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"Ireland unfree shall never be at peace" were the climactic closing words of the graveside oration of Patrick Pearse at the funeral of Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa on 1 August 1915. The oration roused Irish republican feeling and was a significant element in the lead-up to the Easter Rising of 1916.
Death of O'Donovan Rossa
O'Donovan Rossa, a founding member of the Irish Republican Brotherhood (popularly known as the Fenians), died in New York on 29 June 1915, aged 84. Another Fenian leader, John Devoy, cabled Tom Clarke in Dublin to ask what should be done. Clarke replied, "Send his body home at once." Clarke and Thomas MacDonagh began planning a huge funeral as a demonstration of support for Irish independence.
Clarke chose Patrick Pearse, a barrister and schoolteacher who was known as the foremost orator of the time, to give the graveside oration. At that time republican leaders were refraining from making inflammatory speeches for fear of imprisonment at a crucial time in the preparations for a rising. When Pearse asked how far he should go, Clarke answered, "Make it hot as hell, throw discretion to the winds."
Funeral and oration
On arrival in Dublin, Rossa's remains were taken to the Pro-Cathedral and lay before the High Altar for one night, with a guard of Irish Volunteers. They then lay in state in City Hall, Dublin, again with a guard of honour, until the funeral. Thousands of Volunteers followed the hearse to Glasnevin Cemetery and hundreds of thousands lined the route.
Following the interment, Pearse delivered his oration. He spoke "on behalf of a new generation that has been re-baptised in the Fenian faith" and called on the Irish people to stand together for the achievement of the freedom of Ireland. And, he said, "we know only one definition of freedom: it is Tone's definition, it is Mitchel's definition, it is Rossa's definition" (that is, an Irish Republic). The tone of the oration made it very clear that an attempt would soon be made to establish an Irish Republic by force of arms. The oration concluded with a challenge to the "Defenders of this Realm":
They think that they have pacified Ireland. They think that they have purchased half of us and intimidated the other half. They think that they have foreseen everything, think that they have provided against everything; but the fools, the fools, the fools! - they have left us our Fenian dead, and while Ireland holds these graves, Ireland unfree shall never be at peace.
Significance of the oration
Rossa's funeral, and Pearse's oration, had the desired effect of mobilising Republicans and creating the conditions for a rising. Eight months later, on 24 April 1916, Pearse stood in the portico of the General Post Office in Dublin and read the Proclamation of the Republic. Although the Easter Rising was short-lived, it set in train the events that led to the formation of the Irish Free State in 1922.
Today, Pearse's funeral oration is considered one of the most important speeches in 20th century Irish history. The manuscript of this speech is now held in the Pearse Museum, Rathfarnham, Dublin. The oration is re-enacted daily for visitors to Glasnevin Cemetery.
- "Patrick Pearse Oration Re-enactment". glasnevintrust.ie. Glasnevin Trust. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
[Pearse's speech] would rouse Irish republican feeling and would be a significant element in the lead-up to the Easter Rising of 1916
- Terry Golway (2015). Irish Rebel: John Devoy & America’s Fight for Ireland’s Freedom. Merrion Press. ISBN 9781785370410.
- Kathleen Clarke (1991). Revolutionary Woman: Kathleen Clarke, 1878-1972: An Autobiography. O'Brien Press. p. 56. ISBN 9780862782450.
The answer to Pearse was verbal, one which I delivered: 'Make it as hot as hell, throw discretion to the winds'.
- "Quest to find the missing names of people in iconic O'Donovan Rossa funeral photograph". irishexaminer.com. Irish Examiner. 1 August 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
- ""But the fools, the fools, the fools!" - Pearse funeral oration re-enacted at Glasnevin". thejournal.ie. The Journal. 2 August 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
- Hull, Eleanor. "Oration of P. H. Pearse over the Grave of O'Donovan "Rossa"". www.libraryireland.com. Retrieved 2018-11-08.
- "Stamp marks Pearse's graveside oration for O'Donovan Rossa". University College Cork. 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
[Pearse's] carefully worded speech was a very deliberate statement on behalf of IRB’s Military Council who were secretly planning what became the 1916 Easter Rising [..] On April 24, 1916, Pearse, again in uniform, stood outside the General Post Office in Dublin and read the Proclamation of the Republic of Ireland. Although the rising that followed failed, it set in train the events that led to the formation of the Irish Free State
- "Museum Collection". pearsemuseum.ie. Pearse Museum / Office of Public Works. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
Some of [the collection] items relate to important aspects of Pearse’s public career, such as his editorship of An Claidheamh Soluis and his famous speech at the funeral of Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa
- https://www.dctrust.ie/experience-glasnevin/tours-and-highlights/pearse.html[bare URL]