Quebec is the second-most populous province in Canada with 8,164,361 residents as of 2016 and is the largest in land area at 1,356,625 km2 (523,796 sq mi). In 2016, Quebec's 1,108 municipalities covered 37.7% of the province's land mass yet were home to 99.3% of its population.
The Government of Quebec's Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Land Occupancy recognizes seven types of municipalities – cities (cités), towns (villes), villages (villages), parishes (paroisses), townships (cantons), united townships (cantons unis), and municipalities (municipalités). All municipalities (except cities), are functionally and legally identical. In some cases, the designation serves to disambiguate between otherwise identically-named municipalities. Municipalities are governed primarily by the Code municipal du Québec (Municipal Code of Québec, R.S.Q. c. C-27.1), whereas cities and towns are governed by the Loi sur les cités et villes (Cities and Towns Act, R.S.Q. c. C-19) as well as (in the case of the older ones) various individual charters.
Of Quebec's 1,108 municipalities, 652 or 59% of them are simply "municipalities". Among the remaining 456, there are 227 towns, 43 villages, 142 parishes, 42 townships, and 2 united townships. Despite still being a legal municipal status, there are no longer any cities in Quebec.
In 2016, 21% of Quebec's population resided in Montreal, its largest municipality. L'Île-Dorval and Saint-Louis-de-Gonzague-du-Cap-Tourmente are Quebec's smallest municipalities by population with 5 people each. The largest municipality by land area is Eeyou Istchee James Bay at 297,355.46 km2 (114,809.58 sq mi), while the smallest by land area is Notre-Dame-des-Anges at 0.04 km2 (0.015 sq mi).
Quebec has 227 towns (French: villes) that had a cumulative population of 6,827,286 in the 2016 Canadian Census. Quebec's largest and smallest towns by population are Montreal and L'Île-Dorval with populations of 1,704,694 and 5. Quebec's largest and smallest towns by land area are La Tuque and L'Île-Dorval with 25,112.41 km2 (9,695.96 sq mi) and 0.19 km2 (0.073 sq mi).
Quebec has 43 villages that had a cumulative population of 44,067 in the 2016 Canadian Census. Quebec's largest village is Val-David with a population of 4,917, while Kingsbury is province's smallest village with a population of 138. Quebec's largest and smallest villages by area are Baie-Trinité and Lac-Poulin with land areas of 424.38 km2 (163.85 sq mi) and 0.88 km2 (0.34 sq mi).
Quebec has 142 parishes (French: paroisses) that had a cumulative population of 142,373 in the 2016 Canadian Census. Quebec's largest and smallest parishes Notre-Dame-du-Mont-Carmel and Saint-Louis-de-Gonzague-du-Cap-Tourmente with populations of 5,751 and 5. Quebec's largest and smallest parishes by land area are Saint-Alexis-des-Monts and Notre-Dame-des-Anges with 1,048.39 km2 (404.79 sq mi) and 0.04 km2 (0.015 sq mi).
Quebec has 42 townships (French: cantons) that had a cumulative population of 45,333 and in the 2016 Canadian Census. Quebec's largest and smallest townships by population are Shefford and Ristigouche-Partie-Sud-Est with populations of 6,947 and 171. Quebec's largest and smallest townships by area are Nédélec and Bedford with land areas of 374.10 km2 (144.44 sq mi) and 31.98 km2 (12.35 sq mi).
Quebec has two united townships (French: cantons unis). Stoneham-et-Tewkesbury, the larger united township, had a population of 8,359 in the 2016 Canadian Census, while Latulipe-et-Gaboury had a population of 295.
Quebec has 652 municipalities that are simply designated "municipalities" (French: municipalités). They had a cumulative population of 1,037,909 in the 2016 Canadian Census. Quebec's largest and smallest municipalities are Sainte-Sophie and Saint-Benoît-du-Lac with populations of 15,690 and 32. Quebec's largest and smallest municipalities by land area are Eeyou Istchee James Bay and Howick with 297,355.46 km2 (114,809.58 sq mi) and 0.97 km2 (0.37 sq mi).
List of municipalities
The skyline of Montreal viewed from the Jacques Cartier Bridge. Montreal is Quebec's largest municipality
The skyline of Quebec City. Quebec City is Quebec's capital and second largest municipality
Aerial photo of Laval. Laval is Quebec's third largest municipality and the largest suburb of Montreal
Longueuil, Quebec. Longueuil is the second largest suburb of Montreal
Trois-Rivières, a municipality located approximately halfway between Montreal and Quebec City
Greater Montreal metropolitan area. Located in the
Quebec Metropolitan Community. Located in the
- List of census agglomerations in Quebec
- List of communities in Quebec
- List of designated places in Quebec
- List of population centres in Quebec
- Municipal history of Quebec
- "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2016 and 2011 censuses – 100% data". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2017. Retrieved February 11, 2017.
- "Répertoire des municipalités". Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Land Occupancy. Retrieved October 6, 2019.
- "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2016 and 2011 censuses – 100% data (Quebec)". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2017. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
- Municipal Code of Quebec (also in French)
- Cities and Towns Act (also in French)
- "Population and dwelling count amendments, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. January 16, 2018. Retrieved February 3, 2018.