|Purpose||To stimulate and facilitate international cooperation in physics and the worldwide development of science |
|Kok Khoo Phua|
|Website||IUPAP ofiicial website|
The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP / -/,) is an international non-governmental organization whose mission is to assist in the worldwide development of physics, to foster international cooperation in physics, and to help in the application of physics toward solving problems of concern to humanity. It was established in 1922 and the first General Assembly was held in 1923 in Paris.
IUPAP carries out this mission by: sponsoring international meetings; fostering communications and publications; encouraging research and education; fostering the free circulation of scientists; promoting international agreements on the use of symbols, units, nomenclature and standards; and cooperating with other organizations on disciplinary and interdisciplinary problems.
IUPAP is a member of the International Council for Science (ICSU).
In 1919 was formed the International Research Council “largely through the representatives of the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, and of the Royal Society, London, to coordinate international efforts in the different branches of sciences, under whose aegis international associations or unions in different branches of science could be formed".
In accordance with this principle, the 1922 General Assembly of the IRC convened at Brussels and a number of physicists present decided that the formation of a Physics Union was imperative.
Thirteen countries (Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Netherlands, Empire of Japan, Norway, Poland, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States and Union of South Africa) immediately announced their adherence to the new Union.
An Executive committee was formed which undertook to prepare rules, regulations, and activities of the organization. The committee consisted of ten distinguished physicists:- W.H. Bragg, M. Brillouin, O.M. Corbino, M. Knudsen, M. Leblanc, R.A. Millikan, H. Nagaoka, E. Van Aubel, and H. Abraham. The committee had Bragg as President, Van Aubel as Vice-President, and Abraham as Secretary.
This was the birth of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics.
Committees and governance
The Union is governed by its General Assembly, which meets every three years. The Council is its top executive body, supervising the activities of the nineteen specialized International Commissions and the four Affiliated Commissions – it typically meets once or twice per year. The Union is composed of Members representing identified physics communities. At present 60 Members adhere to IUPAP. The Members are represented by Liaison Committees. Members of the Council and Commissions are elected by the General Assembly, based on nominations received from Liaison Committees and existing Council and Commission members.
The IUPAP specialised Commissions are:
C4. Commission on Astroparticle Physics. The commission was previously known as the Commission on Cosmic Rays.
The Affiliated Commissions are:
In addition IUPAP has established a number of Working Groups to provide an overview of important areas of international collaboration in physics.
Each year, IUPAP endorses approximately 30 international conferences and awards grants to the majority of them. Applications for sponsorship can be made via the IUPAP website.
Sponsored conferences fall into four categories:
General Conferences - Type A
These provide a broad overview of an entire field (typically the field of interest to a Commission), and normally occur at two- or three-year intervals, as advances in the field warrant. Attendance in the range of 750-1000 would be anticipated.
Topical Conferences - Type B
These concentrate on broad sub-fields (e.g. nuclear spectroscopy, nuclear reaction mechanisms, heavy ion physics, are possible sub-fields in the field of Nuclear Physics). They would normally be scheduled in the years between the corresponding Type A General conferences. Attendance in the range of 300-600 would be anticipated.
Special Conferences - Type C
These concentrate on much more specialised topics than in the case of Type B Conferences (e.g. angular correlations, lifetime measurements, neutron resonance studies in the field of Nuclear Physics). Attendance in the range of 50-200 would be anticipated.
Workshops in Developing Countries - Type D
These concentrate on meeting the needs of a developing region. Unlike the Type A, B and C conferences, they do not need to be truly international, but should involve neighbouring countries, and they should address the needs of the region. One Type D conference will be approved each year. All applications for Type-D Conferences must be submitted to the Commission on Physics for Development (C13).
IUPAP commissions sponsor various awards for scientists. These include:
- The IUPAP Young Scientist Prize, approved and adopted at the 2005 General Assembly for all commissions.
- The SUNAMCO Medal, given by the Commission on Symbols, Units, Nomenclature, Atomic Masses and Fundamental Constants (C2)
- The Boltzmann Medal, awarded by the Commission on Statistical Physics (C3)
- The Fritz London Award, given by the Commission on Low Temperature Physics (C5)
- The Young Author Best Paper Award, established by the Commission on Semiconductors (C8) and sponsored by the semiconductor industries of USA, Japan and Europe
- ICM Award in Magnetism, established by the Commission on Magnetism (C9)
- The ICPE Medal, sponsored by the Commission on Physics Education (C14)
- Penning Award Excellence in Low-Temperature Plasma Physics, established by the Commission on Plasma Physics (C16)
- ICO Prize, awarded by the Affiliated Commission for Optics (AC1)
- ICO Galileo Galilei Award, awarded by the Affiliated Commission for Optics (AC1)
Member States of IUPAP
IUPAP was founded by 13 states:- Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Netherlands, Empire of Japan, Norway, Poland, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States and Union of South Africa in 1922. Since then many new members have joined the union.Today the IUPAP consists of 56 member states.
Below is the list of Member States of IUPAP:-
|List of the Current and Former Member States of IUPAP|
be a member
|17||Ethiopia||1||1||2009||No Voting rights|
|46||Senegal||1||1||?||No voting rights|
|Cuba||1||1||1969||No voting rights|
| Republic of China
(membership renewed as China-Taipei)
| Soviet Union
(succeeded by Russia)
List of IUPAP Presidents
The IUPAP President is the head of the Executive Council. IUPAP Presidents are elected by the General Assembly. During the election of the Executive Council, the future President is also elected to the post of President-Designate. Thus in every Executive Council the current President-Designate will succeed the incumbent President.
Below is the list of IUPAP Presidents since its inception in 1922.
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- Nilsson, Jan (1996). "What can IUPAP do for you?". Physics World. 9 (12): 13–14. doi:10.1088/2058-7058/9/12/12. ISSN 0953-8585.
- Brown, Sanborn C (September 1972). Physics 50 Years Later: [Papers] as Presented to the XIV General Assembly of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics on the Occasion of the Union's Fiftieth Anniversary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. p. 436. doi:10.17226/20232. ISBN 978-0-309-02138-8.
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- "IUPAP handbook on symbols and units". Physics Today. 35 (9): 21. 1982. Bibcode:1982PhT....35i..21.. doi:10.1063/1.2915257. ISSN 0031-9228.
- Bacher, Robert F.; Havens, William W.; Koch, H. William; Marshak, Robert E.; Seitz, Frederick (1972). "IUPAP–Past and future". Physics Today. 25 (9): 23–28. Bibcode:1972PhT....25i..23B. doi:10.1063/1.3070995. ISSN 0031-9228.
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- "The Statues of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (as adopted by the General Assembly, 2011)". IUPAP. 2011. Archived from the original on 2019-03-26. Retrieved 2019-03-26.
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- Wheeler, John A. (1951). "7th IUPAP Assembly". Physics Today. 4 (11): 30–33. Bibcode:1951PhT.....4k..30W. doi:10.1063/1.3067089. ISSN 0031-9228.
- Slater, J. C. (1952). "IUPAP Executive Committee". Physics Today. 5 (9): 32–33. Bibcode:1952PhT.....5i..32S. doi:10.1063/1.3067746. ISSN 0031-9228.
- Wheeler, John A. (1954). "IUPAP Assembly". Physics Today. 7 (9): 28–29. Bibcode:1954PhT.....7i..28W. doi:10.1063/1.3061774. ISSN 0031-9228.
- "IUPAP 9th General Assembly". Physics Today. 11 (1): 46–47. 1958. Bibcode:1958PhT....11a..46.. doi:10.1063/1.3062393. ISSN 0031-9228.
- Mayer, Meinhard E. (1979). "Dmitrii Ivanovich Blokhintsev". Physics Today. 32 (7): 62–63. Bibcode:1979PhT....32g..62M. doi:10.1063/1.2995633. ISSN 0031-9228.
- "New honorary fellow". Physics Bulletin. 30 (4): 141. 1979. doi:10.1088/0031-9112/30/4/003. ISSN 0031-9112.
- Butterworth, Ian (2001). "Sir Clifford Charles Butler. 20 May 1922 – 30 June 1999". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 47: 39–54. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2001.0003. ISSN 0080-4606. S2CID 71004018.
- "IUPAP chooses new officers". Physics Today. 32 (6): 79. 1979. doi:10.1063/1.2995605. ISSN 0031-9228.
- Sweet, William (1985). "IUPAP President Bromley Worries About "Isolation" of US Physicists". Physics Today. 38 (4): 79. Bibcode:1985PhT....38R..79S. doi:10.1063/1.2814526. ISSN 0031-9228.
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- Sakai, Norisuke (2017). "Yoshio Yamaguchi". Physics Today. 70 (7): 72. Bibcode:2017PhT....70g..72S. doi:10.1063/PT.3.3636. ISSN 0031-9228.
- Feder, Toni (1996). "IUPAP General Assembly Held in Sweden". Physics Today. 49 (11): 74. doi:10.1063/1.881552. ISSN 0031-9228.
- "In Memoriam: Jan S. Nilsson, 1932 - 2010". ICTP. 2010-06-16. Archived from the original on 2019-10-14. Retrieved 2019-10-14.
- "IUPAP Elects New Officers". Physics Today. 52 (7): 48. 1999. Bibcode:1999PhT....52R..48.. doi:10.1063/1.882721. ISSN 0031-9228.
- Richter*, B. (1999). "Megascience Forum: Valuable from IUPAP's Perspective". Science. 286 (5442): 1089b–1089. doi:10.1126/science.286.5442.1089b. ISSN 0036-8075. S2CID 153748589.
- van Oers, Willem T. H.; Crabb, Donald G.; Prok, Yelena; Poelker, Matt; Liuti, Simonetta; Day, Donal B.; Zheng, Xiaochao (2009). "Introductory Remarks on Behalf of IUPAP". AIP Conference Proceedings. 1149 (1): 3–8. Bibcode:2009AIPC.1149....3V. doi:10.1063/1.3215675.
- McKellar, Bruce H. J. (2017). "Commentary: International Union of Pure and Applied Physics and you". Physics Today. 70 (10): 10–11. Bibcode:2017PhT....70j..10M. doi:10.1063/PT.3.3707. ISSN 0031-9228.
- "NEWS". Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter. 01 (1): 4–12. 2012. doi:10.1142/S2251158X12000021. ISSN 2251-158X.
- "Spiro appointed IUPAP president". CERN Courier. 2019-11-13. Retrieved 2021-03-23.