Xíngzhèng Yuàn (Mandarin)
Hàng-chṳn Yen (Hakka)
|Formed||25 October 1928 (in mainland China)|
10 March 1950 (in Taipei)
|Dissolved||1 October 1949 (mainland China)|
|Jurisdiction||Government of the Republic of China|
|Headquarters||No. 1, Zhongxiao E. Rd., Zhongzheng, Taipei, Taiwan|
|Literal meaning||Executive Court|
The Executive Yuan is the executive branch of the government of the Republic of China (Taiwan). Its leader is the Premier, who is appointed by the President of the Republic of China, and no longer requires confirmation by the Legislative Yuan. The Premier may be removed by a vote of no-confidence by a majority of the Legislative Yuan, after which the President may either remove the Premier or dissolve the Legislative Yuan and initiate a new election for legislators. Like many semi-presidential systems, the head of the Executive Branch is not the President. The Premier is the head of government while the President is the head of state. The President may remove the Premier.
Organization and structure
The Executive Yuan is headed by the Premier (or President of the Executive Yuan) and includes its Vice Premier, twelve cabinet ministers, various chairpersons of commissions, and five to nine ministers without portfolio. The Vice Premier, ministers and chairpersons are appointed by the President of the Republic of China on the recommendation of the Premier.
Its formation, as one of five branches ("Yuans") of the government, stemmed from the Three Principles of the People, the constitutional theory of Sun Yat-sen, but was adjusted constitutionally over the years to adapt to the situation in the ROC by changes in the laws and the Constitution of the Republic of China.
|Vice Premier||副院長||Shen Jong-chin|
|Foreign Affairs||外交部||Joseph Wu|
|National Defense||國防部||Chiu Kuo-cheng|
|Economic Affairs||經濟部||Wang Mei-hua|
|Transportation and Communications||交通部||Wang Kwo-tsai|
|Health and Welfare||衛生福利部||Chen Shih-chung|
|Science and Technology||科技部||Wu Tsung-tsong|
Councils and Commissions
Empowered by various laws or the Constitution, under the Executive Yuan Council several individual boards are formed to enforce different executive functions of the government. Unless regulated otherwise, the chairs are appointed by and answer to the Premier. The members of the boards are usually (a) governmental officials for the purpose of interdepartmental coordination and cooperation; or (b) creditable professionals for their reputation and independence.
|National Development Council||國家發展委員會||Kung Ming-hsin|
|Mainland Affairs Council||大陸委員會||Chiu Tai-san|
|Financial Supervisory Commission||金融監督管理委員會||Huang Tien-mu|
|Ocean Affairs Council||海洋委員會||Lee Chung-wei|
|Overseas Community Affairs Council||僑務委員會||Wu Hsin-hsing|
|Veterans Affairs Council||國軍退除役官兵輔導委員會||Feng Shih-kuan|
|Council of Indigenous Peoples||原住民族委員會||Icyang Parod|
|Hakka Affairs Council||客家委員會||Lee Yung-te|
There are independent executive commissions under the Executive Yuan Council. Members of these commissions have to be confirmed by the Legislative Yuan.
|Central Election Commission||中央選舉委員會||Lee Chin-yung|
|Fair Trade Commission||公平交易委員會||Huang Mei-ying|
|National Communications Commission||國家通訊傳播委員會||Chen Yaw-shyang|
|Central Bank||中央銀行||Yang Chin-long|
|National Palace Museum||國立故宮博物院||Wu Mi-cha|
|Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics||主計總處||Chu Tzer-ming|
|Directorate-General of Personnel Administration||人事行政總處||Jay N. Shih|
Organizations no longer under Executive Yuan
Due to government restructuring, some agencies may be dissolved or merged with other agencies. Based on Executive Yuan website, the following bodies are no longer agencies under the Executive Yuan:
- Consumer Protection Commission, restructured as the Consumer Protection Committee on 1 January 2012
- Aviation Safety Council, became an independent agency on 20 May 2012, later renamed Taiwan Transportation Safety Board
- National Disaster Prevention and Protection Commission: a task-force-grouped committee authorized by the law of Disaster Prevention and Protection.
Dissolved or cease to function
- Government Information Office on 20 May 2012
- Council for Economic Planning and Development on 21 January 2014
- Research, Development and Evaluation Commission on 21 January 2014
- Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission on 15 September 2017
Ministers without portfolio
- Audrey Tang, with the unofficial English-language title of "Digital Minister"
- Chang Ching-sen
- Huang Chih-ta
- John Deng
- Kung Ming-hsin, also serving as Minister of National Development Council
- Lo Ping-cheng
- Lin Wan-i
- Wu Tze-cheng, also serving as Minister of Public Construction Commission
Executive Yuan Council
The Executive Yuan Council, commonly referred to as "The Cabinet" (內閣), is the chief policymaking organ of the ROC government. It consists of the premier, who presides over its meetings, the vice premier, ministers without portfolio, the heads of the ministries, and the heads of the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission and the Overseas Chinese Affairs Commission. The secretary-general and the deputy secretary-general of the Executive Yuan also attend, as well as heads of other Executive Yuan organizations by invitation, but they have no vote. Article 58 of the Constitution empowers the Executive Yuan Council to evaluate statutory and budgetary bills concerning martial law, amnesty, declarations of war, conclusion of peace or treaties, and other important affairs before submission to the Legislative Yuan.
Relationship with the Legislative Yuan
The Executive Yuan Council must present the Legislators with an annual policy statement and an administrative report. The Legislative Committee may also summon members of the Executive Yuan Council for questioning.
Whenever there is disagreement between the Legislative Council and Executive Yuan Council, the Legislative Committee may pass a resolution asking the Executive Yuan Council to alter the policy proposal in question. The Executive Yuan may, in turn, ask the Legislators to reconsider. Afterwards, if the Legislative Council upholds the original resolution, the premier must abide by the resolution or resign. The Executive Yuan Council may also present an alternative budgetary bill if the one passed by the Legislative Committee is deemed difficult to execute.
- "Mao Chi-kuo named as premier (update)". focustaiwan.tw.
- "Taiwan retains most Cabinet members in reshuffle". focustaiwan.tw.
- 葉耀元 (21 February 2015). "總統制、半總統制、內閣制？台灣到底需要什麼樣的憲政框架？". 菜市場政治學. Retrieved 11 June 2020.
- Second Amendment of the Constitution of The Republic of China (2005)
- Third Amendment of the Constitution of The Republic of China (2005)
- "Executive Yuan, R.O.C.)-Structure & Functions". Ey.gov.tw. Archived from the original on 2014-04-29. Retrieved 2014-05-07.
- "Executive Yuan, R.O.C. (Taiwan)-Ministries and Agencies". Ey.gov.tw. 2006-06-15. Retrieved 2014-05-07.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-05-24. Retrieved 2014-04-23.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Premier-designate finalizes his Cabinet lineup - Politics - FOCUS TAIWAN - CNA ENGLISH NEWS".
- "Former economics minister to oversee trade negotiations: Cabinet - Politics - FOCUS TAIWAN - CNA ENGLISH NEWS".
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