|~ 1,313,610 (2011)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Ogun State - 962,110 |
· Ogun Waterside: 87,540
· Ijebu East: 128,930
· Ijebu Northeast: 81,140
· Ijebu Ode: 185,360,
· Odogbolu: 148,300
· Ijebu North: 330,840 Lagos State - 351,500
· Epe LGA: 213,270
· Ibeju Lekki: 138,230
|Christianity · Islam · Yoruba religion|
Ijebu (also known as Jebu or Geebu) was a Yoruba kingdom in pre-colonial Nigeria. It was formed around the fifteenth century. According to legend, its ruling dynasty was founded by Obanta of Ile-Ife. Its contemporary successor is one of the country's traditional states.
History of Ijebu
The kingdom was one of the most developed in the region with a complex and highly organized government. The capital was at Ijebu Ode where the Awujale had his palace. Counterbalancing the Awujale was the Osugbo (known as the Ogboni in other parts of Nigeria), a council of all free born, titled men that acted as the kingdom's courts. The Osugbo was divided into six groups based on rank, the highest being the iwarefa, whose head the Oliwa was the second most powerful figure in the nation. Also powerful was the Olisa, who could be described as the mayor of Ijebu Ode.
Like many African societies, Ijebu was also divided into three age ranks, and these groups each had their own leaders. The Kingdom is made up of several towns and stretches to parts of Lagos State and borders Ondo State. These towns includes Ijebu-Igbo, Imota, Ikorodu, Epe, Lagos, Ijebu-Isiwo, Ogun Waterside, Iwopin, Lekki in Lagos State, Ijebu-Imushin, Ijebu-Ife, Apunren, Erunwon, Isonyin, Ososa, Odogbolu and Ago-Iwoye.
The state rose in power in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, mainly due to its important position on the trade routes between Lagos and Ibadan. The kingdom imposed sharp limits on trade, insisting that all trade through the region be conducted by Ijebu merchants. The monopoly brought great wealth to the kingdom, but also annoyed the Europeans.
In 1892, the British attacked Ijebu in response to its barriers on trade. The British were successful and occupied the capital, burning the meeting hall of the Osugbo. The British army employed Maxim guns, according to the soldier-adventurer Frederick Lugard. In defending himself against charges of excessive death rates in Uganda from his own use of the gun, he stated: "On the West Coast, in the 'Jebu' war, undertaken by Government, I have been told 'several thousands' were mowed down by the Maxim."
The Ijebu kingdom was governed by a king and his group of titled elders, who usually were men of a higher status and of considerable influence. The council governed the region and had representatives of further devolved councils who no longer have any power. Since the invasion of Lord Lugard these councils have continued to meet and advise the Obanta kings, their power, however, is largely ceremonial since the establishment of the colonial administration in their protectorate. The elders were known to represent their various villages and the will of the people, and are now not such a significant part in the ceremonial process. The elders were all given individual titles and the lead elder was given the title prince, although he was only ever to inherit the kingship in special circumstances. The traditional belief that governed the monarchy was similar to that of the Chinese Mandate of Heaven.
The kind of Yoruba spoken in Ijebuland is Ijebu, a Southeastern Yoruba dialect (SEY).
The current king is Oba Sikiru Kayode Adetona.......
- Robert Smith (1969). Kingdoms of the Yoruba. Methuen & Co. p. 75.
- John Lliffe (13 August 2007). Africans: The History of a Continent. Cambridge University Press. p. 80. ISBN 9781139464246.
- "Obanta And The Origin Of The Ijebu". Dakingsman.com. Retrieved 29 August 2020.
- "Ijebu History". LitCaf Encyclopedia.
- Lugard, cited by Cedric Pulford: Eating Uganda: From Christianity to Conquest, 1999, p. 147
- Peter C. Lloyd, "Ijebu" African Kingships in Perspective