|Grover Washington Jr.|
|Birth name||Grover Washington Jr.|
|Born||December 12, 1943|
Buffalo, New York, U.S.
|Died||December 17, 1999 (aged 56)|
Manhattan, New York, U.S.
|Genres||Jazz, soul, R&B, jazz-funk, soul-jazz, smooth jazz|
|Occupation(s)||Musician, singer-songwriter, arranger, producer|
|Instruments||Vocals; soprano, alto, tenor, and baritone saxophones; flute|
|Labels||Kudu, Motown, Elektra, Columbia|
|Associated acts||The Blackout All-Stars|
Grover Washington Jr. (December 12, 1943 – December 17, 1999) was an American jazz-funk / soul-jazz saxophonist. Along with Wes Montgomery and George Benson, he is considered by many to be one of the founders of the smooth jazz genre. He wrote some of his material and later became an arranger and producer.
Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, Washington made some of the genre's most memorable hits, including "Mister Magic", "Reed Seed", "Black Frost", "Winelight", "Inner City Blues" and "The Best is Yet to Come". In addition, he performed very frequently with other artists, including Bill Withers on "Just the Two of Us", Patti LaBelle on "The Best Is Yet to Come" and Phyllis Hyman on "A Sacred Kind of Love". He is also remembered for his take on the Dave Brubeck classic "Take Five", and for his 1996 version of "Soulful Strut".
Washington had a preference for black nickel-plated saxophones made by Julius Keilwerth. These included an SX90R alto and SX90R tenor. He also played Selmer Mark VI alto in the early years. His main soprano was a black nickel-plated H. Couf Superba II (also built by Keilwerth for Herbert Couf) and a Keilwerth SX90 in the last years of his life.
Washington was born in Buffalo, New York, United States, on December 12, 1943. His mother was a church chorister, and his father was a collector of old jazz gramophone records and a saxophonist as well, so music was everywhere in the home. He grew up listening to the great jazzmen and big band leaders like Benny Goodman, Fletcher Henderson, and others like them. At the age of 8, Grover Sr. gave Jr. a saxophone. He practiced and would sneak into clubs to see famous Buffalo blues musicians. His younger brother, drummer Daryl Washington, would follow in his footsteps, he also had another younger brother named Michael Washington, who was an accomplished Gospel Music organist who mastered the Hammond B3 organ. He was part of a vocal ensemble, The Teen Kings, which included Lonnie Smith.
Washington left Buffalo and played with a Midwest group called the Four Clefs and then the Mark III Trio from Mansfield, Ohio. Shortly thereafter, he was drafted into the U.S. Army, where he met drummer Billy Cobham. A music mainstay in New York City, Cobham introduced Washington to many New York musicians. After leaving the Army, Washington freelanced his talents around New York City, eventually landing in Philadelphia in 1967. In 1970 and 1971, he appeared on Leon Spencer's first two albums on Prestige Records, together with Idris Muhammad and Melvin Sparks.
Washington's big break came when Alto sax man Hank Crawford was unable to make a recording date with Creed Taylor's Kudu Records, and Washington took his place, even though he was a backup. This led to his first solo album, Inner City Blues. He was talented and displayed heart and soul with soprano, alto, tenor, and baritone saxophones. Refreshing for his time, he made headway into the jazz mainstream.
Rise to fame
While his first three albums established him as a force in jazz and soul music, it was his fourth album in 1974, Mister Magic, that proved a major commercial success. The album climbed to number 1 on Billboard's R&B album chart and number 10 on Billboard's Top 40 album chart. The title track reached No. 16 on the R&B singles chart (#54, pop). All these albums included guitarist Eric Gale as a near-permanent member in Washington's arsenal. His follow-up on Kudu in 1975, Feels So Good also made No. 1 on Billboard's R&B album chart and No. 10 on the pop album chart. Both albums were major parts of the jazz-funk movement of the mid-1970s.
A string of acclaimed records brought Washington through the 1970s, culminating in the signature piece for everything he would do from then on. Winelight (1980) was the album that defined everything Washington was then about, having signed for Elektra Records, part of the major Warner Music group. The album was smooth, fused with R&B and easy listening feel. Washington's love of basketball, especially the Philadelphia 76ers, led him to dedicate the second track, "Let It Flow", to Julius Erving (Dr. J). The highlight of the album was his collaboration with soul artist Bill Withers, "Just the Two of Us," a hit on radio during the spring and summer of 1981, peaking at No. 2 on the Billboard Hot 100. The album went platinum in 1981, and also won Grammy Awards in 1982 for Best R&B Song ("Just The Two of Us"), and Best Jazz Fusion Performance ("Winelight"). "Winelight" was also nominated for Record of the Year and Song of the Year.
In the post-Winelight era, Washington is credited for giving rise to a new batch of talent that would make its mark in the late 1980s and early 1990s. He is known for bringing Kenny G to the forefront, as well as artists such as Walter Beasley, Steve Cole, Pamela Williams, Najee, Boney James and George Howard. His song "Mr. Magic" is noted as being influential on go-go music starting in the mid-1970s.
On December 17, 1999, five days after his 56th birthday, Washington collapsed while waiting in the green room after performing four songs for The Saturday Early Show, at CBS Studios in New York City. He was taken to St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital, where he was pronounced dead at about 7:30 pm. His doctors determined that he had suffered a massive heart attack. He is interred at West Laurel Hill Cemetery in Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania.
A large mural of Washington, part of the Philadelphia Mural Arts Program, is just south of the intersection of Broad and Diamond streets. A Philadelphia middle school in the Olney section of the city is named after Washington. Grover Washington Jr. Middle School caters to 5-8 grade students interested in the creative and performing arts.
There is a mural dedicated to Grover Washington, Jr. in Buffalo, where he grew up and attended school.
|Year||Album||US 200||US R&B||US Jazz||AUS|
|1972||Inner City Blues||62||8||4||—|
|All the King's Horses||111||20||1||—|
|Feels So Good||10||1||1||—|
|1976||A Secret Place||31||7||1||—|
|1977||Live at The Bijou||11||4||1||—|
|1982||The Best Is Yet to Come||50||8||1||100|
|1986||A House Full of Love||125||52||25||—|
|1988||Then and Now||—||—||2||—|
|1989||Time Out of Mind||—||60||1||—|
|1994||All My Tomorrows||—||—||2||—|
|1997||Breath of Heaven: A Holiday Collection||—||—||7||—|
With Kathleen Battle
- So Many Stars (Sony, 1995)
With Kenny Burrell
With Hank Crawford
- Help Me Make it Through the Night (Kudu, 1972)
With Charles Earland
- Living Black! (Prestige, 1970)
With Dexter Gordon
- American Classic (Elektra, 1982)
With Urbie Green
- Señor Blues (CTI, 1977)
With Eddie Henderson
- Inspiration (Milestone, 1994)
- Tribute to Lee Morgan (NYC Music, 1995)
With Masaru Imada
- Seaside (1982)
With Boogaloo Joe Jones
With The Mark III Trio
- Let's Ska at the Ski Lodge (Downhill, 1964)
With Idris Muhammad
With Gerry Mulligan
- Dragonfly (Telarc, 1995)
With Don Sebesky
- Giant Box (CTI, 1973)
With Lonnie Smith
- Mama Wailer (Kudu, 1971)
With Melvin Sparks
- Spark Plug (Prestige, 1971)
With Leon Spencer
With Mal Waldron
- My Dear Family (Evidence, 1990)
With Randy Weston
- Blue Moses (CTI, 1972)
With Bill Withers
- Just the Two of Us (Columbia, 1981)
|Year||Singles||US Pop||US R&B|
|1971||"Inner City Blues"||—||42|
|1972||"Mercy Mercy Me"||—||—|
|"No Tears in the End"||—||49|
|1979||"Tell Me About It Now"||—||—|
|1981||"Just the Two of Us"||2||3|
|1982||"Be Mine (Tonight)"||92||13|
|1983||"The Best Is Yet to Come"||—||14|
|1990||"Sacred Kind of Love"||—||21|
|1992||"Love Like This"||—||31|
- "Grover Washington, Jr. - Biography & History". AllMusic. Retrieved December 6, 2017.
- Richard J. Lawn (March 20, 2013). Experiencing Jazz. Routledge. p. 337. ISBN 9781135042691.
- Colin Larkin, ed. (1997). The Virgin Encyclopedia of Popular Music (Concise ed.). Virgin Books. p. 1234/5. ISBN 978-1-85227-745-1.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 6, 2012. Retrieved February 6, 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Chang, Jeff (June 2001). "Wind me up, Chuck!". San Francisco Bay Guardian. Retrieved June 1, 2007.
- "Grover Washington, Jr". www.findagrave.com. Retrieved April 6, 2019.
- Lewis, Susan (July 10, 2017). "Looking at the Mural of Grover Washington, Jr. You Can Almost Hear The Music". WRTI. Retrieved May 2, 2020.
- "Google Maps". Google Maps. Retrieved December 6, 2017.
- "Points of Pride - The School District of Philadelphia". Webgui.phila.k12.pa.us. Retrieved December 6, 2017.
- Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992 (illustrated ed.). St Ives, N.S.W.: Australian Chart Book. p. 333. ISBN 0-646-11917-6.