|Intersecting Storage Rings||CERN, 1971–1984|
|Proton-Antiproton Collider (SPS)||CERN, 1981–1991|
|ISABELLE||BNL, cancelled in 1983|
|Superconducting Super Collider||Cancelled in 1993|
|Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider||BNL, 2000–present|
|Large Hadron Collider||CERN, 2009–present|
|Future Circular Collider||Proposed|
The ISR (standing for "Intersecting Storage Rings") was a particle accelerator at CERN. It was the world's first hadron collider, and ran from 1971 to 1984, with a maximum center of mass energy of 62 GeV. From its initial startup, the collider itself had the capability to produce particles like the J/ψ and the upsilon, as well as observable jet structure; however, the particle detector experiments were not configured to observe events with large momentum transverse to the beamline, leaving these discoveries to be made at other experiments in the mid-1970s. Nevertheless, the construction of the ISR involved many advances in accelerator physics, including the first use of stochastic cooling, and it held the record for luminosity at a hadron collider until surpassed by the Tevatron in 2004.
The ISR was proposed in 1964 for conducting the head-on proton-proton collisions at a beam energy of 28 GeV; to the study of the new particles created in such collisions. The project was approved within a year. In 1971 itself, detectors were set up by 12 experimental teams at five intersecting points of ISR.
The initial goal and motivation for ISR was the following.
- Finding the proton-proton cross-section for 23-54 GeV energy in the center of mass frame.
- Study of the elastic proton-proton scattering.
- Obtaining production spectra of particles like pions and kaons.
- Search for new particles.
The accelerator was made up of two magnetic rings (located in France), each of around 300m. The rings interlaced together such that they would meet at eight intersecting regions for colliding proton beams. The 28 GeV proton beams would come from the CERN Proton Synchrotron (CPS) located about 200 meters away (In Switzerland)
- Fabjan, Christian; Hübner, Kurt (2015-11-20), "The Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR): The First Hadron Collider", Technology Meets Research, Advanced Series on Directions in High Energy Physics, WORLD SCIENTIFIC, Volume 27, pp. 87–133, doi:10.1142/9789814749145_0004, ISBN 978-981-4749-13-8, retrieved 2021-06-08
|volume=has extra text (help)
- Hübner, Kurt (2012-03-01). "The CERN intersecting storage rings (ISR)". The European Physical Journal H. 36 (4): 509–522. Bibcode:2012EPJH...36..509H. doi:10.1140/epjh/e2011-20058-8. ISSN 2102-6467. S2CID 120690134.
- Faessler, M. (1984-12-01). "Experimental with alpha particles at the CERN intersecting storage rings". Physics Reports. 115 (1–2): 1–91. Bibcode:1984PhR...115....1F. doi:10.1016/0370-1573(84)90011-5. ISSN 0370-1573.
- Fabjan, Christian W.; McCubbin, Norman (2004-12-01). "Physics at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) 1978–1983". Physics Reports. 403–404: 165–175. Bibcode:2004PhR...403..165F. doi:10.1016/j.physrep.2004.08.018. ISSN 0370-1573.
- ISR startup
- Early history of the ISR
- Picture of the ISR from above - It's the large earthen ring with circular roads inside and outside.