The **Graham number** or **Benjamin Graham number** is a figure used in securities investing that measures a stock's so-called fair value.^{[1]} Named after Benjamin Graham, the founder of value investing, the Graham number can be calculated as follows:

The final number is, theoretically, the maximum price that a defensive investor should pay for the given stock. Put another way, a stock priced below the Graham Number would be considered a good value, if it also meets a number of other criteria.

The Number represents the geometric mean of the maximum that one would pay based on earnings and based on book value. Graham writes:^{[2]}

Current price should not be more than 11⁄2 times the book value last reported. However a multiplier of earnings below 15 could justify a correspondingly higher multiplier of assets. As a rule of thumb we suggest that the

productof the multiplier times the ratio of price to book value should not exceed 22.5. (This figure corresponds to 15 times earnings and 11⁄2 times book value. It would admit an issue selling at only 9 times earnings and 2.5 times asset value, etc.)— Benjamin Graham, The Intelligent Investor, chapter 14

## Alternative calculation

Earnings per share is calculated by dividing *net income* by *shares outstanding*. Book value is another way of saying *shareholders' equity*. Therefore, book value per share is calculated by dividing *equity* by *shares outstanding*. Consequently, the formula for the Graham number can also be written as follows:

## References

**^**Investopedia: Definition of 'Graham Number'**^**Graham, Benjamin; Jason Zweig (1986-01-01) [1949]. "14".*The Intelligent Investor*. Warren E. Buffett (collaborator) (1986 ed.). HarperCollins. p. halfb00rowl_0/page/389 389. ISBN 0-06-0055544- Check`|isbn=`

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