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He was the eldest son of Charles, Duke of Mayenne and Henriette of Savoy, Marquise of Villars.
He became Duke of Aiguillon in 1599 and in 1611, when his father died, Duke of Mayenne, Marquis de Villars, Count of Maine, Tende and Sommerive. He also became a peer of France and inherited the Hôtel de Mayenne in Paris.
He was also Grand Chamberlain of France.
He was present at the coronation of King Louis XIII of France.
He was succeeded by his sister's son Charles Gonzaga.
- Parrott 1997, p. 152.
- Parrott, David (1997). "A "prince souvereign" and the French crown: Charles de Nevers, 1580-1637". In Oresko, Robert; Gibbs, G. C.; Scott, H M (eds.). Royal and Republican Sovereignty in Early Modern Europe: Essays in Memory of Ragnhild Marie Hatton. Cambridge University Press. p. 149-187.