The Hoxnian Stage was a middle Pleistocene stage (Pleistocene from 2.588 ± .005 million to 11,700 years BP) of the geological history of the British Isles. It was an interglacial which preceded the Wolstonian Stage and followed the Anglian Stage. It is equivalent to Marine Isotope Stage 11 (MIS 11). Marine Isotope Stage 11 started 424,000 years ago and ended 374,000 years ago. The Hoxnian is divided into sub-stages Ho I to Ho IV.
The Hoxnian Stage is named after Hoxne in the English county of Suffolk where some of the deposits created were first found. It was identified and dated with palynology or pollen evidence in the biostratigraphy and later updated with aminostratigraphic techniques. Based on stratigraphic information the Hoxnian happened after the Anglian glacial as Anglian soil is frequently found underneath Hoxnian deposits.
Similarly timed interglacials
The Hoxnian stage has often been correlated to the Holstein Interglacial of northern Continental Europe and the Mindel-Riss Interglacial of the Alps. However, there is ambiguity regarding the correlation of these two interglacials to either MIS 11 or MIS 9, which is related to the MIS 12 / MIS 10 ambiguity described in more detail in the article 'Elster glaciation'.
The Hoxnian stage has also been equated to the Yarmouthian (Yarmouth) Stage in North America. However, the Yarmouthian Stage, along with the Kansan, Nebraskan, and Aftonian stages, have been abandoned by North American Quaternary geologists and merged into the Pre-Illinoian Stage. At this time, the Hoxnian and Holstein stages are correlated with a brief part of the Pre-Illinoian Stage lying between the Pre-Illinoian A and Pre-Illinoian B glaciations of North America.
During the Hoxnian human activity was constrained by the dense forests so humans traveled along rivers and created settlements in valleys. Settlements were selected based on location, resources, and vegetation. The Beeches Pit site revealed humans possibly selected sites rich with flint for toolmaking.
The Hoxnian is an interglacial phase meaning the warm periods in between glacial periods. Interglacial phases are heavily vegetated with woodlands interspersed with open areas. Site deposits are often found over Anglian soil which dates to MIS 12. Most sites have been found in valleys with signs of river deposits. During the interglacial the valleys would have been surrounded by dense forests.
Beeches Pit, West Stow, Suffolk is a site dated to MIS 11 and under 40 km from other sites for the Lower Paleolithic and Middle Paleolithic. Beeches Pit is considered a site of special interest because not only were shells and plant remains found but animal bones that were burnt. The sites around Hitchin, Hertfordshire are associated with lakes caused by the melting of glaciers that settled in holes. When archaeologists dug up the sites they found dense soil full of gravel. The gravel is hypothesized to come from the creation of hand axes. At Marks Tey, Essex the lake soil was rich with pollen spanning all of the Hoxnian and remnants of gravel and artifacts.
- "Major Divisions". Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy. International Commission on Stratigraphy. 4 January 2016. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
- Stringer, Chris (2006). Homo Britannicus: The incredible story of human life in Britain. London: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-101813-3.
- McMillan, A. A. (2005). "A provisional Quaternary and Neogene lithostratigraphic framework Great Britain". Netherland Journal of Geosciences. 84 (2): 87–107. doi:10.1017/S0016774600022988.
- Walker, M. (2005). Quaternary Dating Methods. Chichester UK: Wiley. ISBN 0-470-86927-5.
- Gibbard, P. L.; Boreham, S.; Cohen, K. M. & Moscariello, A. (2007). "Global chronostratigraphical correlation table for the last 2.7 million years v. 2007b" (jpg version 844 KB). Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy. Cambridge, England: Department of Geography, University of Cambridge.
- Lisiecki, L. E. (2005). Ages of MIS boundaries.LR04 Benthic Stack Boston University, Boston, MA
- Lisiecki, L. E. & Raymo, M. E. (2005). "A Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18
O records" (PDF). Paleoceanography. 20: PA1003. Bibcode:2005PalOc..20.1003L. doi:10.1029/2004PA001071. hdl:2027.42/149224.
- Pettitt, Paul; White, Mark (2012). The British Palaeolithic: Human Societies at the Edge of the Pleistocene World. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-415-67455-3.
- Roe, Helen M.; Coope, G. Russell; Devoy, Robert J. N.; Harrison, Colin J. O.; Penkman, Kirsty E. H.; Preece, Richard C.; Schreve, Danielle C. (2009-11-01). "Differentiation of MIS 9 and MIS 11 in the continental record: vegetational, faunal, aminostratigraphic and sea-level evidence from coastal sites in Essex, UK". Quaternary Science Reviews. 28 (23): 2342–2373. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.04.017. ISSN 0277-3791. PMC 2806946. PMID 20119485.
- Preece, R. C.; Gowlett, J. A. J.; Parfitt, S. A.; Bridgland, D. R.; Lewis, S. G. (2006–2007). "Humans in the Hoxnian: habitat, context and fire use at Beeches Pit, West Stow, Suffolk, UK". Journal of Quaternary Science. 21 (5): 485–496. doi:10.1002/jqs.1043. ISSN 0267-8179.
- Böse et al. (2012), Quaternary Glaciations of Northern Europe, Quaternary Science Reviews 44, page 17-22.
- Hallberg, G. R. (1986). "Pre-Wisconsin glacial stratigraphy of the Central Plains region in Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, and Missouri". Quaternary Science Reviews. 5: 11–15. Bibcode:1986QSRv....5...11H. doi:10.1016/0277-3791(86)90169-1.
- Richmond, G. M. & Fullerton, D. S. (1986). "Summation of Quaternary glaciations in the United States of America". Quaternary Science Reviews. 5: 183–196. Bibcode:1986QSRv....5..183R. doi:10.1016/0277-3791(86)90184-8.
- Ashton, Nick; Lewis, Simon G.; Parfitt, Simon; White, Mark (2006–2007). "Riparian landscapes and human habitat preferences during the Hoxnian (MIS 11) Interglacial". Journal of Quaternary Science. 21 (5): 497–505. doi:10.1002/jqs.1032. ISSN 0267-8179.
- Ashton, Nick; Lewis, Simon G.; Parfitt, Simon; White, Mark (2006). "Riparian landscapes and human habitat preferences during the Hoxnian (MIS 11) Interglacial". Journal of Quaternary Science. 21 (5): 497–505. doi:10.1002/jqs.1032. ISSN 1099-1417.
- Preece, R.C.; Parfitt, S.A.; Bridgland, D.R.; Lewis, S.G.; Rowe, P.J.; Atkinson, T.C.; Candy, I.; Debenham, N.C.; Penkman, K.E.H.; Rhodes, E.J.; Schwenninger, J.-L. (2005–2007). "Terrestrial environments during MIS 11: evidence from the Palaeolithic site at West Stow, Suffolk, UK". Quaternary Science Reviews. 26 (9–10): 1236–1300. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2006.11.016.
- Bowen, D.Q. (1978). Quaternary geology: a stratigraphic framework for multidisciplinary work. Oxford UK: Pergamon Press. ISBN 978-0-08-020409-3.
- Ehlers, J.; Gibbard, P.L.; Rose, J., eds. (1991). Glacial deposits in Great Britain and Ireland. Rotterdam: Balkema. ISBN 978-90-6191-875-2.
- Mangerud, J.; Ehlers, J.; Gibbard, P. (2004). Quaternary Glaciations: Extent and Chronology 1: Part I Europe. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 0-444-51462-7.
- Aber, J.S. (2006). "Regional Glaciation of Kansas and Nebraska". Emporia KS: Emporia State University.
- Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy (2007). "Global correlation tables for the Quaternary". Cambridge, England: Department of Geography, University of Cambridge.
- Hallberg, G.R., ed. (1980). "Pleistocene stratigraphy in east-central Iowa" (PDF). Technical information Series. no. 10. Ames IA: Iowa Geological Survey Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF 15.6 MB) on 2010-07-13.
- Hallberg, G.R., ed. (1980). "Illinoian and Pre-Illinoian stratigraphy of southeast Iowa and adjacent Illinois" (PDF). Technical information Series. no. 11. Ames IA: Iowa Geological Survey Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF 19.3 MB) on 2010-07-13.
- Roy, M.; Clark, P.U.; Barendregt, R.W.; Glasmann, J.R.; Enkin, R.J. (2004). "Glacial stratigraphy and paleomagnetism of late Cenozoic deposits of the north-central United States" (PDF). Geological Society of America Bulletin. 116 (1–2): 30–41. Bibcode:2004GSAB..116...30R. doi:10.1130/B25325.1. Archived from the original (PDF 1.2 MB) on 2018-09-28. Retrieved 2010-03-20.