Ernest Albert Garlington
|Born||February 20, 1853|
Newberry, South Carolina
|Died||October 16, 1934 (aged 81)|
San Diego, California
|Place of burial|
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/||United States Army|
|Years of service||1876–1917|
|Unit||7th Cavalry Regiment|
Wounded Knee Creek
|Awards||Medal of Honor|
|Other work||Inspector General of the Army; member, General Staff of the Army (1906-17)|
Early life and education
Garlington was born in Newberry, South Carolina to Albert Creswell Garlington, a general in the South Carolina militia during the American Civil War. He entered the University of Georgia (UGA) in Athens in 1869; however, he left UGA before graduating to accept an appointment to the United States Military Academy. He graduated from the academy in 1876 and was commissioned on June 15 of that year as a second lieutenant in the 7th Regiment of the United States Cavalry, but he did not physically join the unit until after the Battle of the Little Big Horn, which occurred several weeks after his appointment.
Early military career
Due to his regiment's heavy losses, Garlington was quickly promoted to first lieutenant on June 25, 1876 and then to Regimental Adjutant June 6, 1877, and served in that post until 1881. He commanded one of the failed Adolphus Greely Relief Expeditions in 1883. On December 29, 1890, Garlington was injured while at Wounded Knee Massacre in South Dakota, and received the Medal of Honor on September 23, 1893, for distinguished gallantry.
Garlington's next promotions were to captain on December 3, 1891, and major, inspector general, on January 2, 1895. In 1898, Garlington served as inspector general in Cuba during the Spanish–American War and participated in the Battle of Santiago de Cuba. In that same year (July 7, 1898), he was promoted to lieutenant colonel. He again served as inspector general from 1899 through 1901 in the Philippines during the Philippine–American War. On March 1, 1901, Garlington was promoted to colonel. He served in the inspector general position again in the Philippines from 1905 to 1906.
The ultimate promotion for Garlington was to brigadier general, Inspector General of the Army, on October 1, 1906, after which he served on the General Staff of the Army. In 1908, he conducted the army investigation into the Brownsville Affair.
In 1911, he was an observer of the German Army Maneuvers.
World War I
He retired due to age on February 20, 1917. However, he served in the office of the Chief of Staff from April 30 to September 21, 1917.
Death and legacy
Garlington died on October 16, 1934 and was buried at Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Virginia. His first wife, Anna Buford Garlington (1864–1954) and his daughter, Sally Garlington Chamberlin (1890–1949), are buried with him. His son, Cresswell Garlington, (1887–1945) was also a brigadier general in the United States Army and is buried in a separate plot at Arlington.
Books written by Garlington include: Historical Sketches of the Seventh Cavalry Regiment and A Catechism on Cavalry Outposts, Reconnaissance, Patrols, and Advance and Rear Guards.
Medal of Honor citation
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wounded Knee Creek, S. Dak., December 29, 1890. Entered service at: Athens, Ga. Born: February 20, 1853, Newberry, S.C. Date of issue: September 26, 1893.
- List of Medal of Honor recipients
- List of Medal of Honor recipients for the Indian Wars
- Adolphus Greely
- Brownsville Affair
- Davis, Jr., Henry Blaine (1998). Generals in Khaki. Pentland Press, Inc. pp. 137–8. ISBN 1571970886. OCLC 40298151.
- Burial Detail: Garlington, Ernest A (Section 3, Grave 1735-B) – ANC Explorer
- "Account of Garlington's Rescue Attempt of the Greely Expedition". Retrieved September 29, 2010.
- "History of the University of Georgia, Thomas Walter Reed, Imprint: Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia, ca. 1949, p. 943". Retrieved September 29, 2010.
- Hamilton, Anita (3 July 2006). "A Step Back for Blacks". Time. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
- Ernest Albert Garlington at Find a Grave
- Ernest Albert Garlington at ArlingtonCemetery•net, an unofficial website
- Ernest Albert Garlington (w description of his gallantry at Wounded Knee)
George H. Burton
| Inspector General of the U. S. Army
October 1, 1906 – February 20, 1917
John L. Chamberlain