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18 August 1900
|Died||30 November 1948 (aged 48)|
|Years active||1935 - 1948|
|The Lady Vanishes|
Edward Black (18 August 1900, Birmingham - 30 November 1948, London) was a British film producer, best known for being head of production at Gainsborough Studios in the late 1930s and early 1940s, during which time he oversaw production of the Gainsborough melodramas. He also produced such classic films as The Lady Vanishes (1938). Black has been called "one of the unsung heroes of the British film industry." In 1946 Mason called Black "the one good production executive" that J. Arthur Rank had. Frank Launder called Black "a great showman and yet he had a great feeling for scripts and spent more time on them than anyone I have ever known. His experimental films used to come off as successful as his others."
Black specialized in making comedies, thrillers and low-budget musicals. He had a lot of success making comedy vehicles for stars such as Will Hay and Arthur Askey. He also produced early films from Carol Reed and Alfred Hitchcock and was an early supporter of writer directors Sidney Gilliat and Frank Launder.
Black was the third son of George Black, a property master at the Theatre Royal, Birmingham, who became a cinema owner. George Black became a manager of a touring waxworks show then travelling cinema; in 1905 he set up the Monkwearmouth Picture Hall in Sounderland - this was one of the first permanent cinemas in Britain. He bought two more before he died in 1910.
His and his sons Ted, George and Alfred built up the cinema to a circuit of thirteen cinemas in the Tyneside area. In 1919 they sold them and set about establishing another circuit. In 1928 they told this to the General Theatre Corporation. When that was taken over by Gaumont-British, Ted became a cinema circuit manager. In 1930 he went into production.
In 1930 Black became an assistant production manager at Shepherd’s Bush and then studio manager at Islington.
In 1935 he and Sidney Gilliat were associate producers on Tudor Rose. Black then took over the running of Islington studios.
In December 1936, Michael Balcon left Gaumont-British for MGM. In March 1937 Shepherd’s Bush studios and Gaumont-British Distributors were closed. However Gainsborough continued as a production center thanks to a deal with C.M. Woolf and J. Arthur Rank’s General Film Distributors. Black was in charge along with Maurice Ostrer. They made movies for Gainsborough and 20th Century Fox.
According to RObert Murphy, "Black concentrated on making films for British audiences. Like his brother George at the London Palladium, Ted had an almost superstitious faith in his ability to divine popular taste and was wary about involving himself with anything that might dilute it."
Alfred Roome, an editor at Gainsborough, said "We often wondered why Ted Black didn’t mix with the elite of his profession. I don’t think he ever went to a premiere, star parties and the like. One day he explained his apparent aloofness. He said he didn’twant to get contaminated by people outside his band of entertainment. ‘If I mix with the intellectual lot, it’ll impair my judgement’, he said."
Black helped promote new stars like Margaret Lockwood, Michael Redgrave and Phyllis Calbert. He also used music hall performers like Will Hay, Will Fyffe and the Crazy Gang, and the radio comedian Arthur Askey.
Black was very strong in promoting writers. Frank Launder said "Ted believed in writers. To him the screenplay was the be-all and end- all. He enjoyed script conferences and went in for them wholesale, which made it pretty arduous going for the script editor as well as the writers and directors."
In January 1939 Gaumont signed a deal with 20th Century Fox.
World War Two
With the advent of World War Two, Black arranged for Gainsborough to move from Islington to Shepher's Bush. He had Gaumont make more comedies such as The Bang Waggon.
In the words of one writer, Black "held the studio together during its most difficult period, backed Laundner and Gilliat in establishing a strong script department, retained the services of some of the best cameramen in the business, and put under contract a number of promising actors."
He worked with George Arliss on Dr Syn. In 1940 Arlis wrote about Black:
He is so entirely unlike a movie boss: he doesn’t seem to interfere with anyone. It is oiJy by degrees you find out that he has everything under his hand and that he really directs the movements of every department. He is very like a mere businessman, one who believes that it is of no use to lay in a stock of goods that can never produce any return; and that the making of canned pictures should be controlled with the Kune care as the preparation of any other earned goods intended for public consumption. Unless I am much mistaken, Edward Black is going to show us how pictures made in England can be made to pay.
Launder and Gilliat
Black was a supporter of Launder and Gilliat as writers, working with them on The Lady Vanishes and Night Train to Munich. He gave them their first opportunity as directors.
Black produced the first Gainsborough melodrama, The Man in Grey (1943) directed by Leslie Arliss. The movie was a huge success, making stars out of its four leads, Margaret Lockwood, James Mason, Stewart Granger and Phyllis Calvert. Black followed it with Fanny By Gaslight, with Calvert, Mason, Granger and Jean Kent, directed by Anthony Asquith.
Black's relationship with Maurice Ostrer was not always easy and he also clashed with the Rank Organisation when they took over Gainsborough. In 1944 Black left Gainsborough to join Alexander Korda.
Starring Will Hay
- Boys Will Be Boys (1935)
- Where There's a Will (1936)
- Good Morning, Boys (1937)
- Oh, Mr Porter! (1937)
- Convict 99 (1938)
- Old Bones of the River (1938)
- Hey! Hey! USA (1938)
- Ask a Policeman (1939)
- Where's That Fire? (1940)
Directed by Robert Stevenson
Starring Will Fyffe
- Said O'Reilly to McNab (1937) with Will Mahoney
- Owed Bob (1938) aka To the Victor with Margaret Lockwood
- They Came by Night (1940)
- For Freedom (1940)
- Neutral Port (1940)
Starring the Crazy Gang
- O-Kay for Sound (1937)
- Alf's Button Afloat (1938) with Flanagan and Allan
- The Frozen Limits (1939)
- Gasbags (1941)
Directed by Alfred Hitchcock
Starring Tom Walls
Directed by Carol Reed
- Bank Holiday (1938) with Margaret Lockwood
- A Girl Must Live (1939) with Lockwood
- Night Train to Munich (1940) with Margaret Lockwod and Rex Harrison
- The Girl in the News (1941) with Margaret Lockwood
- Kipps (1941)
- A Letter from Home (1941)
- The Young Mr. Pitt (1942)
Starring Arthur Askey
- Band Waggon (1940)
- Charley's (Big-Hearted) Aunt (1940)
- The Ghost Train (1941)
- I Thank You (1941)
- Back-Room Boy (1942)
- King Arthur Was a Gentleman (1942)
- Miss London Ltd. (1943)
- Bees in Paradise (1944)
Starring Gordon Harker/Alistair Sim
- Inspector Hornleigh on Holiday (1939) with Gordon Harker
- Inspector Hornleigh Goes To It (1940)
- Mail Train (1941)
- Cottage to Let (1941)
- Once a Crook (1941)
Launder and Gilliat
Directed by Leslie Arliss
- Everybody Dance (1936)
- Doctor Syn (1937) with George Arliss and Margaret Lockwood
- Hi Gang! (1941)
- Dear Octopus (1944)
- Give Us the Moon (1944)
For Alex Korda
- Bonnie Prince Charlie (1948)
- Gainsborough Pictures at BFI Screenonline
- "Edward Black". BFI. Archived from the original on 2012-07-11.
- Realism and Tinsel: Cinema and Society in Britain 1939-48 By Robert Murphy p34
- BRITISH FILM IDOL CASTS ORAL BRICKS: James Mason Says Rank Is Leading the English Movie Industry Into Trouble Outspoken Critic By THOMAS M. PRYOR. New York Times 15 Dec 1946: X6.
- Round Table on British Films Cornelius, Henry; Dickinson, Thorold; Havelock-Allan, Anthony; John, Rosamund; Launder, Frank; et al. Sight and Sound; London Vol. 19, Iss. 3, (May 1, 1950): 114-122.
- The final reel, The Guardian (1959-2003) [London (UK)] 27 Sep 2003: B19
- Edward Black Archived 2016-04-14 at the Wayback Machine at Britmovie
- Murphy p 6
- Murphy p 7
- "A Million For British Films". The Age (26135). Victoria, Australia. 21 January 1939. p. 12. Retrieved 6 July 2020 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Film Gossip From London". The Telegraph. Queensland, Australia. 28 November 1939. p. 16 (SECOND EDITION). Retrieved 6 July 2020 – via National Library of Australia.
- Arliss, George (1940). My Ten Years in the Studio. p. 311.
- Murphy p 11
- NIVEN WILL APPEAR IN FILM FOR KORDA: New York Times 17 July 1946: 27
- "Record Year Predicted For British Films". The Sydney Morning Herald (34, 010). New South Wales, Australia. 24 December 1946. p. 10 (The Sydney Morning Herald Magazine.). Retrieved 6 July 2020 – via National Library of Australia.
- EDWARD BLACK, New York Times 1 Dec 1948: 29.
- Walker, Michael (2005). Hitchcock's Motifs. Amsterdam University Press. p. 440. ISBN 9789053567739.
- Reid, John Howard (2009). Film Noir, Detective and Mystery Movies on DVD: A Guide to the Best in Suspense. p. 100. ISBN 9781435730106.
- Evans, Peter William (2005). Carol Reed. Manchester University Press. p. 175. ISBN 9780719063664.
- Moss, R (2016). Films of Carol Reed. Springer. p. 288. ISBN 9781349075010.
- Murphy, Robert (1997). "Gainsborough's producers". In Pam Cook (ed.). Gainsborough Pictures. Cassell.