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This is a list of energy storage power plants worldwide, other than pumped hydro storage. Many individual energy storage plants augment electrical grids by capturing excess electrical energy during periods of low demand and storing it in other forms until needed on an electrical grid. The energy is later converted back to its electrical form and returned to the grid as needed. Most of the world's grid energy storage by capacity is in the form of pumped-storage hydroelectricity, which is covered in List of pumped-storage hydroelectric power stations. This article list plants using all other forms of energy storage.
Another energy storage method is the consumption of surplus or low-cost energy (typically during night time) for conversion into resources such as hot water, cool water or ice, which is then used for heating or cooling at other times when electricity is in higher demand and at greater cost per kilowatt hour (kWh). Such thermal energy storage is often employed at end-user sites such as large buildings, and also as part of district heating, thus 'shifting' energy consumption to other times for better balancing of supply and demand.
Largest energy storage plants
Table is by default sorted by operational storage capacity in MWh. Minimum capacity for inclusion is either 10 MWh or 10 MW.
|Ouarzazate Solar Power Station||Thermal storage, molten salt||3,005||510||3 / 7 / 7.5||Morocco||Ouarzazate||2018||World's largest concentrated solar power plant with molten salt storage built in 3 phases - 160 MW phase 1 with 3 hours heat storage, 200 MW phase 2 with 7 hours heat storage and 150 MW phase 3 with 7.5 hours heat storage.|
|McIntosh CAES Plant||Compressed air storage, in-ground natural gas combustion||2,860||110||26||United States||Alabama, McIntosh||1991||The 2nd commercial CAES plant, in operation since 1991, stores compressed air in a salt cavern of 220 ft diameter, with ten million cubic foot total volume. The cavern is pressurized to 1,100 psi, and it is discharged down to 650 psi. During discharge, 340 pounds per second of air flow out of the cavern. The cavern can discharge for 26 hours. The plant also utilizes nuclear-sourced night-time power for compression and then produces peak power during the day by releasing the compressed air into a 110-MW gas-fired combustion turbine. The turbine unit also makes use of an air-to-air heat exchanger to preheat air from the cavern with waste heat from the turbine. The waste heat recovery system reduces fuel usage by roughly 25%. The system is fully operational within 15 minutes, uses a third of the fuel required for a fuel-only generating system, and can operate efficiently at low loads. The project is used for peak shaving.|
|Cerro Dominador Solar Thermal Plant||Thermal storage, molten salt||1,925||110||17.5||Chile||Antofagasta||2021||A concentrated solar power plant with 17,5 hours molten salt storage|
|Solana Generating Station||Thermal storage, molten salt||1,680||280||6||United States||Arizona, Gila Bend||2013||Completed in 2013, the parabolic trough solar plant, with 6 hours storage by molten salt, is located near Gila Bend, Arizona. At the time it was the world's largest parabolic trough plant, and the first United States solar plant with thermal storage.|
|Moss Landing Energy Storage Facility||Battery, lithium-ion||1,200||300||4||United States||Moss Landing, California||2020||World's largest Li-ion battery; Phase 2 will add 100MW/400MWh|
|Extresol Solar Power Station||Thermal storage, molten salt||1,125||150||7.5||Spain||Torre de Miguel Sesmero, Badajoz||2009||A concentrated solar power plant with 7,5 hours molten salt storage|
|Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project||Thermal storage, molten salt||1,100||110||10||United States||Tonopah, Nevada||2016||A concentrated solar power plant with 10 hours molten salt storage|
|Andasol Solar Power Station||Thermal storage, molten salt||1,031||134.7||7.5||Spain||Granada, Guadix||2009||A thermal storage system absorbs part of the daytime heat absorbed by the solar field, heating a molten salt mixture of 60% sodium nitrate and 40% potassium nitrate. The heat is used to drive a turbine-generator when direct sunlight is not available, nearly doubling the available hours of operation. A full thermal reservoir holds 1,010 MWh of heat capability, enough to run the turbine for over seven hours at full load. |
|Huntorf CAES Plant||Compressed air storage, in-ground natural gas combustion||870||290||3||Germany||Huntorf, Elsfleth||1978||First commercial CAES plant, operational since 1978, using nuclear-sourced night-time power to compress and inject the air into two caverns of 310,000 m³ total volume. The 600 m cavern depth ensures the air's stability through seasonal temperature changes, and guarantees the specified maximum pressure of 100 bar. One cavern is cycled daily; the other serves as backup when the nearby nuclear power plant goes offline.|
|Bokpoort CSP||Thermal storage, molten salt||450||50||9||South Africa||Northern Cape Province, Globershoop||2015||The Bokpoort Concentrated Solar Plant (CSP) Project, being contracted in 2014, comprises a solar field, a power block, a thermal energy storage system and related infrastructure such as grid interconnection and water abstraction and treatment systems. The solar field comprises loops of parabolic trough solar collector assemblies which will collect the heat from the sun. The solar collectors will be capable of heating the heat transfer fluid up to 393 °C. The power block comprises a solar steam generator and a steam turbine delivering 50 MW (net). |
|Alamitos Energy Center||Battery, lithium-ion||400||100||4||United States||Long Beach||2021|||
|KaXu Solar One||Thermal storage, molten salt||300||100||3||South Africa||Northern Cape Province, Pofadder||2015||KaXu Solar One is a 100 MW parabolic trough plant. The power station will have a storage capacity of three hours and use molten salt to store heat energy. In the parabolic trough system, the sun's energy is concentrated by parabolically curved, trough-shaped reflectors onto a receiver pipe running along the focal line of the curved surface. This energy heats oil flowing through the pipe, and the heat energy is then used to convert water to steam and generate electricity in a conventional steam generator. |
|Buzen Substation||Battery, sodium-sulfur||300||50||6||Japan||Buzen||2016|||
|Rokkasho Aomari||Battery, sodium-sulfur||245||34||7||Japan||Rokkasho||2008|||
|Gateway Energy Storage||Battery, lithium-ion||230||230||1||United States||Otay Mesa, California||2020|||
|Huanghe Hydropower Hainan Storage||Battery||202.8||202.8||1||China||Hainan, Qinghai||2020||Connected with adjacent 2,2 GW photovoltaic Huanghe Hydropower Hainan Solar Park|
|Hornsdale Power Reserve||Battery, lithium-ion||193.5||150||Australia||South Australia, Jamestown||2017||Tesla Powerpack is charged using renewable energy and delivers electricity during peak hours to help maintain the reliable operation of South Australia's electrical infrastructure. It initially provided up to 100 MW peak with a capacity of 129 MWh, and was expanded in July 2020 to 150 MW/193.5MWh. |
|Hyundai & Korea Zinc energy storage system||Battery, lithium-ion||150||?||?||South Korea||Ulsan||2018||Ordered by Korea Zinc, a metal smelting company, at a cost of €37,87 million. It is located at its Ulsan refinery near the southeast coast.|
|Escondido Substation||Battery, lithium-ion||120||30||4||United States||Escondido||2017|||
|Khi Solar One||Thermal Storage, Steam||100||50||2||South Africa||Northern Cape Province, Upington||2016||Khi Solar One is a 50 MW concentrated solar power plant with a power tower that uses large, sun-tracking mirrors (heliostats) to focus sunlight on a receiver at the top of a tower. Water is pumped up to the tower mounted receiver and is converted to steam, which, in turn, is used in a conventional turbine generator to produce electricity. The power station will include a facility to store steam, enabling it to generate electricity for two hours when the sun is not shining. |
|Pomona Substation||Battery, lithium-ion||80||20||4||United States||Pomona||2017|||
|Mira Loma Substation||Battery, lithium-ion||80||20||4||United States||Mira Loma||2017|||
|Primus Power Modesto Wind Firming Energy Farm||Battery, zinc chlorine redox flow||75||25||3||United States||California, Modesto||The project was initiated in the Modesto Irrigation District in California's Central Valley, in place of a proposed $78M / 50 MW fossil fuel plant; it will provide flexible capacity for the region and compensate for the variable nature of wind and solar energy. |
|Hokkaido Battery Storage Project (provisional name)||Battery, vanadium redox flow||60||15||Japan||Hokkaido||2015||Vanadium redox flow battery from Sumitomo near several solar energy projects on Hokkaido Island, operational in December 2015.|
|Lake Bonney Battery Energy Storage System||Battery||52||25||Australia||Millicent, South Australia||2019||Adjacent to Lake Bonney Wind Farm to allow owner to provide firmer electricity commitments |
|Stocking Pelham||Battery, lithium-ion||50||50||1||United Kingdom||Stocking Pelham||2018|||
|Gannawarra Energy Storage System||Battery||50||25||Australia||Kerang, Victoria||2018||Colocated with Gannawarra Solar Farm|
|Upton 2||Battery||42||10||4.2||United States||2018|||
|Next Gen CAES using steel piping||Compressed air storage, modular||40.5||9||4.5||United States||New York, Queens||9 MW plant will use steel piping to hold pressurized air instead of caverns. Groundbreaking slated for 2013 to 2014 time frame. |
|Minamisōma Substation||Battery, lithium-ion||40||40||1||Japan||Minamisōma||2016|||
|National Wind and Solar Energy Storage and Transmission Demonstration Project (I)||Battery, lithium iron phosphate||36||6||6||China||Hebei, Zhangbei||Will eventually grow to include 500 MW of wind capacity, 100 MW of solar PV capacity and 110 MW of energy storage[clarification needed] with an overall investment of 12 billion RMB (US$1.89 billion). The project currently includes a total of 14 MW of lithium-ion batteries and a vanadium redox flow battery: (I) 6 MW–36 MWh Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries (BYD Auto) (II) 4 MW–16 MWh lithium-ion batteries (Amperex Technology Limited (ATL)) (III) 3 MW–9 MWh lithium-ion batteries. (IV) 1 MW, 2 MWh lithium-ion batteries (Wanxiang Group) (V) 2 MW–8 MWh Vanadium Redox Flow Battery. Original plans to include 4 MW of sodium-sulfur batteries have been delayed over safety concerns. Energy storage applications include wind solar and other renewable energy integration, frequency regulation and voltage support. The project is focused on using battery energy storage to enable interactive management of the electric power grid. |
|Ruien Energy storage||Battery, lithium-ion||32||25||1.2||Belgium||Ruien||Aims to deliver ancillary services to European grid operators (TSOs) as well as energy services to local businesses at the site of the former 800MW coal-fired power plant currently under post-decommissioning redevelopment.|
|Tehachapi Energy Storage Project||Battery, lithium-ion||32||8||4||United States||California, Tehachapi||2014||When commissioned in 2014, it was the largest lithium-ion battery energy storage project in North America. The facility is located near one of the largest wind generation hubs in the U.S. — the Tehachapi Wind Resource Area. It is capable of supplying 32 megawatt-hours of electricity — eight megawatts of power for four continuous hours, which is enough to power 6,000 homes. With the demonstration concluded, the facility is online as a distribution-level resource supporting SCE’s Monolith substation near Tehachapi, CA.  |
|Ballarat Energy Storage System||Battery||30||30||Australia||Ballarat, Victoria||2018|||
|Yerba Buena Battery Energy Storage System Pilot Project||Battery, sodium-sulfur||24||4||6||United States||California, East San Jose||The project uses sodium-sulfur batteries (NaS) to determine whether such batteries can improve power quality and reliability on the electrical grid. |
|Notrees Wind Energy Storage Project||Battery, lithium-ion||24||36||0.67||United States||Texas, Notrees||A wind energy storage demonstration project at the Notrees Wind power project in western Texas created in 2013. The project provides 24 MW-hours energy storage with a peak instantaneous power output of 36 MW and a power management system. The project switched from lead-acid to lithium-ion in 2017. |
|WEICAN Durathon Battery Project||Battery, sodium-nickel chloride||20||10||2||Canada||Prince Edward Island, North Cape||2013||The Wind Energy Institute of Canada contracted with S&C Electric Canada Ltd. to provide a Sodium-Nickel Chloride Battery at their site on Prince Edward Island. The BESS will be operational by the fall of 2013. GE Energy Storage will provide the Durathon Battery Energy Storage System that will integrate into Prince Edward Island's pre-existing system.|
|National Wind and Solar Energy Storage and Transmission Demonstration Project (II)||Battery, lithium-ion||16||4||4||China||Hebei, Zhangbei||The Zhangbei National Wind and Solar Energy Storage and Transmission Demonstration Project will eventually grow to include 500 MW of installed wind capacity, 100 MW of installed solar PV capacity and 110 MW of energy storage. The project is focused on using battery energy storage to enable interactive management of the electric power grid. |
|Anchorage Area Battery Energy Storage System||Battery, lithium-ion||15||25||0.6||United States||Alaska, Anchorage||This project includes the installation of a 25 MW / 14 mWh Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) in the Anchorage area. This device will add stability to the system and provide a measure of “spin” to facilitate spooling-up alternative generation in the event of an outage, part of Alaska Railbelt Cooperative Transmission and Electric Company's (ARCTEC) Unconstrain Bradley Lake Hydroelectric Project. |
|Milton NaS Battery Energy Storage System||Battery, sodium-sulfur||14.4||2||7.2||United States||West Virginia, Milton||AEP's 2-MW units were deployed in 2008, and are capable of providing islanding (backup power) for over seven hours when loss of utility power from the substation occurs. Source: ""Energy Storage and Project Demos"" Electric Power Energy Research (EPRI) |
|Churubusco NaS Battery Energy Storage System||Battery, sodium-sulfur||14.4||2||7.2||United States||Indiana, Churubusco||AEP's 2-MW units were deployed in 2008, and are capable of providing islanding (backup power) for over seven hours when loss of utility power from the substation occurs. |
|Bluffton NaS Energy Storage System||Battery, sodium-sulfur||14.4||2||7.2||United States||Ohio, Bluffton||American Electric Power in Ohio (AEP Ohio) has 2-MW units which were deployed in 2008, and are capable of providing islanding (backup power) for over seven hours when loss of utility power from a substation occurs. |
|PG&E Vaca Battery Energy Storage Pilot Project||Battery, sodium-sulfur||14||2||7||United States||California, Vacaville||This project will be located at a substation near the Vaca Dixon Solar Plant of Vacaville, CA It's a 2-MW–14 MWh installation that will address load shaping, renewables integration, and ancillary services. |
|Albadyia Power Generation Plant||Battery, lithium-ion||12.6||3||4||Jordan||Mafraq North of Jordan||2019||The plant uses 60 Tesla Power packs combined with 23MWp of PV system. The plant’s purpose is to enhance the grid by power peak shaving and power shifting in addition to smoothing the power generation curve to increase the stability of the grid and support the grid at peak load hours at night, additionally it will also enhance the availability of energy during the daytime hours. It is the first operated commercial utility scale PV+storage plant for this purpose in the MENA region.|
|Gyeongsan Substation||Battery, lithium-ion||12||48||0.25||South Korea||Gyeongsan-si||2016|||
|Smarter Network Storage||Battery, lithium-ion||10||6||1.65||United Kingdom||England, Bedfordshire, Leighton Buzzard||The project is developing control and optimization systems for energy storage. Trials include providing service to distribution network operators and transmission system operators.|
|Guodian Supply-Side Energy Storage Project||Battery, lithium-ion||10||5||2||China||Liaoning, Jinzhou||This project is State Power's first supply-side energy storage project, incorporating 49.5 MW installed wind capacity and a 5 MW lithium-ion battery system. The energy storage system provides power during low-wind conditions. |
|UC San Diego SGIP Energy Storage Project||Battery||10||5||2||United States||California, San Diego||The University of California, San Diego has been approved for incentives from California's Self-Generation Incentive Program for the installation of energy storage, to be integrated with PV renewable generation |
|Dalrymple ESCRI battery||Battery||8||30||Australia||Stansbury, South Australia||2018||Provides improved reliability and stability to Yorke Peninsula|
|8||16||0.5||India||Andaman & Nicobar Islands||2020||
20 MW Solar PV Power Project integrated with BESS 
|Laurel Mountain||Battery, lithium-ion||8||32||0.25||United States||West Virginia, Elkins||The wind generation project includes 98 MW of wind generation and 32 MW of integrated battery-based energy storage. The project supplies the PJM Interconnection, the world's largest power market. |
|Battery Energy Storage System (BESS)||Battery, nickel cadmium||6.7||27||0.25||United States||Alaska, Fairbanks||2003||Completed in December 2003, the BESS is a Golden Valley Electric Association (GVEA) initiative to improve the reliability of service to GVEA members. When grid power fails, BESS provides up to 27 MW of power for 15 minutes.|
|Angamos||Battery, lithium-ion||6.6||20||0.33||Chile||Mejillones, Antofagasta||A123 lithium-ion batteries supply reserve capacity to electrical grid in Northern Chile. The system continuously monitors the grid power, and if a significant frequency deviation occurs, the energy storage system can provide up to 20 MW of power nearly instantaneously, for up to 15 minutes. |
|Beacon New York Flywheel Energy Storage Plant||Flywheel||5||20||0.25||United States||New York, Stephentown||A 20 MW flywheel plant used for frequency regulation in the NYISO service area, the world's largest flywheel installation. It consists of 200 individual spinning masses. |
|Beacon Hazle Township Pennsylvania Plant||Flywheel||5||20||0.25||United States||Pennsylvania, Hazle Township||Beacon's second 20 MW, 200-rotor frequency regulation facility serves the PJM regional electricity transmission market.|
|AES Kilroot Power Storage||Battery||5||10||0.5||United Kingdom||Northern Ireland, Kilroot||2016||In April 2014 the AES Corporation announced plans to build a 100 MW energy storage facility to complement its existing Northern Ireland power station near Belfast. In January 2016 AES announced that it had completed 10MW of the project as a first step towards the planned 100MW total.|
|Los Andes||Battery, lithium-ion||4||12||0.33||Chile||Atacama, Copiapó||Provides reserve power to the electric grid in Northern Chile. The project continuously monitors the condition of the power system and if a significant frequency deviation occurs, the system provides up to 12 MW of power for up to 20 minutes.|
|Kahuku Wind Farm||Battery, advanced lead acid||3.7||15||0.25||United States||Hawaii, Oahu||A 15 MW fully integrated energy storage and power management system designed to provide load firming for a 30 MW wind farm in Hawaii. |
|Terhills||Battery, lithium-ion||22||18.2||0,82||Belgium||Terhills||2018||140 Tesla Powerpacks, installed 2018|
|Manatee Energy Storage Center||Battery||900||409||2.2||United States||Juno Beach, Florida||2021||Paired with existing solar plant|
|Dalian VFB - UET / Rongke Power||Battery, vanadium redox flow||800||200||4||China||Liaoning, Dalian||The battery arrays approved by the China National Energy Administration will be made up of ten 20MW/80MWh Vanadium Flow Battery (VFB) energy storage systems deployed in Dalian city and connected to the main grid of Liaoning Province which has experienced stress during extreme weather events. After full commissioning, the VFB energy storage system will be able to peak-shave approximately 8% of Liaoning Province's expected peaking capacity in 2020. In addition, the battery will form an additional load center, which will enhance grid stabilization including securing the power supply and providing black-start capabilities in the event of emergency. This project will be deployed in two phases, each with 100MW/400MWh. The first phase will be finished around the end of 2017 and the second will be finished around the end of 2018. This project is approved by China National Energy Administration, and the owner is a JV with the major shareholder being a local utility company, and the minor being RONGKE POWER. |
|Advanced Clean Energy Storage (ACES) project||Fuel Cell||150,000||1000||United States||2025||The Advanced Clean Energy Storage (ACES) project aims to build a storage facility for 1,000 megawatts of clean power, partly by putting hydrogen into underground salt caverns. The project will combine technologies such as renewable hydrogen, solid-oxide fuel cells, and compressed air energy storage. Scheduled to be operational by 2025, the first phase of the Advanced Clean Energy Storage project will provide 150,000 MWh of renewable power storage capacity.|
Largest thermal energy storage plants
|Drake Landing Solar Community||Thermal Storage, Solar heat radiated to soil||1.5||Canada||Okotoks, Alberta||Drake Landing Solar Community began operation in 2006. Solar thermal energy is collected in flat plate glazed collectors, pumped to a bore field where the heat is radiated to soil. That process is reversed to utilize the heat in 52 single family (detached) homes. In 2012, DLSC set a world record by heating the 52 homes with 97% renewable energy. The borefield that stores the heat is approximately 100 feet wide in each direction and 120 feet deep.|
|Nissan Technical Center North America Inc.||Thermal storage, ice||22.8||1.425||16||United States||Michigan, Farmington Hills||The Ice Thermal Storage System provides load shifting to the building. On most days, the building can be cooled solely by the ice system, but a chiller is included, which covers peak cooling demand. |
|JC Penney Headquarters||Thermal storage, ice||53.1||4.425||12||United States||Texas, Plano||The system offsets the peak demands of electrical use by making ice each night to cool the building the following day.|
|Redding Electric Utilities - Peak Capacity, Demand Response, HVAC Replacement Program||Thermal storage, ice||6||1||6||United States||California, Redding||Ice storage system assists building cooling during daylight hours. |
|Glendale Water and Power - Peak Capacity Project||Thermal storage, ice||9||1.5||6||United States||California, Glendale||This project installed a total of 180 Ice Thermal Energy storage units at 28 Glendale city buildings and 58 local small, medium-sized, and large commercial businesses during a one-year installation process. |
|State Government of North Carolina||Thermal storage, chilled water||20.8||2.6||8||United States||North Carolina, Raleigh||2.68 million gallon, chilled water, Thermal energy storage tank. Built partially buried and serving the district cooling system for 25 state government buildings. |
|University of Arizona||Thermal storage, ice||18||3||6||United States||Arizona, Tucson||The university placed three separate orders for energy storage tanks and they were added to two of their three existing central plants in 2004, 2006 and 2007. There are 205 tanks in total at the two plants. |
|University of Central Florida||Thermal storage, chilled water||24||3||8||United States||Florida, Orlando||Chilled water thermal energy storage system that is integrated into the existing district cooling system for the university.|
|Redding Electric Utilities - Peak Capacity, Demand Response, HVAC Replacement Program Phase 2||Thermal storage, ice||12||6||2||United States||California, Redding||Ice Energy and REU will collaborate on the second phase. The program to install Ice Bear units within the northern California territory aims to reduce peak electricity load demand by up to 6 MW over five years. REU expects to have the thermal energy storage program completed in 2017. Skyway Machine, a local Redding manufacturing company, will provide final assembly of the new Ice Bear units.|
Largest by technology
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2019)
|Battery, lithium-ion||Moss Landing Energy Storage Facility||1200||300||4||United States||Moss Landing, California|||
|Battery, lead acid|
|Battery, sodium-sulphur||Sodium Sulfur Battery In Abu Dhabi||648||108||6||Virtual battery||United Arab Emirates||Abu Dhabi|||
|Battery, vanadium redox flow||Dalian VFB - UET / Rongke Power||800||200||The battery arrays approved by the China National Energy Administration will be made up of ten (10X) 20MW/80MWh Vanadium Flow Battery (VFB) energy storage systems deployed in Dalian city and connected to the main grid of Liaoning Province which has experienced stress during extreme weather events. After full commissioning, the VFB energy storage system will be able to peak-shave approximately 8% of Liaoning Province's expected peaking capacity in 2020.In addition, the large-scale battery will form an additional load center, which will enhance grid stabilization including securing the power supply and providing black-start capabilities in the event of emergency. This project will be deployed in two phases, each with 100MW/400MWh. The first phase will be finished around the end of 2017 and the second will be finished around the end of 2018. This project is approved by China National Energy Administration, and the owner is a JV with the major shareholder being a local utility company, and the minor being RONGKE POWER.||China||Dalian|
|Compressed air storage||Huntorf CAES Plant||870||290||First commercial CAES plant, operational since 1978, using nuclear-sourced night-time power to compress and inject the air into two caverns of 310,000 m³ total volume. The 600 m cavern depth ensures the air's stability through seasonal temperature changes, and guarantees the specified maximum pressure of 100 bar. One cavern is cycled daily; the other serves as backup when the nearby nuclear power plant goes offline.||Germany||Huntorf|
|Pumped Hydro Storage||Bath County Pumped Storage Station||24,000||3,003||Described as the "largest battery in the world", with a maximum generation capacity of 3,003 MW, an average of 2,772 MW, and a total storage capacity of 24,000 MWh. The station consists of two reservoirs separated by about 1,260 feet (380 m) in elevation.||USA||Bath County, Virginia|
|Flywheel||Beacon New York Flywheel Energy Storage Plant||5||20||The flywheel plant is used for frequency regulation in the NYISO service area. It consists of 200 individual spinning masses.||USA||New York|
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10 locations – 15 systems in total – adding up to 108MW / 648MWh in total, with each system able to store energy for six hours. The total undertaking includes 12 x 4MW systems and three 20MW systems. ‘virtual’ description is correct in the sense that the 15 systems in 10 locations “can be controlled as a single plant. While of course they can still be controlled individually when local support to the grid is needed”.
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