In mathematical set theory, a square principle is a combinatorial principle asserting the existence of a cohering sequence of short closed unbounded (club) sets so that no one (long) club set coheres with them all. As such they may be viewed as a kind of incompactness phenomenon. They were introduced by Ronald Jensen in his analysis of the fine structure of the constructible universe L.
Variant relative to a cardinal
Jensen introduced also a local version of the principle. If is an uncountable cardinal, then asserts that there is a sequence satisfying:
- is a club set of .
- If , then
- If is a limit point of then
Jensen proved that this principle holds in the constructible universe for any uncountable cardinal κ.
- Cummings, James (2005), "Notes on Singular Cardinal Combinatorics", Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic, 46 (3): 251–282, doi:10.1305/ndjfl/1125409326 Section 4.
- Jech, Thomas (2003), Set Theory: Third Millennium Edition, Springer Monographs in Mathematics, Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-3-540-44085-7, p. 443.