|Denomination||Hillsong, Evangelical, Charismatic|
|Weekly attendance||claims 150,000 (World), 43,000 (Australia)|
|Senior pastor(s)||Brian and Bobbie Houston|
Hillsong Church, commonly known as Hillsong, is a charismatic Christian megachurch based in Australia. The church, originally called Hills Christian Life Centre, was established in 1983 in Baulkham Hills, New South Wales, by Brian Houston and his wife Bobbie. The church is also known for its worship music, with groups such as Hillsong Worship, Hillsong United and Hillsong Young & Free. Until separating from it in 2018, Hillsong was a member of the Australian Christian Churches (the Australian branch of the Assemblies of God).
Hillsong is a megachurch that has been described by popular music scholar Tom Wagner as a "confluence of sophisticated marketing techniques and popular music". The music of Hillsong United and Hillsong Worship are credited with driving Hillsong's global popularity. Through the 1980s and 1990s, the congregation grew from 45 members to nearly 20,000 and emerged as a significant influence in the area of contemporary worship music. This was a result of strategic marketing that targeted younger generations and Hillsong's success at establishing itself as a global music standard.
Originally, services were held at the Baulkham Hills Public School hall. In 1997, the church moved into its new building at Baulkham Hills' Norwest Business Park. A new convention centre at the church's "Hills" location, was opened on 19 October 2002 by John Howard, the then Prime Minister of Australia. During the 1990s, Kiev Christian Life Centre, now Hillsong Kiev, and London Christian Life Centre, now Hillsong London, were planted from Hillsong Church as independent churches.
In March 2007, Hillsong Kiev planted an offshoot church in Moscow, which started regular services in July 2007. It was announced in October 2007 that Phil Dooley and Lucinda Dooley would plant a Hillsong Church in South Africa in March 2008. Hillsong Stockholm, Sweden, formerly known as Passion Church, was planted in 2008–2009.
In 2017, Hillsong announced it would be opening a church in Tel Aviv, Israel. Hillsong United featured Daher Nassar, a Palestinian Christian, in their music video Prince of Peace. The video was recorded live in Israel and shows a stone at the entrance of Nassar's farm, which has the words "We refuse to be enemies" written on it.
In September 2018, Hillsong left the Australian Christian Churches (of which Houston had been national superintendent/president from 1997 to 2009) to become an autonomous denomination, identifying itself more as a global and charismatic church. According to both Hillsong and ACC, the parting was amicable.
In October 2020, they purchased the Festival Hall venue in Melbourne to become the home of Hillsong Church Melbourne City's weekly church services after undergoing renovations to better suit the new uses.
The founders, Brian and Bobbie Houston, are currently the global senior pastors of Hillsong Church. The church is governed by a board of elders. The elders lead the church spiritually as well as act as a board of directors. The members of "The Hillsong Eldership" are senior executive staff and business leaders from Hillsong's congregation. Elders are appointed for one year, with renewable terms.
Hillsong's various ministries include Hillsong Music, Hillsong Kids, Hillsong Youth, Hillsong Sisterhood, Hillsong Men, Hillsong Conference, Hillsong CityCare, Hillsong International Leadership College, Hillsong Channel, TV & Film, Hillsong Performing Arts Academy and Hillsong Health Centre. Their total facilities are estimated to be worth around $100 million.
Bobbie Houston has been especially influential in Hillsong's ministry for women, called Sisterhood. She is a mentor to many of Hillsong's women leaders. Although Hillsong generally supports the traditional roles of wife and mother for women, the church's position is that their ministries "empower" women. Riches found via interviews with attendees that the ministries increased women's choice regarding around sexuality and child rearing; encouraged women to start small businesses and to take on promotions at work; facilitated women's participation in cultural events, as well as promoted women's voices in religious teaching and public life. Church members have described Hillsong's leadership development as a process that supports women's movement from timid, supportive wife into leadership roles within the Church. The Sisterhood is involved in issues like HIV, domestic violence and human trafficking. Their midweek gathering is primarily for women. It is attended by all female staff members and is the foundation of Hillsong's women's ministries. The Thursday meeting for mothers increasingly now includes businesswomen. They also have special quarterly "Sisterhood United" night meetings that include working women. Members of the church say that Bobbie's authority as a leader comes from "a pentecostal understanding of Spirit empowerment".
Hillsong City Care
In 1986 a social engagement program called CityCare was established offering various community services including personal development programs, counseling services, a health centre and youth mentoring. CityCare's "street teams" worked within the community to care for, feed and clothe the homeless. Also in 1986, the first Hillsong conference was held with 150 attendees. In 1999 Hillsong Church was founded when the Hills Christian Life Centre merged with the Sydney Christian Life Centre.
In July 2008, concerns were raised by some teachers, parents and experts about the Hillsong City Care Shine program for girls being run in New South Wales public schools, community groups and the juvenile justice system. The concerns include that the program is "inappropriate for troubled young women, that the under-qualified facilitators are reinforcing gender stereotypes and that some parents have not been properly informed" and that "the program encourages girls to be subservient by teaching them that they need to be attractive to men". Hillsong claimed that parents were supportive and that the program broke down barriers in a group situation. In a further response, Hillsong denied that the program had been used for evangelism, but a teacher's federation representative insisted that children had been exposed to religious content, such as people relating stories about finding religion and joining the Hillsong Church.
Hillsong's positions on non-central doctrines of the faith are diverse, although individuals have taken a public stand on many topical issues in contemporary Christianity in keeping with mainstream Pentecostalism – e.g. opposing embryonic stem cell research and abortion based on a belief that human life commences at conception. Hillsong has also declared support for Creationism and Intelligent Design and believes this should be taught in schools.
Hillsong's prosperity teachings have been criticised by Christian leaders Tim Costello and George Pell. Subsequent statements by Tim Costello indicated that he was satisfied with changes made by Brian Houston to Hillsong's teaching in response to criticism. Costello also wrote a foreword in Hillsong's 2019 annual report. Hillsong's teachings have been commented on favourably by Peter Costello, Tim Costello's brother, also a Baptist and a former Treasurer of Australia who has defended the church against accusations of unorthodoxy.
Hillsong Church has produced over 40 albums, which have sold over 11 million copies. Albums are produced for different target audiences including Hillsong Kids for children. Hillsong Chapel features acoustic arrangements, which are "quieter" than the electric guitar, keyboard and drums that are typical of Hillsong's music. Hillsong's albums are produced by Hillsong Music Australia. Hillsong's congregational music has been the dominant source of the church's influence in the Charismatic Christianity movement.
Music is central to worship at the church. Hillsong's worship leaders have generally enjoyed a high-profile international position. Early worship leaders included Geoff Bullock and Darlene Zschech. Zschech was Hillsong's second worship leader and Hillsong achieved international acclaim during her ministry. Zschech's "Shout to the Lord" was an early hit for Hillsong in mid-1990s. In 2008, Reuben Morgan became Hillsong's third worship leader.
Hillsong's worship music has been widely influential not only in Pentecostal churches, but more broadly in Evangelical churches. Many of Hillsong's "worship expressions" have been incorporated into Evangelical services including raised hands, vocal utterance and dance. Hillsong Music has released over 40 albums since 1992, many of them achieving gold status in Australia and one of them, People Just Like Us, achieving platinum status. The church's 2004 live praise and worship album For All You've Done reached No. 1 in the mainstream Australian album charts (ARIA).
In September 2012, Hillsong produced The Global Project, a collection of their most popular songs released in nine different languages including Spanish, Portuguese, Korean, Mandarin, Indonesian, German, French, Swedish and Russian.
Hillsong United is Hillsong's most popular band. Their song "Oceans (Where Feet May Fail)" was No. 1 on the Billboard Hot Christian Songs list for a full year. It was the No. 1 song on the Billboard Christian Songs chart in 2014 and 2016, No. 2 for 2015, and the No. 1 song of the 2010s decade. The New York Times described their music as "ornate mainstream arena rock but with God-only lyrics that are vetted for adherence to theology". Joel Houston, Hillsong's creative director, leads Hillsong United.
The Hillsong Worship albums, formerly led by Darlene Zschech and Reuben Morgan, all achieved gold status in Australia. The live album series was recorded at the Sydney campus(es) and then edited and produced by Hillsong Music Australia. The worship series began as a compilation of songs and developed into studio recorded albums. To help make Hillsong Music mainstream, an agreement with Warner Music Australia took place in 1999. In 2003, Sony Music Australia also signed with Hillsong Music to make the group even more mainstream. In 2018, Hillsong Worship won its first Grammy Award for Best Contemporary Christian Music Performance/Song for "What a Beautiful Name".
Hillsong Young & Free
Hillsong Young & Free was established in 2012 as a new branch of Hillsong's ministry. Hillsong Church has been successful at adjusting the musical style of their ministries to keep up with changing musical trends. Hillsong Young & Free was launched to attract postmillennial youth worshippers. The style of music in this particular ministry reflects features of musical genres that are popular with this target demographic, including electronic dance music.
Hillsong Kids were children's songs from Hillsong's children's ministry. The albums Jesus Is My Superhero and Super Strong God were included on Natalie Gillespie's "Best Christian Children's Albums" lists for 2005 and 2006, respectively (published in Christianity Today).
On 9 March 2016, the American religious broadcaster Trinity Broadcasting Network announced a partnership with Hillsong that saw their former sub-network, The Church Channel re-imaged as the Hillsong Channel on 1 June 2016.
Hillsong Conference is a mid-year week long annual conference in Sydney, London and New York later each year. First started in 1986, it has now grown to be the largest annual conference in Australia.
The conference is hosted by Hillsong Church and Lead Pastors Brian and Bobbie Houston, and involves a variety of guests from across the globe. Baptist minister Michael Frost described the conference as having, "a kind of electric, almost carnival atmosphere... the delegates were full of anticipation and excitement."
On 16 September 2016, the documentary Hillsong: Let Hope Rise, directed by Michael John Warren, was released to cinemas across the United States. The film explores Hillsong's beginnings and its rise to prominence as an international church. The main focus is on the band Hillsong United as they write songs for their upcoming album and work toward a performance at The Forum in Los Angeles.
Hillsong Church has attracted support from high-profile politicians, especially from the Liberal Party of Australia. In 1998, Brian Houston met with then prime minister of Australia, John Howard, and most of his Cabinet, at Parliament House in Canberra before sharing prayers. In 2002, John Howard opened the Hillsong Convention Centre at the Baulkham Hills location. In 2004 and 2005, the then Treasurer of Australia, Peter Costello, spoke at its annual conferences. Mark Latham, the then Leader of the Opposition, declined Hillsong's invitation to the 2004 conference, although Bob Carr, the then Premier of New South Wales (from the NSW Labor Party), did attend the 2005 conference.
Liberal MP for Mitchell, Alan Cadman, and two Family First Party senate candidates, Joan Woods and Ivan Herald, who failed to win senate seats, were featured in a Hillsong circular during the election, with members being asked to pray for them.
Hillsong's high-profile involvement with political leaders has been questioned in the media, and publicly, the church has distanced itself from advocating certain political groups and parties, including the fledgling Family First party. Brian Houston has replied to these criticisms by stating, "I think people need to understand the difference between the church being very involved in politics and individual Christians being involved in politics."
In 2008, Sydney inner city publication Central Magazine stated that Hillsong had donated A$600 to a Member of the Legislative Council, Kristina Keneally (ALP), for the tickets of a fundraising dinner, featuring the New South Wales' Planning Minister, Frank Sartor (ALP), as a guest speaker one month before the 2007 state election, despite Hillsong's own statement of corporate governance declaring that 'Hillsong Church does not make financial contributions to or align itself with any political party or candidate'. A Hillsong staff member, Maria Ieroianni, said that no donation had been made and that the dinner was not a fundraiser. Hillsong also issued a statement on their website denying that the money was a donation. According to the Central Magazine article, Keneally has described the dinner as a fundraiser and the money from Hillsong as a donation. The article also states that these descriptions are confirmed by the records of the NSW Electoral Commission.
Hillsong has been criticised at various times. Concerns have been expressed by politicians, media, community groups, Christian leaders and former members. Criticisms have covered Hillsong's finances, its ties to controversial organisations, its treatment of critics and the actions of its founder, another of its pastors, and other key members.
Criticism of finances
In 2005, Hillsong was accused of spending most of the money it received through government grants for programs to assist the Riverstone Aboriginal Community Association (RACA) on their own staff salaries. The federal government acknowledged that $80,000 from the grant money had been used to pay Hillsong Emerge CEO Leigh Coleman, who was only indirectly involved in the programs. One program, designed to give Indigenous Australians microloans, paid $315,000 to Hillsong staff over the course of a year, though only granted six loans averaging $2856 each during that time. Hillsong's application for the grant listed the RACA as a co-funder, though the RACA denied ever offering funding, saying they were never in a position to do so. In 2006, Hillsong were stripped of $414,000 from the grant on the grounds they had faked the Indigenous endorsement that was required to attain it. Hillsong were also accused of offering the RACA $280,000 in order to silence their complaints regarding the matter, which they declined; a Hillsong spokesperson stated the offer of money was "not an attempt to silence RACA but amicably resolve the issue". A 2007 letter from the "newly elected RACA board" was published on the Hillsong website, apologising for "inappropriate accusations" made over the previous two years.[better source needed]
Pushes for a charity commission in Australia have stemmed from claims that religious organisations like Hillsong avoid taxes by paying their staff in tax-exempt fringe benefits. In 2010, The Sunday Telegraph reported that the Houston family was enjoying a lavish lifestyle, almost entirely tax-free, including vehicles and expense accounts. Criticisms have been levelled at Hillsong in regard to its finances, especially its use of government grants when it reportedly made $40 million in 2004 and $50 million in 2010.
Founder's lack of reporting of child sexual abuse by his father
Frank Houston, the father of Hillsong Church founder Brian Houston, was a pastor in New Zealand and Australia who sexually abused boys over the course of his ministry. One of the nine identified victims was routinely subjected to sexual abuse in the 1960s and '70s when he was 7 to 12 years old. In 1999, his mother reported the abuse to the Assemblies of God denomination. Although Brian Houston, then National President of the Assemblies of God denomination in Australia, was legally obligated to report the crime, he did not do so.: 6:30 Brian Houston said he felt it was a reasonable excuse not to report the crime when the victim is an adult when the crime comes to light and said the victim did not want the crime reported (an assertion that was denied by the victim). The victim later testified to the Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse that Frank Houston offered him AU$10,000 as compensation at a McDonald's in the presence of Nabi Saleh. During an internal church investigation, Frank Houston eventually confessed to the crime. The commission also heard that he was involved in the sexual abuse of other children in New Zealand. Frank Houston resigned from his church in 2000, which now lacking a pastor, was merged into Hillsong Church. A further internal investigation by Assemblies of God in Australia, in conjunction with the Assemblies of God in New Zealand, found six additional child sexual abuse allegations that were regarded as credible. On 5 August 2021, NSW Police issued a warrant for Brian Houston to attend the Downing Centre Local Court in Sydney on 5 October, alleging that Houston concealed child sexual abuse by his late father, Frank. Houston was in the United States at the time of being charged. He has denied the charges.
Hillsong has been criticised for its involvement with Mercy Ministries, an evangelical charity with a right to life view and a conservative perspective on homosexuality. Hillsong responded by praising the work of Mercy Ministries and stating that "we are not involved in the operational aspects of the organization." The church also said: "We have heard many wonderful testimonies about how the work of Mercy has helped the lives of young women facing often debilitating and life-controlling situations. Some would even say that Mercy Ministries has saved their life." Mercy Ministries in Australia was closed down on 31 October 2009, preceding which Hillsong had distanced itself from the organisation despite earlier funding and staffing elements of it.
Criticism from a former member
Hillsong's attitude towards criticism was portrayed negatively by one former member, Tanya Levin, in her book People in Glass Houses: An Insider's Story of a Life In and Out of Hillsong. Specific criticisms covered authoritarian church governance, lack of financial accountability, resistance to free thought, strict fundamentalist teachings and lack of compassion. In an interview with Andrew Denton, Levin further discussed her experience of Hillsong, which she described as "toxic Christianity".
Michael Guglielmucci cancer scandal
On 20 August 2008, Michael Guglielmucci, a then pastor of Influencers Church composed "Healer", a song about his experience of cancer. He was invited by Hillsong to add his song to the album This Is Our God. Later, he confessed that he had lied about having cancer. Hillsong leadership told the press they were unaware of this situation and that the suspended pastor was seeking professional help. The ACC promised that all money donated by listeners inspired by the song would either be returned or donated to charity. The track "Healer" has since then been removed from the track listing in future releases of the album.
Stance on homosexuality and same-sex marriage
In 2014, Brian Houston discussed being more understanding of gay people. Later, he clarified his position after being criticised by some Christians for allegedly supporting homosexuality. In a statement released on Hillsong's website, he stated: "Nowhere in my answer did I diminish biblical truth or suggest that I or Hillsong Church supported gay marriage."
Mark Driscoll appearance
American preacher Mark Driscoll had been invited to attend the Hillsong Church 2015 annual conference. When it was revealed that Driscoll had made offensive comments about women, Brian Houston announced that Driscoll would no longer attend the conference. A pre-recorded interview with Driscoll was played during the conference.
Carl Lentz rise and fall
Hillsong expanded on the East Coast under Lentz, but some members felt that it became unduly focused on fashion, and on servicing the desires of its pastors and its famous patrons. Church volunteers were allegedly expected to work long hours, and were reportedly treated as second-class citizens and gaslighted. Around 2017, two Hillsong volunteers who attempted to convey their concerns about Mr Lentz to Hillsong leadership were allegedly intercepted and dismissed.
In 2020, Hillsong fired Lentz after finding that Lentz had engaged in "more than one extra-marital affair" and was currently involved in one. Lentz's lover stated that Hillsong is not "genuine. That's the truth. It's a money machine ... and I think it's wrong ... I think [Lentz] is a victim of his own church. He gave his life to this church, and that's how they played him."
Accusations of cult status
Former members of the church have come forward to accuse the church of being a cult, claiming that the leaders abuse employees and volunteers by treating them as "slave labour", and interfering with their personal lives, such as requiring them to "ask a pastor's permission to date". In November 2020, following testimony from Hillsong volunteers, Hillsong announced an independent investigation into concerns about the New York branch.
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Homosexuals are, of course, unwelcome, but Houston says he's not a Fred Nile-type fanatic on these matters.
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In Hillsong Emerge's budget for the successful grant, $103,584 would go to the project co-ordinator's salary, $20,715 to the project co-ordinator's 'on-costs', $46,800 to 'contract management, supervision and support', $31,200 to 'administration, reception, book-keeping', $8000 to 'evaluation', and $7800 to 'IT-communications'. That accounts for more than half the grant, and the largest single allocation for actual activities is for 'sporting-recreational events' at $18,000 ... The [Hillsong] budget also lists co-funding, including $28,800 from the Riverstone Aboriginal community. Not only does RACA say it never made such a commitment, it says the concept is absurd. 'We were to have contributed at least $200 per week and we have no money,' RACA's deputy chairman Chris McBride says.
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Frank Houston's resignation letter to the City Hillsong Church in November 2000 makes no mention of the allegations. 'I hereby wish to tender my resignation ... as I feel it is time for (his wife) Hazel and I to enter retirement', says the letter.
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Brian Houston has defended not reporting his father's confession to police, stating he had a 'reasonable excuse' because he said Sengstock had said he did not want to go to the authorities. He also said that because Sengstock was an adult when the abuse was first reported, it was his prerogative to report it. Sengstock has denied telling Houston not to go to the police.
- "Sexual abuse victim of Hillsong founder's father blasts PM for supporting Brian Houston". Guardian Australia. 28 October 2019.
In an interview with 2GB host Ben Fordham on Thursday, Brian Houston said Sengstock told Houston he did not want the police informed, at the time the church leader found out about his father's abuse. 'He told me that he didn't want the police involved,' Houston said. 'And the reality is that the law itself actually spells out that very circumstance – that if an adult victim doesn't want the police involved, that's a reasonable excuse for not including the police.' Speaking to the New Daily later on Thursday, Sengstock denied he had said that.
- Browne, Rachel (23 November 2015). "Royal Commission sex abuse inquiry censures Hillsong head Brian Houston". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
- McClellan, Ben (13 October 2014). "Hillsong leader Brian Houston breaks silence on paedophile father: 'It was wrong not to report him'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- Submissions of Counsel Assisting The Royal Commission. The Response of Australian Christian Churches and Affiliated Pentecostal Churches to Allegations of Child Sexual Abuse Case Study 18 (Report). 7 October 2014.
Pastor Brian Houston said that his father spoke to him over a number of years about assuming the position of Senior Pastor at Sydney Christian Life Centre. In May 1999, Frank Houston suddenly retired from the position of Senior Pastor at Sydney Christian Life Centre and asked Pastor Brian Houston to take over his position. Pastor Brian Houston was the only nominee for Senior Pastor put to the Board of Sydney Christian Life Centre for approval. From May 1999 Pastor Brian Houston was the Senior Pastor of both churches for a period of 18 months. In that year the two churches merged and in 2001 were renamed Hillsong Church. Today Hillsong Church is an affiliate of the Australian Christian Churches, successor of the Assemblies of God.
- Chettle, Nicole (7 October 2014). "Hillsong church head Brian Houston accused alleged child abuse victim of 'tempting' father, inquiry told". ABC News. Australia.
AHA said he saw a television address by Brian Houston, who was now the senior Pastor of the church, around the year 2000 when he told the congregation that his father had been involved in a minor indiscretion in New Zealand 30 years ago. He said he was appalled that Brian Houston did not reveal the extent of allegations against his father, including his case. 'He avoided using the term paedophilia', AHA said. 'I thought it was corrupt that he had used the phrase "involved in a minor indiscretion". 'As far as I was aware Pastor Frank was still preaching at this time and was also doing seminars.'
- Davidson, Helen (23 November 2015). "Hillsong's Brian Houston failed to report abuse and had conflict of interest – royal commission". Guardian Australia. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- "Church failed to follow procedure for sex abuse allegations, royal commission hears". The Sydney Morning Herald. 9 October 2014.
Frank Houston, the founder of the Sydney Christian Life Centre, which merged with his son Brian's Hills Christian Life Centre to become Hillsong Church, wrote to churchgoers in November 2000, informing them of his resignation due to 'retirement'. 'I hereby wish to tender my resignation from the staff and eldership of the City Hillsong Church as I feel it is time for (my wife) Hazel and I to enter retirement', he wrote. 'It has been a privilege to minister in the church and to work with you all.' Minutes tendered to the commission show that at a November 2000 meeting of the senior ranks of the Assemblies of God, now known as Australian Christian Churches, it was agreed that Frank Houston should be thanked for 'his immeasurable contribution to the church'. The provision of 'financial support' for Frank Houston and his wife was discussed at the same meeting.
- "Report on trip of John Lewis and Keith Ainge to New Zealand and Sydney, 28th 29th November 2000" (PDF). Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
- Hunter, Fergus; Smith, Alexandra; Chung, Laura (5 August 2021). "Hillsong pastor Brian Houston charged for allegedly concealing child sexual abuse by his father". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 5 August 2021.
- Capone, Alesha (14 November 2007). "Borders passes the hat for anti-gay, pro-life charity". Crikey.com.au. Archived from the original on 16 January 2009. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
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- Enough Rope With Andrew Denton, Tanya Levin interview Archived 11 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- "Hillsong Pastor Michael Guglielmucci on Today Tonight - YouTube". www.youtube.com.
- Lawrence, Elissa (24 August 2008). "Fake illness preacher Michael Guglielmucci told to go to police". news.com.au. Retrieved 24 August 2008.
- "Pop star pastor lied about cancer". National Nine News. 21 August 2008. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 21 August 2008.
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- Resource, Youth Work (21 November 2008). "Hillsong – Healer". Youth Work Resource.
- "Hillsong megachurch pastor says church should be more understanding of gays". gaystarnews.com. 27 August 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- "Megachurch Pastor Signals Shift in Tone on Gay Marriage". The New York Times. 18 October 2014. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 20 October 2014.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
- "Hillsong pastor Brian Houston denies gay marriage support". 20 October 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- "Re: recent media comments on homosexuality". Hillsong.com. October 2014. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
- McKenny, Leesha (7 June 2015). "Hillsong Church cancels pastor Mark Driscoll's Australian visit after backlash". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
- "Hillsong Church gives platform for 'penis house' preacher Mark Driscol". news.com.au. 1 July 2015.
- Graham, Ruth (5 December 2020). "The Rise and Fall of Carl Lentz, the Celebrity Pastor of Hillsong Church". Retrieved 13 December 2020 – via NYTimes.com.
- McHugh, Rich. ""He Is a Victim of His Own Church": Carl Lentz, Ranin Karim, and Hillsong's Unfurling Scandal". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 13 December 2020.
- Hannah Frishberg (23 December 2020). "'It's a cult': Ex-Hillsong members claim church demanded 'slave labor'". New York Post.
- Dan Adler (24 December 2020). "Hillsong Church Faces New Allegations of Abusive Behavior". Vanity Fair.
- "Hillsong founder Brian Houston announces investigation after NYC pastor Carl Lentz's firing". Religion News Service. 12 November 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
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