the release of any new features or functionality due to lack of market penetration and resultant lack of interest from app developers, and releases the final major update to it, the "Fall Creators Update."
- Cherry Mobile release CherryOS based on Android
- Samsung releases Samsung Experience 9.0 based on Android "Oreo" 8.0 globally to Samsung Galaxy S8 and S8+.
- Google and partners officially launches Android Go (based on Android "Oreo" 8.1 but tailored for low-end devices) with Nokia 1, Alcatel 1X, ZTE Tempo Go, General Mobile 8 Go, Micromax Bharat Go and Lava Z50.
- Google releases Android "9" as a developer preview.
- Huawei release LiteOS version 2.1.
- Google releases Android 9.0 "Pie".
- UBPorts released Ubuntu Touch OTA-14, upgrading the OS based on the Canonical's long-term support version of Ubuntu 16.04 LTS "Xenial Xerus".
- Xiaomi officially introduces MIUI for POCO for their Poco series smartphone.
- Samsung officially introduces Tizen 4.0 with the release of Samsung Galaxy Watch series.
- Huawei announced the EMUI 10 under beta release.
- Samsung announces the One UI 2.0 as the latest version of their Galaxy Smartphone and Smartwatch UI.
- Microsoft release the Windows 10 November 10, 2019 Update.
Current software platforms
These operating systems often run atop baseband or other real time operating systems that handle hardware aspects of the phone.
Android (based on the modified Linux kernel) is a mobile operating system developed by Google. The base system is open-source (and only the kernel copyleft), but the apps and drivers which provide functionality are increasingly becoming closed-source. Besides having the largest installed base worldwide on smartphones, it is also the most popular operating system for general purpose computers[further explanation needed] (a category that includes desktop computers and mobile devices), even though Android is not a popular operating system for regular (desktop) personal computers (PCs). Although the Android operating system is free and open-source software, in devices sold, much of the software bundled with it (including Google apps and vendor-installed software) is proprietary software and closed source.
Android's releases before 2.0 (1.0, 1.5, 1.6) were used exclusively on mobile phones. Android 2.x releases were mostly used for mobile phones but also some tablets, Android 3.0 was a tablet-oriented release and does not officially run on mobile phones, while both phone and tablet compatibility was merged with Android 4.0. The current Android version is Android 11, released on September 8, 2020.
Android One is a software experience that runs on the unmodified Android operating system, which closely resembles those running on Pixel devices or previously, the Google Nexus program. Unlike most of the "stock" Androids running on the market, Android One UI closely resembles the Pixel UI, due to Android One being a software experience developed by Google and distributed to partners who signup for the program, such as Nokia Mobile(HMD) and Xiaomi. Thus, the overall UI is intended to be as clean as possible. OEM partners may tweak or add additional apps such as cameras to the firmware, otherwise most of the apps will be handled by Google proprietary apps. The update was handled by Google and will be internally tested by OEM before being distributed via OTA update to the end users.
- Android One version are same as AOSP, starting from Android 5.0 "Lollipop"
Designed by Alibaba, based on Android.
BlackBerry Secure is an operating system developed by BlackBerry, based on the Android Open Source Project (AOSP). Officially announced the name for their Android based front-end touch interface in August 2017, before the announcement, BlackBerry Secure was running on BlackBerry brand devices such as BlackBerry Priv, DTEK 50/60 and BlackBerry KeyOne. Currently, BlackBerry plan to license out the BlackBerry Secure to other OEM's.
- Current BlackBerry Secure version list
- BlackBerry Secure version 1.x (based on Android "Marshmallow" 6.x and "Nougat" 7.x) (initial release and minor UI update for devices that support Android Nougat)
ColorOS is a custom front-end touch interface, based on the Android Open Source Project (AOSP) and is developed by OPPO Electronics Corp. As of 2016[update], OPPO officially releases ColorOS with every OPPO and Realme devices(Future Realme devices will be having their own custom version of ColorOS), and released an official ROM for the OnePlus One.
CopperheadOS, a security hardened version of Android
Huawei EMUI is a front-end touch interface developed by Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. and its sub-brand Honor which is based on Google's Android Open Source Project (AOSP). EMUI is preinstalled on most Huawei and Honor devices. While it was based on open source Android operating system, it consists of closed source and proprietary software.
- Current /e/ OS version list
- /e/ OS beta v0.1 (based on Android "Nougat" 7.1.x)
- /e/ OS beta v0.2 (based on Android "Oreo" 8.x.x)
Amazon Fire OS is an Android-based mobile operating system produced by Amazon for its Fire range of tablets, Echo and Echo Dot, and other content delivery devices like Fire TV (Previously for their Fire Phone). It is forked from Android. Fire OS primarily centers on content consumption, with a customized user interface and heavy ties to content available from Amazon's own storefronts and services.
- Current Fire OS version list
- Fire OS 1.x
- Fire OS 2.x
- Fire OS 3.x
- Fire OS 4.x
- Fire OS 5.x
- Fire OS 6.x
- Fire OS 7.x
Flyme OS is an operating system developed by Meizu Technology Co., Ltd., an open source OS based on Google Android Open Source Project (AOSP). Flyme OS is mainly installed on Meizu Smartphones such as the MX's series; however, it also has official ROM support for a few Android devices.
- Current Flyme OS version list
- Flyme OS 1.x.x (based on Android "Ice Cream Sandwich" 4.0.3, initial release)
- Flyme OS 2.x.x (based on Android "Jelly Bean" 4.1.x – 4.2.x)
- Flyme OS 3.x.x (based on Android "Jelly Bean" 4.3.x)
- Flyme OS 4.x.x (based on Android "KitKat" 4.4.x)
- Flyme OS 5.x.x (based on Android "Lollipop" 5.0.x – 5.1.x)
- Flyme OS 6.x.x (based on Android "Nougat" 7.x, "Marshmallow" 6.0.x and Android "Lollipop" 5.0.x – 5.1.x for old devices)
- Flyme OS 7.x.x (based on Android "Pie" 9.0, "Oreo" 8.x and Android "Nougat" 7.x)
- Flyme OS 8.x.x (based on Android 10, "Pie" 9.0, "Oreo" 8.x and Android "Nougat" 7.x)
GrapheneOS, formerly named Android Hardening, is a variant of Android that runs on Pixel 2 or Pixel 3 hardware, is mainly developed by Daniel Micay as of 2019[update], and aims to focus on security and privacy.
HTC Sense is a software suite developed by HTC, used primarily on the company's Android-based devices. Serving as a successor to HTC's TouchFLO 3D software for Windows Mobile, Sense modifies many aspects of the Android user experience, incorporating added features (such as an altered home screen and keyboard), widgets, HTC-developed applications, and redesigned applications. The first device with Sense, the HTC Hero, was released in 2009.
- HTC Sense 1.x (based on Android "Eclair" 2.0/2.1, initial release)
- HTC Sense 2.x (based on Android "Eclair", "Froyo" and "Gingerbread" 2.0/2.1, 2.2.x and 2.3.x, redesigned UI)
- HTC Sense 3.x (based on Android "Gingerbread" 2.3.x, redesigned UI)
- HTC Sense 4.x (based on Android "Ice Cream Sandwich" and "Jelly Bean" 4.0.x and 4.1.x, redesigned UI)
- HTC Sense 5.x (based on Android "Jelly Bean" 4.1.x – 4.3.x, redesigned UI)
- HTC Sense 6.x (based on Android "KitKat" 4.4.x, redesigned UI)
- HTC Sense 7.x (based on Android "Lollipop" 5.0.x, redesigned UI)
- HTC Sense 8.x (based on Android "Marshmallow" 6.0.x, redesigned UI)
- HTC Sense 9.x (based on Android "Nougat" 7.x, redesigned UI)
- HTC Sense 10.x (based on Android "Oreo" 8.x and "Pie" 9.0, redesigned UI)
iQOO UI is a customer user interface that is based on Vivo Funtouch OS, which itself is based on the Android Open Source Project (AOSP). The overall UI mostly resemble it predecessor, however with their own customized UI on top of the Funtouch OS.
- Current iQOO UI version list
- iQOO UI 1.x - Based on Funtouch OS
Indus OS is a custom mobile operating system based on the Android Open Source Project (AOSP). It is developed by the Indus OS team based in India. No longer valid as of 2018Indus OS is available on Micromax, Intex, Karbonn, and other Indian smartphone brands.
- Current Indus OS version list
- Firstouch OS (based on Android "Lollipop" 5.0)
- Indus OS 2.0 (based on Android "Marshmallow" 6.0)
- Indus OS 3.0 (based on Android "Nougat" 7.0.1)
LG UX (formerly named Optimus UI) is a front-end touch interface developed by LG Electronics with partners, featuring a full touch user interface. It is sometimes incorrectly identified as an operating system. LG UX is used internally by LG for sophisticated feature phones and tablet computers, and is not available for licensing by external parties.
Optimus UI 2 which based on Android 4.1.2 has been released on the Optimus K II and the Optimus Neo 3. It features a more refined user interface compared to the prior version based on Android 4.1.1, would include together which new functionality such as voice shutter and quick memo.
- Current LG UX version list
- Optimus UI 1.x – based on Android "Gingerbread" 2.3.x, initial release
- Optimus UI 2.x – based on Android "Ice Cream Sandwich" and "Jelly Bean" 4.0.x and 4.1.x – 4.3.x, redesigned UI
- LG UX 3.x – based on Android "KitKat" and "Lollipop" 4.4.x and 5.0.x, redesigned UI
- LG UX 4.x – based on Android "Lollipop" and "Marshmallow" 5.1.x and 6.0.x, redesigned UI
- LG UX 5.x – based on Android "Marshmallow" and "Nougat" 6.0.x and 7.0.x, redesigned UI
- LG UX 6.x – based on Android "Nougat" 7.0.x, redesigned UI
- LG UX 6.x+ – based on Android "Oreo" 8.0.x, redesigned UI
- LG UX 7.x – based on Android "Oreo" 8.x, redesigned UI
- LG UX 7.x+ – based on Android "Oreo" 8.x., redesigned UI
- LG UX 8.x – based on Android "Pie" 9.0, redesigned UI
- LG UX 9.x – based on Android 10 redesigned UI
Lineage Android Distribution is a custom mobile operating system based on the Android Open Source Project (AOSP). It serves as the successor to the highly popular custom ROM, CyanogenMod, from which it was forked in December 2016 when Cyanogen Inc. announced it was discontinuing development and shut down the infrastructure behind the project. Since Cyanogen Inc. retained the rights to the Cyanogen name, the project rebranded its fork as LineageOS.
Similar to CyanogenMod, it does not include any proprietary apps unless the user installs them. It allows Android users who can no longer obtain update support from their manufacturer to continue updating their OS version to the latest one based on official release from Google AOSP and heavy theme customization.
MiFavor, was the custom Android UI that was developed by ZTE for their smartphone that is running Android platform. Similar to most of the other Android UI, MiFavor replace most of the stock apps with ZTE owns apps, however the all UX still closely similar to the stock Android.
- Current MiFavor version list
- MiFavor 1.x – based on Android "KitKat" 4.4.x, initial release
- MiFavor 2.x – based on Android "Lollipop" 5.0.x – 5.1.x, redesigned UI
- MiFavor 3.x – based on Android "Marshmallow" 6.x, redesigned UI
- MiFavor 4.x – based on Android "Nougat" 7.x, redesigned UI
- MiFavor 5.x – based on Android "Oreo" 8.x, redesigned UI
- MiFavor 9.x – based on Android "Pie" 9.0, redesigned UI
- MiFavor 10.x – based on Android 10, redesigned UI
Mi User Interface (MIUI), developed by the Chinese electronic company Xiaomi Inc., is a mobile operating system based on the Android Open Source Project (AOSP). MIUI is mostly found in Xiaomi smartphones such as the Mi and Redmi Series; however, it also has official ROM support for few Android devices. Although MIUI is based on AOSP, which is open source, it consists of closed source and proprietary software of its own.
One UI (formerly called TouchWiz and Samsung Experience) is a front-end touch interface developed by Samsung Electronics In 2008 with partners, featuring a full touch user interface. It is sometimes incorrectly identified as an independent operating system. Samsung Experience is used internally by Samsung for smartphones, feature phones and tablet computers, and is not available for licensing by external parties as it is closed source and proprietary. The Android version of Samsung Experience also comes with Samsung-made apps preloaded (except starting with the Galaxy S6 which have removed all Samsung pre-loaded apps installed, leaving one with Samsung Galaxy Store (formerly Galaxy Apps), to save storage space and initially due to the removal of MicroSD). With the release of Samsung Galaxy S8 and S8+, Samsung Experience 8.1 was preinstall on it with introducing new function known as Samsung DeX. Similar to the concept of Microsoft Continuum, Samsung DeX allowed high end Galaxy devices such as S8/S8+ or Note 8 to connect into a docking station, which extends the functionality to allow desktop-like functionality by connecting a keyboard, mouse, and monitor. Samsung also announced "Linux on Galaxy", which allows to use the standard Linux distribution on the DeX platform.
OxygenOS is based on the open source Android Open Source Project (AOSP) and is developed by OnePlus to replace Cyanogen OS on OnePlus devices such as the OnePlus One, and it is preinstalled on the OnePlus 2, OnePlus X, OnePlus 3, OnePlus 3T, OnePlus 5, OnePlus 5T and OnePlus 6. As stated by Oneplus, OxygenOS is focused on stabilizing and maintaining of stock like those found on Nexus devices. It consists of mainly Google apps and minor UI customization to maintain the sleekness of pure Android.
- Current OxygenOS version list
- Oxygen OS 1.0.x (based on Android 5.0.x "Lollipop") (initial release)
- Oxygen OS 2.0.x (based on Android 5.1.x "Lollipop") (overall maintenance update)
- Oxygen OS 3.0.x (based on Android 6.0 "Marshmallow") (major Android update)
- Oxygen OS 3.1.x (based on Android 6.0.1 "Marshmallow") (minor maintenance update)
- Oxygen OS 3.2.x (based on Android 6.0.1 "Marshmallow") (major Android update)
- Oxygen OS 4.x.x (based on Android 7.x "Nougat") (major Android update)
- Oxygen OS 5.x.x (based on Android 8.x "Oreo") (major Android update)
- Oxygen OS 9.x.x (based on Android 9.0 "Pie") (major Android update)
- Oxygen OS 10.x.x (based on Android 10.0 "10") (major Android update)
- Oxygen OS 11.x.x (based on Android 11.0 "11") (major Android update)
Pixel UI (Pixel Launcher)
Google Pixel UI or Pixel Launcher is developed by Google that is based on open source Android. Unlike the Nexus phones, where Google shipped with the "stock" Android, the UI that came with the first generation Pixel phones were slightly modified as compared to the "stock" Android. As part of the Google Pixel software, the Pixel UI and its home launcher are closed source and proprietary, thus it is only available on the Pixel family devices. (However, third party mods allow non Pixel smartphones to install Pixel Launcher with Google Now feed integration).
- Current Google Pixel Launcher version list
- Pixel Launcher – "7.1.1" (based on Android 7.x "Nougat") (Initial release)
- Pixel Launcher – "8.1.0" (based on Android 8.x "Oreo") (Minor UI update)
- Pixel Launcher – "9.0" (based on Android 9.0 "Pie") (Minor UI update)
- Pixel Launcher – "10.0" (based on Android 10.0 "10") (Moderate UI update that support Theme)
- Pixel Launcher – "11.0" (based on Android 11.0 "11") (Minor UI update)
realme UI is a mobile operating system developed by Realme which is based on OPPO ColorOS, which itself is based on the Android Open Source Project (AOSP). The overall UI mostly resemble it predecessor, however with their own customized UI and element on top of the ColorOS to match their target audience.
- Current realme UI version list
- realme UI 1.x - Based on ColorOS 7.0 - Android 10 - Initial Release
- realme UI 2.x - Based on ColorOS 11.0 - Android 11
Replicant is a custom mobile operating system based on the Android with all proprietary drivers and bloat closed source software removed.
- Current TCL UI version list
- TCL UI 1.x - Based on Android 9 "Pie" and Android 10 - Initial Release
Sony Xperia UI (formerly known as Sony Ericsson Timescape UI) was the front-end UI that developed by Sony Mobile (formerly Sony Ericsson) In 2010 for their Sony Xperia series that is running Android platform. Sony Xperia UI mostly consists of Sony own's application such as Sony Music (formerly known as Walkman Music player), Albums and Video Player. During its time as Timescape UI, the UI was different than the standard Android UI, instead of traditional apps dock on the bottom part, it was located at the four corner of the home screen, while the middle of the screen consist of the widget. However the recent development of UI are closely resemble to those of Stock Android.
- Current Xperia UI version list:
- Timescape version 1 – based on Android "Eclair" 2.0/2.1, initial release
- Timescape version 2 – based on Android "Gingerbread" 2.3.x, redesigned UI
- Xperia UI version 3 – based on Android "Gingerbread" and "Ice Cream Sandwich" 2.3.x and 4.0.x, redesigned UI
- Xperia UI version 4 – based on Android "Jelly Bean" 4.2.x – 4.3.x, redesigned UI
- Xperia UI version 5 – based on Android "KitKat" 4.4.x, redesigned UI
- Xperia UI version 6 – based on Android "Lollipop" 5.0.x – 5.1.x, redesigned UI
- Xperia UI version 7 – based on Android "Marshmallow" 6.0.x, redesigned UI
- Xperia UI version 8 – based on Android "Nougat" 7.x, redesigned UI
- Xperia UI version 9 – based on Android "Oreo" 8.x, redesigned UI
ZenUI is a front-end touch interface developed by ASUS with partners, featuring a full touch user interface. ZenUI is used by Asus for its Android phones and tablet computers, and is not available for licensing by external parties. ZenUI also comes preloaded with Asus-made apps like ZenLink (PC Link, Share Link, Party Link & Remote Link).
- Current ZenUI version list:
- ZenUI 1.0 – based on Android "Jelly Bean" and "KitKat" 4.3.x and 4.4.x, initial release
- ZenUI 2.0 – based on Android "Lollipop" 5.0.x ��� 5.1.x, redesigned UI
- ZenUI 3.0 – based on Android "Marshmallow" 6.0.x, redesigned UI
- ZenUI 4.0 – based on Android "Nougat" 7.x, redesigned UI
- ZenUI 5.0 – based on Android "Oreo" 8.x, redesigned UI
- ZenUI 6.0 – based on Android "Pie" 9.0, redesigned UI
- ZenUI 7.0 – based on Android 10, redesigned UI
- ZenUI 8.0 – based on Android 11, redesigned UI
ZUI is a custom operating that is original develop by Lenovo subsidiary ZUK Mobile for their smartphones, however after the shutting down of ZUK Mobile, Lenovo had taken over as the main developer to continue developing the ZUI. The operating system is based on the Android Open Source Project (AOSP).
- ZUI 1.x - Initial Release
- ZUI 2.x
- ZUI 3.x
- ZUI 4.x
- ZUI 4.x
- ZUI 10.x (Based on Android 9 "Pie")
- ZUI 11.x (Based on Android 9 "Pie" and Android 10)
Chrome OS is an operating system designed by Google that is based on the Linux kernel and uses the Google Chrome web browser as its principal user interface. As a result, Chrome OS primarily supports web applications. Google announced the project in July 2009, conceiving it as an operating system in which both applications and user data reside in the cloud: hence Chrome OS primarily runs web applications.
Due to increase of popularity with 2-in-1 PCs, most recent Chromebooks are introduced with touch screen capability, with Android applications starting to become available for the operating system in 2014. And in 2016, access to Android apps in the entire Google Play Store was introduced on supported Chrome OS devices. With the support of Android applications, there are Chromebook devices that are positioned as tablet based instead of notebooks.
Chrome OS is only available pre-installed on hardware from Google manufacturing partners. An open source equivalent, Chromium OS, can be compiled from downloaded source code. Early on, Google provided design goals for Chrome OS, but has not otherwise released a technical description.
This article or section may need to be formatted. (March 2020)
Sailfish OS is from Jolla. It is open source with GNU General Public License (GPL) for middleware stack core which comes from MER. Sailfish due to Jolla's business model and due to alliances with various partners and due to intentional design of OS internals, is capable to adopt in several layers third party software including Jolla software e.g. Jolla's UI is proprietary software (closed source), so such components can be proprietary with many different kinds of licences. However, user can replace them with open source components like e.g. NEMO UI instead Jolla's UI.
After Nokia abandoned in 2011 the MeeGo project, most of the MeeGo team left Nokia, and established Jolla as a company to use MeeGo and Mer business opportunities. The MER standard allows it to be launched on any hardware with kernel compatible with MER. In 2012, Linux Sailfish OS based on MeeGo and using middleware of MER core stack distribution was launched for public use. The first device, the Jolla smartphone, was unveiled on May 20, 2013. In 2015, Jolla Tablet was launched and the BRICS countries declared it an officially supported OS there. Jolla started licensing Sailfish OS 2.0 for third parties. Some devices sold are updateable to Sailfish 2.0 with no limits.
Each Sailfish OS version release is named after a Finnish lake:
|188.8.131.52||17||Eineheminlampi||Pretransition to version 2.0; major UI revamp.|
|184.108.40.206||18||Saimaa||Full transition to version 2.0; minor UI and function improvements.|
|220.127.116.11||27||4 October 2017||Kymijoki||Cbeta release. Xperia X only.|
|18.104.22.168||6 October 2017||Cbeta release. Xperia X only.|
|22.214.171.124||11 October 2017||Public release of Sailfish X. Xperia X only.|
|126.96.36.199||31 October 2017||Early access release.|
|188.8.131.52||13 November 2017||Public release.|
|184.108.40.206||28||20 February 2018||Lapuanjoki||Early access release.|
|220.127.116.11||28 February 2018||Early access release.|
|18.104.22.168||6 March 2018||Public release.|
|22.214.171.124||29||31 March 2018||Mouhijoki||Early access release.|
|126.96.36.199||7 June 2018||Public release.|
|188.8.131.52||30||4 September 2018||Nurmonjoki||Early access release.|
|184.108.40.206||12 September 2018||Public release.|
|220.127.116.11||31||31 October 2018||Lemmenjoki||Early access release. Introduction of the Sailfish OS 3.0 GUI. Includes changes from planned 2.2.2 release.|
|18.104.22.168||11 November 2018||Public release.|
|22.214.171.124||32||7 January 2019||Sipoonkorpi||Early access release.|
|126.96.36.199||16 January 2019||Public release.|
|188.8.131.52||31 January 2019||Beta release. Xperia XA2 (Ultra/Plus) only.|
|184.108.40.206||33||18 March 2019||Oulanka||Early access release.|
|220.127.116.11||25 March 2019||Public release.|
|18.104.22.168||34||24 April 2019||Hossa||Early access release.|
|22.214.171.124||7 May 2019||Public release.|
|126.96.36.199||29 May 2019||Public release.|
|188.8.131.52||35||18 July 2019||Seitseminen||Early access release.|
Tizen (based on the Linux kernel) is a mobile operating system hosted by Linux Foundation, together with support from the Tizen Association, guided by a Technical Steering Group composed of Intel and Samsung.
Tizen is an operating system for devices including smartphones, tablets, In-Vehicle Infotainment (IVI) devices, however currently it mainly focus on wearable and smart TVs. It is an open source system (however the SDK was closed source and proprietary) that aims to offer a consistent user experience across devices. Tizen's main components are the Linux kernel and the WebKit runtime. According to Intel, Tizen "combines the best of LiMo and MeeGo." HTML5 apps are emphasized, with MeeGo encouraging its members to transition to Tizen, stating that the "future belongs to HTML5-based applications, outside of a relatively small percentage of apps, and we are firmly convinced that our investment needs to shift toward HTML5." Tizen will be targeted at a variety of platforms such as handsets, touch pc, smart TVs and in-vehicle entertainment. On May 17, 2013, Tizen released version 2.1, code-named Nectarine.
While Tizen itself was open source, most of the UX and UI layer that developed by Samsung was mainly closed source and proprietary, such as the TouchWiz UI on the Samsung Z's series smartphone and One UI for their Galaxy Watch wearable lines.
KaiOS is from Kai. It is based on Firefox OS/Boot to Gecko. Unlike most mobile operating systems which focus on smartphones, KaiOS was developed mainly for feature phones, giving these access to more advanced technologies usually found on smartphones, such as app stores and Wi-Fi/4G capabilities.
It is a mix of closed-source and open-source components. FirefoxOS/B2G was released under the permissive MPL 2.0. It does not redistribute itself under the same license, so KaiOS is now presumably proprietary (but still mostly open-source, publishing its source code). KaiOS is not entirely proprietary, as it uses the copyleft GPL Linux kernel also used in Android.
Fully open-source, entirely permissive licenses
Fuchsia is a capability-based, real-time operating system (RTOS) currently being developed by Google. It was first discovered as a mysterious code post on GitHub in August 2016, without any official announcement. In contrast to prior Google-developed operating systems such as Chrome OS and Android, which are based on Linux kernels, Fuchsia is based on a new microkernel called "Zircon", derived from "Little Kernel", a small operating system intended for embedded systems. This allows it to remove Linux and the copyleft GPL underwhich the Linux kernel is licensed; Fuchsia is licensed under the permissive BSD 3-clause, Apache 2.0, and MIT licenses. Upon inspection, media outlets noted that the code post on GitHub suggested Fuchsia's capability to run on universal devices, from embedded systems to smartphones, tablets and personal computers. In May 2017, Fuchsia was updated with a user interface, along with a developer writing that the project was not a for experimental, prompting media speculation about Google's intentions with the operating system, including the possibility of it replacing Android.
LiteOS is a lightweight open source real-time operating system which is part of Huawei's "1+2+1" Internet of Things solution, which is similar to Google Android Things and Samsung Tizen. It is released under the permissive BSD 3-clause license. Huawei LiteOS features lightweight, low-power, fast-response, multi-sensor collaboration, multi-protocol interconnect connectivity, enabling IoT terminals to quickly access the network. Huawei LiteOS will make intelligent hardware development easier. Thereby accelerating the realization of the interconnection of all things.[peacock term] Currently LiteOS are introduce to the consumer market with the Huawei Watch GT series and their sub-brand Honor Magic Watch series.
Fully open-source, mixed copyleft and permissive licenses
PureOS is a Debian GNU/Linux derivative using only free software meeting the Debian Free Software Guidelines, mainly the copyleft GPL. PureOS is endorsed by Free Software Foundation as one of the freedom-respecting operating systems. It is developed by Purism, and was already in use on Purism's laptops before it was used on the Librem 5 smartphone. Purism, in partnership with GNOME and KDE, aims to separate the CPU from the baseband processor and include hardware kill switches for the phone's Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, camera, microphone and baseband processor, and provide both GNOME and KDE Plasma Mobile as options for the desktop environment.
Ubuntu Touch is from Canonical Ltd. It is open source and uses the GPL license. Ubuntu Touch as an OS is built using the Android Linux kernel, using Android drivers and services via an LXC container, but does not use any of the Java-like code of Android. As of August 2018[update], the desktop environment of Ubuntu Touch is planned to be available as one of the default desktop options on the Librem 5 running PureOS as the operating system.
Though Canonical formally announced it was discontinuing the Ubuntu mobile OS with its integral component Unity8, the independent German non-profit UBPorts Community/("Foundation" paperwork pending in the local Berlin-government) decided to take over the project. Canonical started Ubuntu Touch based on Ubuntu 15.04 (Vivid Vervet) and UBPorts upgraded the base to the nearest, current long-term support version Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (Xenial Xerus).
Original Canonical Ubuntu Touch version list:
- Preview Version (initial release)
- OTA 2.x
- OTA 3.x
- OTA 4.x
- OTA 5.x
- OTA 6.x
- OTA 7.x
- OTA 8.x
- OTA 9.x
- OTA 10.x
- OTA 11.x
- OTA 12.x
- OTA 13.x
- OTA 14.x
- OTA 15.x
UBPorts Ubuntu Touch version list:
- 15.04 OTA-1
- 15.04 OTA-2
- 15.04 OTA-3
- 16.04 OTA-4
- 16.04 OTA-5
- 16.04 OTA-6
Plasma Mobile is a Plasma variant for smartphones. Plasma Mobile runs on Wayland and it is compatible with Ubuntu Touch applications, PureOS applications, and eventually Android applications via KDE's Shashlik project – also sponsored by Blue Systems, or Anbox. It is under the copyleft GPLv2 license.
LuneOS is a modern reimplementation of the Palm/HP webOS interface.
iOS (formerly named iPhone OS) was created by Apple Inc. It has the second largest installed base worldwide on smartphones, but the largest profits, due to aggressive price competition between Android-based manufacturers. It is closed source and proprietary, and is built on the open source Darwin operating system. The iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad and second or third-generation Apple TV all use iOS, which is derived from macOS.
Native third party applications were not officially supported until the release of iPhone OS 2.0 on July 11, 2008. Before this, "jailbreaking" allowed third party applications to be installed. In recent years, the jailbreaking scene has changed drastically due to Apple's continued efforts to secure their operating system and prevent unauthorized modifications. Currently, jailbreaks of recent iterations of iOS are only semi-untethered, which requires a device to be re-jailbroken at every boot, and exploits for jailbreaks are becoming increasingly hard to find and use.
Currently all iOS devices are developed by Apple and manufactured by Foxconn or another of Apple's partners.
iPadOS is a tablet operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. specifically for their iPad line of tablet computers. It was announced at the company's 2019 Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC), as a derivation from iOS but with a greater emphasis put on multitasking. It was released on September 24, 2019.
watchOS is the operating system of the Apple Watch, developed by Apple Inc. It is based on the iOS operating system and has many similar features. It was released on April 24, 2015, along with the Apple Watch, the only device that runs watchOS. It is currently the most widely used wearable operating system. Its features focus on convenience, such as being able to place phone calls and send texts, and health, such as fitness and heart rate tracking.
The most current version of the watchOS operating system is watchOS 7.
Kindle firmware is mobile operating system specifically design for Amazon Amazon Kindle e-readers, it is based on custom Linux kernel however it is entirely closed source and proprietary, and only runs on Amazon Kindle line up manufactured under Amazon brand.
Windows 10 (not to be confused with Windows 10 Mobile—see below) is a personal computer operating system developed and released by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. It was released on July 29, 2015 and many editions and versions have been released since then. Just like its predecessors, it was designed to run across multiple Microsoft product such as PCs and Tablets. The Windows user interface was revised to handle transitions between a mouse-oriented interface and a touchscreen-optimized interface based on available input devices—particularly on 2-in-1 PCs.
Windows 10 also introduces the universal apps, expanding on Metro-style apps, these apps can be designed to run across multiple Microsoft product families with nearly identical code—including PCs, tablets, smartphones, embedded systems, Xbox One, Surface Hub and Mixed Reality.
Minor proprietary operating system
Other than the major mobile operating system from the major tech company, some company such as Huami(Amazfit), Huawei, realme, TCL and Xiaomi has their own proprietary RTOS that develop specifically for their own smartband and smartwatch that is design to be power efficient and low battery consumption that is neither based on Android nor Linux Kernel.
- Proprietary Amazfit OS
Operating System that is primarily design for their Bip series, however Huami is currently developing the operating system to run on other company smartwatch as well. (Not to be confused with the Android-based Amazfit OS as both of them sharing the name yet both are based on different operating system, for their Android based Amazfit OS, kindly refer to the Android section)
- Huawei/Honor Band Operating System
Huawei Band Operating system is a operating system specifically design and develop by Huawei for their fitness tracker, including smartband series from Honor. (Not to be confused with another RTOS (LiteOS) which was also developed by Huawei.)
- Lenovo RTOS
Proprietary OS develop by Lenovo for their fitness tracker and smartwatch.
- realme Wearable Operating System
A proprietary operating system design to run on realme smartband and smartwatch.
- TCL Wearable Real Time Operating System
A proprietary RTOS powering TCL and Alcatel brand smartband and smartwatch.
- Xiaomi Mi Band Operating System
Proprietary RTOS that is develop by Huami for Xiaomi Mi Band series. (Not to be confused with Xiaomi MIUI for smartwatch which is based on Wear OS)
Under maintenance only
One of the dominant platforms in the world in late 2000s, its global market share was reduced significantly by mid-2010s. In late 2016, BlackBerry announced that it will continue to support the OS, with a promise to release 10.3.3. Therefore, BlackBerry 10 would not receive any major updates as BlackBerry and its partners would focus more on their Android base development.
Discontinued software platforms
CyanogenMod was a custom mobile operating system based on the Android Open Source Project (AOSP). It was a custom ROM that was co-developed by the CyanogenMod community. The OS did not include any proprietary apps unless the user installed them. Due to its open source nature, CyanogenMod allowed Android users who could no longer obtain update support from their manufacturer to continue updating their OS version to the latest one based on official releases from Google AOSP and heavy theme customization. The last version of the OS was CyanogenMod 13 which was based on Android Asus
On December 24, 2016, CyanogenMod announced on their blog that they would no longer be releasing any CyanogenMod updates. All development moved to LineageOS.
Cyanogen OS was based on CyanogenMod and maintained by Cyanogen Inc; however, it included proprietary apps and it was only available for commercial uses.
Firefox OS (formerly known as "Boot to Gecko" and shortly "B2G") is from Mozilla. It was an open source mobile operating system released under the Mozilla Public License built on the Android Linux kernel and used Android drivers, but did not use any Java-like code of Android.
According to Ars Technica, "Mozilla says that B2G is motivated by a desire to demonstrate that the standards-based open Web has the potential to be a competitive alternative to the existing single-vendor application development stacks offered by the dominant mobile operating systems." In September 2016, Mozilla announced that work on Firefox OS has ceased, and all B2G-related code would be removed from mozilla-central.
MeeGo was from non-profit organization The Linux Foundation. It is open source and GPL. At the 2010 Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, Nokia and Intel both unveiled MeeGo, a mobile operating system that combined Moblin and Maemo to create an open-sourced experience for users across all devices. In 2011 Nokia announced that it would no longer pursue MeeGo in favor of Windows Phone. Nokia announced the Nokia N9 on June 21, 2011 at the Nokia Connection event in Singapore. LG announced its support for the platform. Maemo was a platform developed by Nokia for smartphones and Internet tablets. It is open source and GPL, based on Debian GNU/Linux and draws much of its graphical user interface (GUI), frameworks, and libraries from the GNOME project. It uses the Matchbox window manager and the GTK-based Hildon as its GUI and application framework.
webOS was developed by Palm. webOS is an open source mobile operating system running on the Linux kernel, initially developed by Palm, which launched with the Palm Pre. After being acquired by HP, two phones (the Veer and the Pre 3) and a tablet (the TouchPad) running webOS were introduced in 2011. On August 18, 2011, HP announced that webOS hardware would be discontinued, but would continue to support and update webOS software and develop the webOS ecosystem. HP released webOS as open source under the name Open webOS, and plans to update it with additional features. On February 25, 2013 HP announced the sale of webOS to LG Electronics, who used the operating system for its "smart" or Internet-connected TVs. However, HP retained patents underlying WebOS and cloud-based services such as the App Catalog.
In 1999, Research In Motion released its first BlackBerry devices, providing secure real-time push-email communications on wireless devices. Services such as BlackBerry Messenger provide the integration of all communications into a single inbox. In September 2012, RIM announced that the 200 millionth BlackBerry smartphone was shipped. As of September 2014, there were around 46 million active BlackBerry service subscribers. In early 2010s, RIM has undergone a platform transition, changing its company name to BlackBerry Limited and making new devices on a new platform named "BlackBerry 10".
Symbian platform was developed by Nokia for some models of smartphones. It is proprietary software, it was however used by Ericsson (SonyEricsson), Sending and Benq. The operating system was discontinued in 2012, although a slimmed-down version for basic phones was still developed until July 2014. Microsoft officially shelved the platform in favor of Windows Phone after its acquisition of Nokia.
Bada platform (stylized as bada; Korean: 바다) was an operating system for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. It was developed by Samsung Electronics. Its name is derived from "바다 (bada)", meaning "ocean" or "sea" in Korean. It ranges from mid- to high-end smartphones. To foster adoption of Bada OS, since 2011 Samsung reportedly has considered releasing the source code under an open-source license, and expanding device support to include Smart TVs. Samsung announced in June 2012 intentions to merge Bada into the Tizen project, but would meanwhile use its own Bada operating system, in parallel with Google Android OS and Microsoft Windows Phone, for its smartphones. All Bada-powered devices are branded under the Wave name, but not all of Samsung's Android-powered devices are branded under the name Galaxy. On February 25, 2013, Samsung announced that it will stop developing Bada, moving development to Tizen instead. Bug reporting was finally terminated in April 2014.
Palm OS/Garnet OS was from Access Co. It is closed source and proprietary. webOS was introduced by Palm in January 2009, as the successor to Palm OS with Web 2.0 technologies, open architecture and multitasking abilities.
Windows Mobile is a family of proprietary operating systems from Microsoft aimed at business and enterprise users, based on Windows CE and originally developed for Pocket PC (PDA) devices. In 2010 it was replaced with the consumer-focused Windows Phone.
Versions of Windows Mobile came in multiple editions, like "Pocket PC Premium," "Pocket PC Professional," "Pocket PC Phone," and "Smartphone" (Windows Mobile 2003) or "Professional," "Standard," and "Classic" (Windows Mobile 6.0). Some editions were touchscreen-only and some were keyboard-only, although there were cases where device vendors managed to graft support for one onto an edition targeted at the other. Cellular phone features were also only supported by some editions. Microsoft started work on a version of Windows Mobile that would combine all features together, but it was aborted, and instead they focused on developing the non-backwards-compatible, touchscreen-only Windows Phone 7.
Windows Phone is a proprietary mobile operating system developed by Microsoft for smartphones as the replacement successor to Windows Mobile and Zune. Windows Phone features a new touchscreen-oriented user interface derived from Metro design language. Windows Phone was replaced by Windows 10 Mobile in 2015.
Windows 10 Mobile
Unveiled on February 15, 2010, Windows Phone includes a user interface inspired by Microsoft's Metro Design Language. It is integrated with Microsoft services such as OneDrive and Office, Xbox Music, Xbox Video, Xbox Live games and Bing, but also integrates with many other non-Microsoft services such as Facebook and Google accounts. Windows Phone devices were made primarily by Microsoft Mobile/Nokia, and also by HTC and Samsung.
On January 21, 2015, Microsoft announced that the Windows Phone brand will be phased out and replaced with Windows 10 Mobile, bringing tighter integration and unification with its PC counterpart Windows 10, and provide a platform for smartphones and tablets with screen sizes under 8 inches.
On October 8, 2017, Microsoft officially announced that they would no longer push any major updates to Windows 10 Mobile, instead it would put it in maintenance mode, where Microsoft would push bug fixes and general improvements only, therefore Windows 10 Mobile would not receive any new feature updates.
On January 18, 2019, Microsoft announced that support for Windows 10 Mobile would end on December 10, 2019, with no further security updates released after then, and that Windows 10 Mobile users should migrate to iOS or Android phones.
Current Windows 10 Mobile version list:
- Windows 10 Mobile – Version 1511 (November Update "Threshold") – major UI update
- Windows 10 Mobile – Version 1607 (Anniversary Update "Redstone 1")
- Windows 10 Mobile – Version 1703 (Creators Update "Redstone 2")
- Windows 10 Mobile – Version 1709 (Fall Creators Update)
This section needs to be updated.(August 2018)
In 2006, Android and iOS did not exist and only 64 million smartphones were sold. In 2018 Q1, 383.5 million smartphones were sold and global market share was 85.9% for Android and 14.1% for iOS. Other OS smartphones were 0,131 million, counting the 0.03% of the total.
According to StatCounter web use statistics (a proxy for all use), smartphones (alone without tablets) have majority use globally, with desktop computers used much less (and Android in particular more popular than Windows). Use varies however by continent with smartphones way more popular in the biggest continents, i.e. Asia, and the desktop still more popular in some, though not in North America.
The desktop is still popular in many countries (while overall down to 44.9% in the first quarter of 2017), smartphones are more popular even in many developed countries (or about to be in more). A few countries on any continent are desktop-minority; European countries (and some in South America, and a few, e.g. Haiti, in North America; and most in Asia and Africa) are smartphone-majority, Poland and Turkey highest with 57.68% and 62.33%, respectively. In Ireland, smartphone use at 45.55% outnumbers desktop use and mobile as a whole gains majority when including the tablet share at 9.12%. Spain is also slightly desktop-minority.
The range of measured mobile web use varies a lot by country, and a StatCounter press release recognizes "India amongst world leaders in use of mobile to surf the internet" (of the big countries) where the share is around (or over) 80% and desktop is at 19.56%, with Russia trailing with 17.8% mobile use (and desktop the rest).
Smartphones (alone, without tablets), first gained majority in December 2016 (desktop-majority was lost the month before), and it wasn't a Christmas-time fluke, as while close to majority after smartphone majority happened again in March 2017.
In the week from November 7–13, 2016, smartphones alone (without tablets) overtook desktop, for the first time (for a short period; non-full-month). Mobile-majority applies to countries such as Paraguay in South America, Poland in Europe and Turkey; and most of Asia and Africa. Some of the world is still desktop-majority, with e.g. in the United States at 54.89% (but no not on all days). However, in some territories of the United States, such as Puerto Rico, desktop is way under majority, with Windows under 30% overtaken by Android.
On October 22, 2016 (and subsequent weekends), mobile showed majority. Since October 27, the desktop hasn't shown majority, not even on weekdays. And smartphones alone have showed majority since December 23 to the end of the year, with the share topping at 58.22% on Christmas Day. To the "mobile"-majority share then of smartphones, tablets could be added giving a 63.22% majority. While an unusually high top, a similarly high also happened on Monday April 17, 2017, with then only smartphones share slightly lower and tablet share slightly higher, with them combined at 62.88%.
According to a StatCounter November 1, 2016 press release[update], the world has turned desktop-minority; at about 49% desktop use for the previous month, but mobile wasn't ranked higher, tablet share had to be added to it to exceed desktop share. By now, mobile (smartphones) have full majority, outnumbering desktop/laptop computers by a safe margin (and no longer counting tablets with desktops makes them most popular).
By operating system
- Windows includes all versions.
- BlackBerry includes all versions.
- Other includes all other smartphone OSes but not feature phone OSes.
This section needs to be updated.(August 2018)
|Quarter||Android||iOS||KaiOS||Windows||BlackBerry||Symbian||Other||Total smartphones||Total phones|
This section needs to be updated.(August 2018)
- "Gartner Says Worldwide Sales of Smartphones Returned to Growth in First Quarter of 2018". Gartner, Inc. Gartner. May 29, 2018. Archived from the original on August 29, 2018. Retrieved August 29, 2018.
- Thom Holwerda, OSNews, November 12, 2013, The second operating system hiding in every mobile phone Archived November 13, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
- TechFoogle, June 30, 2019, Top 10 Mobile Operating System Archived June 30, 2019, at the Wayback Machine
- Jerry Kaplan (1994). Startup : a Silicon Valley adventure. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-025731-4.
- Segan, Sasha (February 13, 2012). "Enter the Phablet: A History of Phone-Tablet Hybrids". PCmag.
- "Pen Computing Magazine: Magic Cap/DataRover Resource".
- Aamoth, Doug (August 18, 2014). "First Smartphone Turns 20: Fun Facts About Simon". Time. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
- "First GSM-based communicator product hits the market Nokia Starts Sales of the Nokia 9000 Communicator". Nokia (Press release). August 15, 1996. Archived from the original on June 3, 2016. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
- "Nokia 9000 Communicator | Device Specs". PhoneDB. October 13, 2007. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
- Litchfield, Steve (2005) . "The History of Psion". Palmtop Magazine. UK Online. Retrieved December 27, 2008.
- "The Nokia 9210 Communicator heralds the dawn of mobile multimedia". Nokia (Press release). November 21, 2000. Archived from the original on December 12, 2013. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
- "Qualcomm Unveils "pdQ" CDMA Digital Smartphone". Qualcomm (Press release). September 21, 1998. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
- "Qualcomm's pdQ Smartphone Provides Ideal Platform For Wireless Business Solutions". Qualcomm (Press release). June 15, 1999. Retrieved September 29, 2019.
- "Qualcomm pdQ 800 | Device Specs". PhoneDB. February 28, 2008. Retrieved September 29, 2019.
- "Qualcomm pdQ 1900 | Device Specs". PhoneDB. February 28, 2008. Retrieved September 29, 2019.
- "Nokia unveils new media phones for mobile internet access First WAP 1.1 compliant phones for Americas market". www.mobic.com. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
- "Nokia unveils the world's first media phone for Internet access" (Press release). February 23, 1999. Archived from the original on August 27, 2001. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
- "Ericsson R380 PDA & Phone". CellularOnline. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
- "Ericsson R380 / R380s | Device Specs". PhoneDB. January 25, 2008. Retrieved September 29, 2019.
- "Nokia 9210 Communicator Device Specs". PhoneDB. October 16, 2007. Retrieved September 28, 2019.
- "Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless". Wikipedia.
Developed in 1999, as a platform for wireless applications on CDMA-based mobile phones, it debuted in September 2001 ... Originally made for the Kyocera QCP-3035 (which was the very first Brew-enabled phone)
- "RIM Introduces Java-Based BlackBerry Handheld With Integrated Phone for GSM/GPRS Networks in North America" (Press release). BlackBerry. March 4, 2002. Archived from the original on October 28, 2007. Retrieved September 6, 2019.
- "UIQ History". UIQ Technology. Archived from the original on May 23, 2007. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
- Orlowski, Andrew (April 26, 2002). "Hands on with the PDA-killer Sony P800". The Register. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
The P800 resembles its Symbian predecessor, the R380
- Morris, John; Taylor, Josh (November 12, 2001). "Microsoft jumps in the all-in-one game". zdnet.com. Archived from the original on December 17, 2001. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
- Brown, Bruce; Brown, Marge (August 1, 2002). "Audiovox Thera reviewed by PC Magazine". PC Magazine. Retrieved September 6, 2019.
- "Audiovox Thera". PhoneArena. August 8, 2002. Retrieved September 6, 2019.
- "Nokia's first imaging phone marks start of Multimedia Messaging era". Nokia (Press release). November 19, 2001. Archived from the original on September 24, 2016. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
- De Herrera, Chris. "Windows CE / Windows Mobile Versions". pocketpcfaq.com. Retrieved September 6, 2007.
- "Nokia 770 Now Available in Europe". Internet Tablet Talk. November 3, 2005. Archived from the original on November 24, 2005. Retrieved November 5, 2005.
- Jobs, Steve (19 January 2007). Macworld San Francisco 2007 Keynote Address. San Francisco: Apple, Inc. Archived from the original on 23 January 2007.
- "Windows Mobile 6 press release" (Press release). Microsoft. February 7, 2007. Archived from the original on March 10, 2007. Retrieved February 18, 2007.
- Bohn, Dieter; Adolfsson, Marcus (May 30, 2007). "Palm Announces Foleo". treocentral.com. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
- "The Official Palm Blog: A Message to Palm Customers, Partners and Developers". Archived from the original on November 9, 2007. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
- "Industry Leaders Announce Open Platform for Mobile Devices". Open Handset Alliance. November 5, 2007. Retrieved November 5, 2007.
- Delft, Miguel (November 5, 2007). "Google Enters the Wireless World". New York Times. Archived from the original on November 10, 2012. Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- "LiMo Foundation™ Unveils First LiMo Handsets". LiMo Foundation (Press release). February 11, 2008.
- "LiMo Foundation™ Unveils First LiMo Handsets". Just Another Mobile Phone Blog (Press release). February 14, 2008. Retrieved October 21, 2019.
- McGlaun, Shane. "Nokia Offers to Purchase All Symbian Shares for $410M". DailyTech. Archived from the original on August 21, 2016. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
- "Mobile leaders to unify the Symbian software platform and set the future of mobile free" (Press release). Nokia. June 24, 2008. Archived from the original on March 25, 2012. Retrieved April 9, 2011.
- "iPhone OS 2". apple.com. Archived from the original on September 12, 2008.
- Moren, Dan (July 15, 2008). "Review: iPhone 2.0 software update". Macworld.
- Moor, Chris (September 23, 2008). "Android G1 Release Dates, Pricing and More". TalkAndroid.com.
- "Nokia 5800 XpressMusic now shipping". Nokia (Press release). November 27, 2008. Archived from the original on July 8, 2012. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
- "Nokia 5800 / 5800d-1 XpressMusic (Nokia Tube) | Device Specs". PhoneDB. June 17, 2008. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
- Hardy, Ed (January 5, 2009). "UIQ Technology Files for Bankruptcy". Brighthand. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
- Ganapati, Priya (January 30, 2009). "Intel Pushes New Operating System For Netbooks". Wired. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
- Keilhack, Kris (January 8, 2009). "Palm Announces the Palm Pre Smartphone". Palminfocenter.com. Retrieved January 8, 2009.
- "Palm Pre's coming out party: June 6th". Wealth Alchemist. June 5, 2009. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- Bohn, Dieter (February 11, 2009). "No More PalmOS Devices from Palm. No Patent Fight with Apple (yet)". treocentral.com. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
- Ducker, Michael (September 27, 2007). "Hands-on With the Palm Centro". treocentral.com. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
- Ziegler, Chris (February 16, 2009). "Windows Mobile 6.5 walkthrough with Engadget (now with video!)". Engadget.
- "Ballmer: Win Mobile 6.5 an unwanted stopgap". Electronista. March 5, 2009. Archived from the original on March 18, 2015. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
- "Ballmer: We 'screwed up with Windows Mobile'". Computerworld. September 25, 2009.
- "Windows Mobile: What's coming when - All about microsoft". ZDNet.com. Archived from the original on March 4, 2009. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
- "Sidekick LX 2009 / Blade Will Run NetBSD". www.hiptop3.com. January 30, 2009. Archived from the original on March 17, 2009. Retrieved February 5, 2009.
- "How NetBSD came to be shipped by Microsoft. | A Dinosaur Contemplating Asteroids".
- Murph, Darren (November 18, 2009). "Nokia's Maemo 5-equipped N900 on sale in America for $649". Engadget. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
- Ziegler, Chris (January 19, 2010). "Nokia N900 review". Engadget. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
Thing is, Nokia's been absolutely emphatic with us -- Maemo's intended for handheld computers (read: MIDs) with voice capability, while S60 continues to be the choice for purebred smartphones
- Ryan, Justin (February 16, 2010). "Maemo + Moblin = MeeGo". Linux Journal.
- "Samsung GT-S8500 Wave 8GB | Device Specs". PhoneDB. February 20, 2010. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- "Samsung Wave, first Bada smartphone hits the market". Samsung (Press release). May 24, 2010. Archived from the original on December 23, 2010. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
- "iPad Available in US on April 3" (Press release). Apple. March 5, 2010. Retrieved March 5, 2010.
- Bajarin, Ben (June 30, 2011). "HP Is Committed to Its 'webOS' Platform (and It Should Be)". Time. TechLand. Time Inc. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- "HP snubs Windows, plans to integrate webOS into PCs". Digital Trends. February 9, 2011. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
- "Windows Phone 7 and KIN Closer Cousins Than Thought". Phone Scoop. May 12, 2010. Archived from the original on January 31, 2013.
- "Verizon returns unsold Kin phones, pulls online sales, July 18, 2010". Electronista.com. July 18, 2010. Archived from the original on May 17, 2013. Retrieved February 4, 2013.
- Ziegler, Chris (June 30, 2010). "Microsoft Kin is dead". Engadget.com. Retrieved February 4, 2013.
- Heussner, Ki Mae (September 1, 2010). "Apple Goes 'Wild' Over New iPods". ABC News. Archived from the original on September 4, 2010. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
- "Nokia N8 is shipping (photos) - Nokia Conversations : the official Nokia blog". Nokia. September 30, 2010. Archived from the original on July 7, 2012. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
- "Nokia N8-00 (Nokia Vasco) | Device Specs". PhoneDB. May 11, 2010. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
- "How Much Did Microsoft Pay For Danger?". GigaOM. February 12, 2008.
- "Nokia reabsorbs Symbian software". BBC News. November 8, 2010.
- Hollister, Sean (September 26, 2010). "Microsoft prepping Windows Phone 7 for an October 21 launch? (update: US on Nov. 8?)". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved September 29, 2010.
- Miniman, Brandon (February 17, 2010). "Thoughts on Windows Phone 7 Series (BTW: Photon is Dead)". Pocketnow. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved June 5, 2010.
- "Steve Ballmer wishes Windows Mobile 7 had already launched, but they screwed up". MobileTechWorld. September 24, 2009. Archived from the original on November 4, 2013. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
- "Motorola Xoom". CNET. February 24, 2011. Archived from the original on April 8, 2011. Retrieved April 8, 2011.
- Litchfield, Steve (February 11, 2011). "Nokia's new strategy and structure, Symbian to be a "franchise platform", MeeGo still in long term plans". All About MeeGo. Archived from the original on September 6, 2013. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
- Ricker, Thomas (February 11, 2011). "RIP: Symbian". engadget.com. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
- Paul, Ryan (July 25, 2011). "Mozilla eyes mobile OS landscape with new Boot to Gecko project". Ars Technica. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
- "webOS 3.0.5 now available for TouchPad". January 12, 2012. Retrieved January 12, 2012.
- "HP kills webOS, spins off PC business to focus on software". AppleInsider. August 11, 2011. Retrieved August 18, 2011.
- Ziegler, Chris (January 12, 2012). "HP TouchPad updated to webOS 3.0.5". The Verge. Retrieved August 7, 2017.
- Halliday, Josh; Arthur, Charles (September 28, 2011). "Nokia N9: last of the line". the Guardian. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
- Davies, Chris (June 23, 2011). "Nokia N950 arriving with MeeGo developers now". SlashGear. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
- Paul, Ryan (September 28, 2011). "MeeGo rebooted as Intel and Samsung launch new Tizen platform". Ars Technica. Retrieved September 28, 2011.
- Warren, Tom (May 2, 2012). "Nokia's 41-megapixel 808 PureView phone arriving in Russia and India in May". The Verge. Retrieved September 27, 2019.
- Lunden, Ingrid (January 24, 2013). "Nokia Confirms The PureView Was Officially The Last Symbian Phone". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved September 14, 2015.
- Hay, Emma (May 25, 2012). "Symbian Carla Cancelled, Beginning Of The End For Symbian?". ITProPortal. Archived from the original on November 6, 2018. Retrieved September 27, 2019.
- Jolla [@JollaHQ] (August 1, 2012). "@kavalczuk #MeeGo is the name people know and love. #merproject is the core OS project name" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Fingas, Jon (July 7, 2012). "Jolla promises MeeGo will live on, plans new smartphone to reward the faithful". Engadget. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
- "No more bada and TIZEN in 2012". Sammobile.com. August 22, 2012. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
- Spoonauer, Mark (November 12, 2012). "BlackBerry 10 launches Jan. 30 with two new phones". NBC News. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
- "LG Electronics Acquires webOS from HP to Enhance Smart TV" (Press release). Hewlett-Packard. February 25, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
- Byford, Sam (February 25, 2013). "LG buys webOS from HP for use in smart TVs". The Verge. Retrieved September 8, 2019.
- "Ubuntu phone OS announced, first devices shipping in early 2014". Archived from the original on June 20, 2017.
- "Jolla Smartphone specs". PhoneArena. September 20, 2013. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
- Robertson, Adi (February 24, 2014). "This is Nokia X: Android and Windows Phone collide". The Verge. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
- "Microsoft kills off its Nokia Android phones". The Verge. April 8, 2014.
- "Samsung SM-Z9005 Z (Samsung Redwood) | Device Specs". PhoneDB. June 2, 2014. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- Byford, Sam (March 1, 2015). "Our first look at LG's new webOS and Android Wear smartwatches". The Verge. Retrieved August 28, 2016.
- Benson, Matthew (June 23, 2015). "Watch Urbane LTE impressions: LG's little known webOS experiment". Android Authority. Retrieved August 28, 2016.
- "An update for BlackBerry® 10 Developers". BlackBerry Developer Blog. October 26, 2015. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
- Dolcourt, Jessica (October 6, 2015). "Microsoft Lumia 950 coming in November with Windows 10, 5.2-inch screen, starts at $549 (hands-on)". CNET. CBS Interactive.
- Litchfield, Steve (February 15, 2016). "Microsoft officially announces the Lumia 650". All About Windows Phone. Retrieved February 15, 2016.
- Bowden, Zac (October 8, 2017). "Microsoft's Joe Belfiore says Windows 10 Mobile features and hardware are no longer a focus". Windows Central. Mobile Nations. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- "BlackBerry to stop making Classic smartphone". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
- McCaskill, Steve (July 14, 2016). "BlackBerry: BB10 And Keyboard Phones Are Not Dead". NetMediaEurope.
- Lomas, Natasha. "Priv, The Android Phone With A Physical Keyboard, Goes Up For Pre-Order". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved November 3, 2015.
- The Associated Press (August 22, 2016). "Google Rolling Out Latest Android System to Nexus Phones". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on August 26, 2016. Retrieved August 29, 2016.
- Reilly, Claire (October 8, 2017). "Windows 10 Mobile gets its final death sentence". CNET. Retrieved October 9, 2017.
- Hruska, Joel (October 9, 2017). "Microsoft Admits Windows 10 Mobile Is Finally, Mercifully Dead". www.extremetech.com. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
- Allison, Michael (October 18, 2017). "The Lumia 640 and 640 XL can't handle Microsoft's feature-packed Windows 10 Fall Creators Update". MSPoweruser. Retrieved July 20, 2018.
- Haselton, Todd (January 18, 2019). "Microsoft recommends switching to iPhone or Android as it prepares to kill off Windows phones". CNBC. CNBC LLC, a Division of NBCUniversal. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
- Warren, Tom (January 18, 2019). "Microsoft to end Windows 10 Mobile updates and support in December". The Verge. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
- "Gartner Says Mobile Phone Sales Grew 35 Percent in Third Quarter 2010; Smartphone Sales Increased 96 Percent". Gartner, Inc. November 10, 2010. Table 2. Archived from the original on January 13, 2011. Retrieved February 21, 2011.
- Amadeo, Ron (July 21, 2018). "Google's iron grip on Android: Controlling open source by any means necessary". Ars Technica.
- "ICS is coming to AOSP".
- Balky carriers and slow OEMs step aside: Google is defragging Android. Archived September 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Ars Technica Archived July 3, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved December 24, 2013.
- "microG Project". microg.org.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 5, 2017. Retrieved August 5, 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "OnePlus 3". oneplus.net. Archived from the original on September 21, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
- "Kernel Design". The Chromium Projects.
- "Nemo". Mer Wiki. Retrieved August 20, 2013.
- "The Nemo Mobile Open Source Project on Ohloh". Ohloh.net. Retrieved August 20, 2013.
- Marko Saukko (February 3, 2013), Porting Nemo Mobile and Mer Project to new Hardware, FOSDEM 2013, retrieved July 29, 2013
- Welcome to Tizen! Archived October 13, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Tizen.org (September 27, 2011). Retrieved on July 3, 2012.
- Ricker, Thomas. (September 28, 2011)MeeGo is dead: Meet Tizen, another new open source OS based on Linux Archived September 30, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Thisismynext.com. Retrieved on July 3, 2012.
- "Tizen 2.1 SDK and Source Code Release". Tizen.org. Archived from the original on July 30, 2013.
- "The emerging OS". KaiOS. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
- "Can I access the source code? : KaiOS". Support.kaiostech.com.
- "KaiOS/B2G repository".
- "KaiOS is doing well in India, but it's pulling some big numbers in US too". Android Authority. March 1, 2019.
- Amadeo, Ron (May 8, 2017). "Google's "Fuchsia" smartphone OS dumps Linux, has a wild new UI". Ars Technica.
- Byfield, Bruce (2018). "Librem 5 and the Challenge of the Free Phone". Linux Magazine. Archived from the original on August 28, 2018. Retrieved August 29, 2018.
- Holwerda, Thom (August 24, 2017). "Librem 5: a security and privacy focused GNU/Linux smartphone". OSNews. Archived from the original on August 28, 2018. Retrieved August 29, 2018.
- "ContainerArchitecture". Archived from the original on October 31, 2016. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
- Verma, Ardash (April 25, 2018). "Open Source Smartphone Librem 5 Will Officially Support Ubuntu Touch". Fossbytes. Archived from the original on August 28, 2018. Retrieved August 29, 2018.
- "Growing Ubuntu for cloud and IoT, rather than phone and convergence". April 5, 2017. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
- "Is Ubuntu Touch Dead?". January 5, 2017. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
- "The UBports Foundation *: Details about the foundation". June 19, 2018. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
- "Touch/ReleaseNotes". February 7, 2017. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
- "Milestones". September 24, 2018. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
- "Stable OTA-1. Halium is Heating up, Convergence Works!". June 18, 2017. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
- "Ubuntu Touch OTA-2 Release". September 5, 2017. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
- "Ubuntu Touch OTA-3". December 22, 2017. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
- "Ubuntu Touch OTA-4 Release". August 26, 2018. Archived from the original on June 8, 2019. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
- "Ubuntu Touch OTA-5 Release". October 12, 2018. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
- "Ubuntu Touch OTA-6 Release". December 7, 2018. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
- Swapnil Bhartiya (July 25, 2015). "KDE Community announces fully open source Plasma Mobile". ITworld. Retrieved August 23, 2015.
- Bhartiya, Swapnil (July 25, 2015). "Sebastian Kügler: KDE's Plasma Mobile is running on Plasma 5 and Kubuntu". ITworld. Retrieved August 23, 2015.
- Kügler, Sebastian (July 25, 2015). "Plasma Mobile, a Free Mobile Platform". KDE.news. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
- "KDE Reveals Plasma Mobile". linuxjournal.com.
- Jensen, Dan Leinir Turthra (July 26, 2015). "Shashlik: Android Applications on Real Linux – Akademy 2015 Program". kde.org. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
- Tung, Liam (November 30, 2018). "First truly open-source smartphone? Necuno unveils its KDE on Linux handset". ZDNet. Archived from the original on March 7, 2019. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
- Lunden, Ingrid. "Apple Took 89% Of Q4 Smartphone Profits With Android OEMs In A Race To The Bottom". Archived from the original on July 15, 2017.
- 4, Patrick O'RourkeJan; comments, 201711:25 AM EST41 (January 4, 2017). "BlackBerry has no plans to release new BB10 devices [Update]". Archived from the original on January 5, 2017.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- "Android and iOS Squeeze the Competition, Swelling to 96.3% of the Smartphone Operating System Market for Both 4Q14 and CY14, According to IDC". IDC.com. February 24, 2015. Archived from the original on February 25, 2015.
- "B2G – MozillaWiki". mozilla.org. August 24, 2011. Archived from the original on August 7, 2011. Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- Paul, Ryan (July 25, 2011). "Mozilla eyes mobile OS landscape with new Boot to Gecko project". Arstechnica.com. Archived from the original on September 12, 2011. Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- "B2G OS and Gecko Announcement from Ari Jaaksi & David Bryant". 27 September 2016. Archived from the original on 22 January 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
- "Introducing the Nokia N9: all it takes is a swipe! | Nokia Conversations – The official Nokia Blog". Nokia. June 21, 2011. Archived from the original on June 24, 2011. Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- "MeeGo Not Dead Yet as LG Continues the Charge — Mobile Technology News". Gigaom.com. April 29, 2011. Archived from the original on August 29, 2011. Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- "HP Confirms Discussions with Autonomy Corporation plc Regarding Possible Business Combination; Makes Other Announcements". HP. August 18, 2010. Archived from the original on October 6, 2011. Retrieved September 13, 2011.
- "The next chapter for webOS". HP webOS Developer Blog. August 19, 2010. Archived from the original on September 24, 2011. Retrieved September 13, 2011.
- "Open webOS::Roadmap". Open webOS Project. September 2012. Archived from the original on October 29, 2012. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
- Arthur, Charles (September 29, 2014). "Ten things to know about BlackBerry – and how much trouble it is (or isn't) in". TheGuardian.com. The Guardian. Archived from the original on May 28, 2015. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
- McLaughlin, Kevin (December 17, 2009). "BlackBerry Users Call For RIM To Rethink Service". CRN.com. Archived from the original on September 7, 2011. Retrieved December 15, 2011.
- "Microsoft is killing off Nokia's feature phones in favor of Windows Phone". July 17, 2014. Archived from the original on August 8, 2017.
- Samsung scraps Bada OS, folds it into Tizen – FierceMobileIT Archived February 28, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Fiercemobilecontent.com (February 25, 2013). Retrieved on December 9, 2013.
- "64 million smart phones shipped worldwide in 2006". Canalys, Inc. Archived from the original on January 6, 2012. Retrieved January 13, 2012.
- "Gartner Says Worldwide Sales of Smartphones Returned to Growth in First Quarter of 2018". Gartner, Inc. Gartner. May 29, 2018. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
- "Desktop vs Mobile vs Tablet vs Console Market Share Worldwide | StatCounter Global Stats". StatCounter Global Stats. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- "Desktop vs Mobile vs Tablet vs Console Market Share Worldwide". StatCounter Global Stats. Archived from the original on April 4, 2017.
- "Desktop vs Mobile vs Tablet vs Console Market Share Europe". StatCounter Global Stats. Archived from the original on April 20, 2017.
- "India amongst world leaders in use of mobile to surf the internet" (Press release). March 28, 2017. Archived from the original on April 22, 2017.
- "Operating System Market Share India". StatCounter Global Stats. Archived from the original on April 22, 2017.
- "Comparison from W34 to W45 2015". StatCounter Global Stats. Archived from the original on April 20, 2017.
- "StatCounter Global Stats – Browser, OS, Search Engine including Mobile Usage Share". Archived from the original on May 26, 2012.
- "Operating System Market Share Puerto Rico". StatCounter Global Stats. Archived from the original on June 23, 2017.
- "StatCounter Global Stats – Browser, OS, Search Engine including Mobile Usage Share". Archived from the original on May 26, 2012.
- "StatCounter Global Stats – Browser, OS, Search Engine including Mobile Usage Share". statcounter.com. Archived from the original on May 26, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2017.
- "Mobile and tablet Internet usage exceeds desktop for first time worldwide". StatCounter (Press release). Archived from the original on November 1, 2016.
- "Gartner Says Global Smartphone Sales Continued to Decline in Second Quarter of 2019". Gartner. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
- "The second-largest mobile OS in India rhymes with iOS, but isn't iOS". Android Authority. July 12, 2018. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
- "Gartner Says Demand for 4G Smartphones in Emerging Markets Spurred Growth in Second Quarter of 2017". www.gartner.com. Archived from the original on September 1, 2017. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
- "Gartner Says Worldwide Sales of Smartphones Grew 9 Percent in First Quarter of 2017". www.gartner.com. Archived from the original on June 6, 2017. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
- "Gartner Says Worldwide Sales of Smartphones Grew 7 Percent in the Fourth Quarter of 2016". www.gartner.com. Archived from the original on February 18, 2017. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
- "Gartner Says Chinese Smartphone Vendors Were Only Vendors in the Global Top Five to Increase Sales in the Third Quarter of 2016". www.gartner.com. Archived from the original on November 20, 2016. Retrieved December 9, 2016.
- "Gartner Says Five of Top 10 Worldwide Mobile Phone Vendors Increased Sales in Second Quarter of 2016". www.gartner.com. Archived from the original on August 19, 2016. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
- "Gartner Says Worldwide Smartphone Sales Grew 3.9 Percent in First Quarter of 2016". www.gartner.com. Archived from the original on May 22, 2016. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
- "Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2015 Q4". Gartner, Inc. Archived from the original on June 13, 2017. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- "Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2015 Q3". Gartner, Inc. Archived from the original on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
- "Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2015 Q2". Gartner, Inc. Archived from the original on 22 August 2015. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
- "Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2015 Q1". Gartner, Inc. Archived from the original on 14 June 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
- "Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2014 Q4". Gartner, Inc. Archived from the original on 13 June 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2014 Q3". Gartner, Inc. Archived from the original on 15 December 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2013 Q4". Gartner, Inc. Archived from the original on 14 February 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2013 Q3". Gartner, Inc. Archived from the original on 14 November 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
- "Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2013 Q2". Gartner, Inc. Archived from the original on 16 August 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
- "Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2013 Q1". Gartner, Inc. Archived from the original on 7 June 2013. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
- "Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2012 Q4". Gartner, Inc. Archived from the original on 28 December 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- "Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2012 Q3". Gartner, Inc. Archived from the original on 15 November 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
- "Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2012 Q2". Gartner, Inc. Archived from the original on 16 August 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
- "Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2012 Q1". Gartner, Inc. Archived from the original on 28 May 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
- "Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2011 Q4". Gartner, Inc. Archived from the original on 19 May 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
- "Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2011 Q3". Gartner, Inc. Archived from the original on 16 May 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
- "Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2011 Q2". Gartner, Inc. Archived from the original on 3 June 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
- "Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2011 Q1". Gartner, Inc. Archived from the original on 10 May 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
- "Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2010 Q4". Gartner, Inc. Archived from the original on 6 June 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
- "Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2010 Q3". Gartner, Inc. Archived from the original on May 10, 2012. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
- "Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2010 Q2". Gartner, Inc. Archived from the original on 24 May 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
- "Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2010 Q1". Gartner, Inc. Archived from the original on 10 May 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
- "Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2008 Q4". Gartner, Inc. Archived from the original on 24 May 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
- "Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2008 Q3". Gartner, Inc. Archived from the original on 24 May 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
- "Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2008 Q2". Gartner, Inc. Archived from the original on 20 May 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
- Calculate and insert data from this site http://iknow.stpi.narl.org.tw/post/Read.aspx?PostID=11517