The Leiden Glossary is a glossary contained in a manuscript in Leiden University Library in the Netherlands, Voss. Lat. Q. 69. The lemmata (headwords) come from "a range of biblical, grammatical, and patristic texts". It is based on an Anglo-Saxon exemplar, and was prepared c. 800 in the Abbey of Saint Gall in modern-day Switzerland.
The glossary contains 48 chapters or glossae collectae, which explain terms from texts used in the classroom by Theodore of Tarsus and Adrian of Canterbury, who both taught at St Augustine's Abbey in Canterbury, and thus "contain the record of their classroom teaching". Most of the glosses are in Latin, though 250 of them are in Old English. They give evidence of the impressive holdings of the Canterbury library (none of which remains) and the reading interests of Anglo-Saxon churchmen.
Of the 48 glossae collectae, 19 are on lemmata from Bible books, the 23 others from late antique and patristic texts. The importance of a glossary lies partly in that they indicate what was held in the library where the glossary is prepared, partly in what they suggest the glossator's interests were. For instance, Theodore's interest in the works of Pope Gregory I is clear from the distribution of the glosses: there are eight glosses on Gregory's Pastoral Care and no fewer than 46 (or 49) from his Dialogi. In turn, the numerous glosses from the Dialogi, much of which is concerned with hagiographical accounts, prove the importance attached by the Canterbury school to hagiography.
A particular group concerns glosses on Rufinus's translation of Eusebius's Historia Ecclesiastica, where the glossary preserves three groups of lemmata glossed by three different people, "as if they represented the individual responses of three students, of somewhat differing abilities, to the teacher's explanation of the text."
That the St Gall copy derives from an exemplar brought to the continent from England is proven by the Anglo-Saxon glosses as well as by other content: the glosses are consistent with other biblical commentary produced by the Canterbury school. In addition, the Rufinus glosses agree with those found in the so-called P manuscript of Eusebius (BAV, Pal. lat. 822), written in Lorsch Abbey (in modern-day Germany) c. 800. The third Rufinus glossator evidently had an interest in Greek not shared by the other two, and Michael Lapidge finds that one lemma and its gloss are echoed in Aldhelm's De virginitate; Lapidge proposed that the third Rufinus glossator may well have been Aldhelm. The Lorsch manuscript, Lapidge argues, is most likely a copy of the manuscript used and annotated in the Canterbury school, the exemplar also for Leiden Voss. Lat. Q. 69.
Scholarship and editions
An edition of the glosses was published in 1901 by Plazidus Glogger, with commentary published in 1903, and in 1906 Jan Hendrik Hessels published another. In the small world of philology, such an almost simultaneous publication is rare. In a note to his own edition, Hessels explains that he became aware of Glogger's edition as he was finishing up his own work, and then only by chance (he saw a note in the MS listing which scholars had worked on it); Glogger had sent Hessels a copy of his book in 1902 but it was delivered at the wrong college and never forwarded. In his note, Hessels says that Glogger had offered to destroy his own publication, which Hessels argued against, and in turn explains that he cannot, given the circumstances, criticize Glogger's work which at any rate was helpful to him and of the highest quality.
The 'Leiden family' of glossaries
The Leiden Glossary has given its name to a large group of medieval Continental glossaries that derive material from the same body of glosses as found in the Leiden Glossary. Many of these have not yet been edited. Michael Lapidge has listed the following manuscripts as belonging to the Leiden Family:
|Berlin (West), Staatsbibliothek der Stiftung Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Grimm 132, 2 and 139, 2||? English centre on the Continent, mid-C8|
|Berlin (West), Staatsbibliothek der Stiftung Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Lat. qu. 676||Reichenau, earlier C9||fols. 2 and 3 (binding fragments)||Destroyed 1945|
|Bern, Burgerbibliothek 258, fols. 1-47||Fleury, C9/10||13v—16v|
|Cambridge, University Library, Kk. 4. 6||Worcester, earlier C12||41 r-44v|
|Einsiedeln, Stiftsbibliothek 32||Bodensee area, mid-C10||pp. 189-92 and 203-5|
|Fulda, Hessische Landesbibliothek Aa. 2||Konstanz, C10, provenance Weingarten||129v-139r|
|Karlsruhe, Badische Landesbibliothek, Aug. IC, fols. 37-52||Reichenau, late C8||37r-52v|
|Karlsruhe, Badische Landesbibliothek, Aug. CXXXV, fols. 1-105||Reichenau, early C10||96v and 97v-105v|
|Leiden, Bibliotheek der Rijksuniversiteit, B.P.L. 191||C14||108r-125|
|Leiden, Bibliotheek der Rijksuniversiteit, Voss. lat. F. 24||Western Francia, C9/10||102v-105v|
|Leiden, Bibliotheek der Rijksuniversiteit, Voss. lat. Q. 69, fols. 7-47||St Gallen, C8/9||20r-36r||The Leiden Glossary|
|Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana M. 79 sup.||N. Italy, earlier C11||59v-66r, 67v-91r and 124v-126(bis)r|
|Munich, Staatsbibliothek, Clm. 6408||? N. Italy, early C10, provenance Freising, C12||47v-48r|
|Münster, Universitatsbibliothek, Paulinianus 271 (719)
Werden, Pfarrarchiv, 'Werden A'
|Werden, earlier C9||fols. 1 and 6
1 leaf only
|The M��nster leaves were destroyed in 1945|
|Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, lat. 2685||Belgium or Holland, later C9||47r-56r|
|Saint-Omer, Bibliothèque municipale 150||Saint-Bertin, C10||74r-76r|
|St Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek 9||St Gallen, C9||pp. 264-31|
|St Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek 295||St Gallen, C9/10||pp. 115-240|
|St Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek 299||St Gallen, later C9||pp. 3-23 and 260-91|
|St Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek 913, pp. 3-148||Anglo-Saxon mission area, later C8||pp. 159-45|
|St Paul im Lavanttal, Stiftsbibliothek 82/1 (plim XXV. d. 82)||Augsburg, C10|
|Selestat, Bibliotheque municipale 7 (100)||? Reichenau, early C12||66r-95r|
|Stuttgart, Wurttembergische Landesbibliothek, Cod. Theol. et Phil. F. 218, fols. 1-51||Zweifalten, C12|
|Trier, Bibliothek des Priesterseminars 61||Trier, C11/12||102v-110v|
|Vienna, Nationalbibliothek lat. 1761||Mondsee, C10||1r-63r|
|Würzburg, Universitätsbibliothek M. p. th. f. 38||Würzburg, earlier C9||123v-124v|
|Würzburg, Universitätsbibliothek M. p. th. f. 47||Anglo-Saxon mission area, early C9||71v-73v|
- Lapidge, Anglo-Saxon Library 87.
- Gretsch 27.
- Lapidge, Anglo-Saxon Library 33.
- Lapidge, Anglo-Saxon Library 88.
- Lapidge, Anglo-Saxon Library 89-91.
- Schlutter 466.
- Hessels xvii.
- [Christine Franzen], 'Introduction', in Ashgate Critical Essays on Early English Lexicographers Volume 1: Old English, ed. by Christine Franzen (Farnham: Ashgate, 2012), xv-lxxiii (pp. xxi-xxii).
- Lapidge, Michael, ‘The School of Theodore and Hadrian’, in Anglo-Latin Literature 600–899 (London, 1996), pp. 141–68 (appendix), repr. from Anglo-Saxon England, 15 (1986), 45–72 (appendix, pp. 67-72) doi:10.1017/S0263675100003689.
- Gretsch, Mechthild (2006). Aelfric and the Cult of Saints in Late Anglo-Saxon England. Cambridge Studies in Anglo-Saxon England. 34. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. ISBN 9780521855419. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- Hessels, Jan Hendrik (2011) . A Late Eighth-Century Latin-Anglo-Saxon Glossary. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.
- Lapidge, Michael (2006). The Anglo-Saxon Library. Oxford: Oxford UP. ISBN 9780199239696.
- Schlutter, Otto B. (1905). "On the Old English Glosses Printed in Kluge's "Angelsächsisches Lesebuch"". Journal of English and Germanic Philology. 5 (4): 464–75. JSTOR 27699788.