|Missouri's 4th congressional district|
Missouri's 4th congressional district consists of west central Missouri. The district is predominantly rural and relatively conservative; George W. Bush defeated John Kerry 64% to 35% in the 2004 election and John McCain defeated Barack Obama 61% to 38% in the 2008 election. The district is currently represented by Vicky Hartzler, a Republican. She was first elected in the 2010 election, defeating 34-year Democratic incumbent Ike Skelton. It stretches from Columbia to the southern suburbs of Kansas City, including a sliver of Kansas City itself.
This district had historically been a Democratic Party stronghold. Antipathy to the Republican Party had its origins in the American Civil War and the infamous General Order 11. The Union Army ordered evacuation of the county in an attempt to reduce support for and the power of bushwhacker guerrillas. After the Civil War, there was disfranchisement of white males (mostly Democrats) who had been active for the Confederacy until they took loyalty oaths, or until 1870. The area was filled with conflict between Missouri's Radicals, who joined the Republicans, and Conservatives, who were Democrats. By 1880 former secessionists dominated Missouri's congressional delegation and state legislature.
Gradually this area developed a character similar to Yellow Dog Democrat districts in the South. Until 2010, only one Republican had been elected here since the Great Depression, and only for one term. However, several demographic trends have converged to erode the Democratic base in this district. First, as the New York Times election maps show, the predominantly rural counties lining the Missouri River have sharply trended Republican between the 2000 Senate election and the 2006 election, following trends across the South.
Secondly, population losses in Kansas City resulted in the 4th gradually losing much of its share of heavily Democratic Jackson County to the Kansas City-based 5th district. As late as 1973, it included the eastern portion of Kansas City itself, and until 1983, the district stretched as far as Independence on Kansas City's eastern border. To compensate for this, large portions of heavily Republican Southwest Missouri were reassigned from the neighboring 7th district. The result of these trends resulted in a dramatic collapse of Democratic support in the district. Al Gore, John Kerry, and Barack Obama won less than 40% of the vote here. It ultimately presaged Skelton's defeat by Hartzler in 2010. Since Skelton's defeat, no Democrat has managed even 40 percent of the vote.
List of members representing the district
|Democratic||Ike Skelton (Incumbent)||101,532||45.11%|
|Libertarian||Jason Michael Braun||6,123||2.72%|
|Republican||Vicky Hartzler (Incumbent)||192,237||60.3|
|Republican||Vicky Hartzler (Incumbent)||120,014||68.08%|
|Libertarian||Herschel L. Young||9,793||5.56%|
|Write-In||Gregory A Cowan||15||0.01%|
|Republican||Vicky Hartzler (incumbent)||225,348||67.83%|
|Republican||Vicky Hartzler (incumbent)||190,138||64.8%|
|Republican||Vicky Hartzler (incumbent)||245,247||67.6|
|Libertarian||Steven K. Koonse||9,954||2.7|
There is a total of 24 counties included in MO-04.
Election results from presidential races
|Year||Office||Results||Political parties that won the district|
|2000||President||George W. Bush 58 - Al Gore 40%||Republican Party (United States)|
|2004||President||George W. Bush 64 - John Kerry 35%||Republican Party (United States)|
|2008||President||John McCain 61 - Barack Obama 38%||Republican Party (United States)|
|2012||President||Mitt Romney 61 - Barack Obama 36%||Republican Party (United States)|
|2016||President||Donald Trump 65 - Hillary Clinton 29%||Republican Party (United States)|
|2020||President||Donald Trump 66 - Joe Biden 32%||Republican Party (United States)|
2008 Presidential Election Results by County
The table below shows how individual counties in MO-04 voted in the 2008 presidential election. U.S. Senator John McCain (R-Arizona) won every single county in MO-04 and swept the district with 60.58 percent of the vote while U.S. Senator Barack Obama (D-Illinois) received 37.87 percent, a 22.71-percent margin of victory for the GOP.
|County||John McCain||Barack Obama||Difference|
|Barton||74.21||24.46||R + 49.75|
|Dade||69.65||28.79||R + 40.86|
|Moniteau||67.02||31.27||R + 35.75|
|Laclede||66.62||31.97||R + 34.65|
|Cedar||66.01||32.42||R + 33.59|
|Polk||65.39||33.24||R + 32.15|
|Dallas||63.71||34.57||R + 29.14|
|Webster||63.77||34.76||R + 29.01|
|Pulaski||63.68||34.99||R + 28.69|
|Camden||63.59||35.12||R + 28.47|
|Cole||62.94||36.03||R + 26.91|
|Pettis||60.51||38.07||R + 22.44|
|Benton||60.20||37.93||R + 22.27|
|Vernon||60.08||38.08||R + 22.00|
|St. Clair||59.76||37.81||R + 21.95|
|Morgan||59.58||38.97||R + 20.61|
|Cass||59.18||39.55||R + 19.63|
|Bates||58.35||39.49||R + 18.86|
|Lafayette||56.88||41.58||R + 15.30|
|Hickory||55.72||42.44||R + 13.28|
|Johnson||55.18||42.93||R + 12.25|
|Henry||54.62||43.63||R + 10.99|
|Ray||50.60||47.42||R + 3.18|
|Saline||50.39||47.85||R + 2.54|
2008 Missouri Democratic Presidential Primary Election Results by County
The table below shows how individual counties in MO-04 voted in the 2008 Missouri Democratic Presidential Primary. Former U.S. Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton (D-New York) swept the district by a convincing margin over U.S. Senator Barack Obama (D-Illinois). Clinton won every county in the district with the exception of Cole County, home of the State Capitol.
|County||Hillary Clinton||Barack Obama||Difference|
|Benton||68.77||26.95||C + 41.82|
|St. Clair||67.52||26.12||C + 41.40|
|Hickory||67.95||27.86||C + 40.09|
|Ray||65.29||30.31||C + 34.98|
|Bates||63.51||30.08||C + 33.43|
|Dallas||63.75||32.01||C + 31.74|
|Henry||63.18||32.10||C + 31.08|
|Barton||63.43||32.85||C + 30.58|
|Polk||63.81||33.28||C + 30.53|
|Vernon||61.55||31.42||C + 30.13|
|Dade||62.22||33.12||C + 29.10|
|Laclede||62.48||33.77||C + 28.71|
|Morgan||62.05||33.58||C + 28.47|
|Cedar||60.30||33.00||C + 27.30|
|Webster||61.20||34.46||C + 26.74|
|Lafayette||60.75||35.40||C + 25.35|
|Moniteau||60.38||36.38||C + 24.00|
|Cass||59.76||36.73||C + 23.03|
|Saline||57.46||37.85||C + 19.61|
|Camden||57.99||38.75||C + 19.24|
|Pulaski||56.07||39.35||C + 16.72|
|Pettis||54.76||41.38||C + 13.38|
|Johnson||53.22||43.07||C + 10.15|
|Cole||45.07||51.16||O + 6.09|
Historical district boundaries
- "Introducing the 2021 Cook Political Report Partisan Voter Index". The Cook Political Report. April 15, 2021. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
- "Senate Races". The New York Times.
- "Willard Preble Hall, 1864-1865". Missouri Digital Heritage. Retrieved December 26, 2020.
- "Mordecai Oliver". Find a Grave. Retrieved December 26, 2020.
- "Sempronius Hamilton Boyd". Find a Grave. Retrieved December 26, 2020.
- "All Results State of Missouri - State of Missouri - General Election, November 03, 2020". Missouri Secretary of State. Retrieved December 9, 2020.
- Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
- Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
- Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present