The EMD F7 is a 1,500 horsepower (1,100 kW) Diesel-electric locomotive produced between February 1949 and December 1953 by the Electro-Motive Division of General Motors (EMD) and General Motors Diesel (GMD).
The F7 was the fourth model in GM-EMD's successful line of F-unit locomotives, and by far the best-selling cab unit of all time. In fact, more F7s were built than all other F-units combined. The F7 succeeded the F3 model in GM-EMD's F-unit series, and was replaced in turn by the F9. Final assembly was at GM-EMD's La Grange, Illinois, plant or GMD's London, Ontario, facility.
The F7 differed from the F3 primarily in internal equipment—mostly electrical—and some external features. Its continuous tractive effort rating was 20 percent higher, e.g. 40,000 lb (18,000 kg) for an F7 with 65 mph (105 km/h) gearing, compared to 32,500 lb (14,700 kg) for an F3 with the same gearing.
Many F7s remained in service for decades, as railroads found them economical to operate and maintain. However, the locomotive was not very popular with yard crews who operated them in switching service because they were difficult to mount and dismount, and it was also nearly impossible for the engineer to see hand signals from a ground crew without leaning way outside the window. As most of these engines were bought and operated before two-way radio became standard on most American railroads, this was a major point of contention. In later years, with the advent of the "road switchers" such as the EMD GP7, F-units were primarily used in "through freight" and "unit train" service where there was little or no switching to be done.
Engine and powertrain
The F7's prime mover is a 16-cylinder 567B series diesel engine developing 1,500 hp (1.1 MW) at 800 rpm. The 567B is a mechanically aspirated two-stroke design in a 45 degree V engine configuration, with 567 cu in (9.29 L) displacement per cylinder, for a total of 9,072 cu in (148.66 L). A direct current generator that is mechanically coupled to the flywheel end of the engine powers four traction motors, with two motors mounted on each Blomberg B truck. EMD has built all of its major components since 1939. Starting in August 1953 EMD installed 567BC and 567C engines in a few F7s, see roster below.
There are no easily identifiable differences between late F3 production and early F7 production; the major differences were all internal electrical system changes. However, no F7 had "chicken wire" grilles of most F3s, and no F3s had later F7 changes described below under Phases.
The F9 is distinguishable from the late F7 by having five, rather than four, carbody center louver groups covering the carbody filters. The additional one is placed ahead of the first porthole, where F7s have no openings. The F9's greater power output, of course, cannot be seen from the outside.
There were also two main classes of F7s: passenger and freight. Most passenger units had upper and lower headlights, but this wasn't always the rule. Many freight units had the upper Mars or Pyle brand warning light as well. And some passenger units only had a single upper headlight, i.e. the Pennsylvania. Many units had the upper lights plated over later in life, or the door light removed/plated over and the Mars/Pyle light removed. These early warning lights had many moving linkages and a motor that were high maintenance for the shops.
The identification of locomotive "phases" is a creation of railfans, although now used in Diesel Spotters Guide. EMD used no such identification, and instead kept track of the marketing name (F7) and individual locomotives' build numbers. During the production cycle of a model, EMD would often make detail changes that were not readily apparent to the casual observer. To keep better track of the variations of locomotives identified the same by the manufacturer, railfans began referring to phases (critical changes to a locomotive line).
Despite not being official designations, the phase description is useful. However, many of the changes described are cosmetic, easily changed features of a locomotive: e.g., roof fans, body panels, grilles and the like could be and sometimes were updated or swapped. Most of the phase differences on the F7 were concerned only with A units; B units varied far less. The following are normally identified as F7 phases:
Phase I (early)
Built from February 1949. Upper grille with horizontal openings. Four horizontal louvered openings on center body panel. 36-inch (914 mm) dynamic brake fan, if dynamic brakes fitted. Flush windshield gasket changed to raised in July 1949. Square cab door corners with kick plates on the steps beneath. Wing window short with square corners. Single drip strip over cab windows and door. Square end door window. Round sand filler cover. Rear overhang.
Phase I (late)
Built from March 1950. Upper grille started out horizontal, as in early Phase I; from March 1951, some locomotives were built with vertical-slotted "Farr-Air" grilles, and by October 1951, all had them. Cab doors became round-cornered, and the kick plates were deleted. The wing windows became taller, with round corners. Two drip strips; one over cab windows, second over door. The end door window became round after November 1950.
Built from February 1952. All upper grilles vertical "Farr-Air" type. Center car body louvres became vertical-slotted. Sand filler now with a horizontal, rectangular pull handle. From June 1952, 48-inch (1,219 mm) dynamic brake fans began to be introduced; from October 1952, all dynamic-brake equipped locomotives had them. At that latter date, locomotives no longer had a rear overhang.
Locomotives built by Electro-Motive Division, USA
|Electro-Motive Division (demonstrators)||801–802 to Great Northern 272A,B,
1950A,B to Louisville & Nashville 857–858
5040 to Union Pacific 1483
459A,D to Union Pacific 1481–1482
|Electro-Motive Division (test unit)||930 to B&M 4268A|
|Electro-Motive Division (demonstrators)||to Union Pacific 1496B,C (B units)
7002–7003 FP7-F7B-F7B demonstrators; to Soo Line (Wisconsin Central) 2500B–2501B
9052–9053 FP7-F7B-F7B demonstrators; to Soo Line 500B–501B
|Atlantic Coast Line Railroad||FT 317 wrecked, November 1950; rebuilt as F7 317:2, May 1951. Wrecked again in a head-on collision with F7 417, October 1956; both rebuilt as F9 317:3 and 417:2, May 1957.
|Atlantic Coast Line Railroad (C&WC)|
|Alaska Railroad||1506-1508 were built with 567BC engines|
|Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway||37–47 passenger, 202-280 freight, 300-344 dual service (passenger and freight), 48A rebuilt by EMD from Santa Fe F3B 32A (1st), used by EMD as a demo for several years. 269LABC-280LABC were built with 567BC engines.|
|Bessemer and Lake Erie Railroad|
|Boston and Maine Railroad|
|Baltimore and Ohio Railroad|
|Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad|
|Chicago Great Western Railway|
|Chicago and North Western Railway|
|Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis and Omaha Railway ("Omaha Road")||6501A was rebuilt to EMD F9A test unit 462|
|Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad||675–677 passenger|
|Chesapeake and Ohio Railway||8500s passenger (with FP7)|
|Colorado and Southern Railway|
|Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad|
|Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad|
|Erie Railroad||713 ABBA set was originally numbered 807A-D|
|Fort Worth and Denver City Railway|
|Gulf, Mobile and Ohio Railroad|
|Great Northern Railway||350–365, 500s passenger|
|Kansas, Oklahoma and Gulf Railway|
|Kansas City Southern Railway|
|Kansas City Southern (Louisiana and Arkansas Railway)|
|Louisville and Nashville Railroad|
|Lehigh Valley Railroad|
|Milwaukee Road||90B–105B passenger (with FP7)|
|Missouri Pacific Railroad|
|Missouri Pacific Railroad (International-Great Northern Railroad)|
|Missouri Pacific Railroad (St. Louis, Brownsville and Mexico Railway)|
|Minneapolis and St. Louis Railway|
|Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railway|
|Northern Pacific Railway||6000s freight (as dual service locomotives), 6500s passenger|
|New York Central Railroad|
|Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad|
|St. Louis–San Francisco Railway|
|Soo Line||500s passenger (with FP7)|
|Soo Line (Wisconsin Central Railway||2228AB-2230AB were built with 567C engines.|
|Southern Railway (CNO&TP)|
|Southern Railway (AGS)|
|Southern Pacific Railroad|
|Southern Pacific Railroad (T&NO)|
|Southern Pacific Railroad (SSW)||SSW 920D (923) was an FT rebuilt on an F7 underframe, SSW 921 2nd was an FT rebuilt on an F7 underframe|
|Spokane, Portland and Seattle Railway||to BN 9754,9756,9758,9760|
|Texas Mexican Railway|
|Texas and Pacific Railway|
|Union Pacific Railroad||910B,C with FP7|
|Western Maryland Railway||WM 61B, 65B, 239B, 241B, and 243B were built with 567C engines.|
|Western Pacific Railroad||800s passenger (with FP7)|
Locomotives built by General Motors Diesel, Canada
|Canadian National Railways|
|Canadian Pacific Railway||Ordered with FP7|
|Wabash Railroad||Ordered for service in Canada|
Export locomotives built by Electro-Motive Division, USA for Mexico
|Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México|
|Mexican Ministry of Communications and Public Works ("SCOP")|
Several F7s were rebuilt by Morrison–Knudsen as F9PHs and used in passenger operations. Others were rebuilt as the "FP10" and used by the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority for their commuter rail service. In addition, the Santa Fe had 190 of their F7As rebuilt into CF7 hood units in the 1970s. Only one original F7 unit from the railway exists to this day.
In the early 2000s, a single unpowered EMD F cab unit #7100 (ex-Baltimore & Ohio Railroad F7 #4553) operated on MARC, occasionally substituting for a cab car. In addition to serving as an all-purpose control unit, it also had a head-end power generator that supplied electricity to the train.
Several F7s survive today, mostly in museums and tourist railroads.
- The Norfolk Southern Railway previously rostered four F7 units (two A units and two B units), all which were rebuilt in 2007. The two A units were rebuilt into F9PH units, and rebuilt again into F9A units. They were used on inspection trains and Office Car Specials until 2019, when NS sold the four units. Two of them were sent to the Aberdeen, Carolina and Western Railway, while the other two were sent to the Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad.
- The Escanaba and Lake Superior Railroad (as of October 2011) operates an FP7A (#600) in main line freight service. The unit is the former Milwaukee Road #96A, and was purchased in 2005 from the Wisconsin and Southern Railroad.
- The Western Pacific Railroad Museum at Portola, California, rosters two former Western Pacific Railroad F7As: WP 917-D and 921-D. These engines are part of the museum's popular "Run a locomotive" program. Their roster also includes an FP7 passenger version, WP 805-A.
- The California State Railroad Museum in Sacramento, California, has three F7s.
- Western Pacific F7A 913: This engine is currently listed as serviceable.
- Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe No. 347C GM-EMD 1949 F7A was given as a gift to the museum by Santa Fe in March 1986 and is repainted to original warbonnet colors. Listed as operable.
- Southern Pacific No. 6402 GM-EMD 1952 F7A was also given as a gift by the Pacific Coast Chapter of the Railroad and Historical Society in June 1978. Listed as operable.
- The Grafton and Upton Railroad in Grafton, Massachusetts, operates one F7A as a daily switcher, #1501.
- The Fillmore and Western Railway in Fillmore, California, has two F7As that are operational.
- The Monticello Railway Museum in Monticello, Illinois, allows guests to operate their Wabash Railroad F7A #1189 for a donation through the "Throttle Time" program.
- The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Museum, Baltimore, has former Western Maryland Railway F7A 236 and MARC F7 cab unit 7100, both which are in operational condition.
- The Boston & Maine Railroad had 4 F7A's with accompanying B units, numbered 4265-4268 (A & B). #4267A was demolished in a derailment. #4266 survives at the Conway Scenic Railroad in North Conway, New Hampshire, where it is rostered as a spare unit and operated frequently. It is owned by the 470 Railroad Club of Portland ME and operated under a lease agreement with CSRR. #4268 is also owned by the 470 Club, and is currently being restored to operation. The original prime mover was removed, so the railroad acquired a retired GP9 for use as a parts donor for #4268. #4265 is on static display at the Gorham Historical Society at the former Grand Trunk RR depot in Gorham, N.H. It is inoperable but is being converted into a movie theater/picture gallery with access to the cab.[when?] F7B #4268 is owned by the Anthracite Railroads Historical Society, has been altered to resemble an F3B and, as of May 2014, has been cosmetically restored as Delaware, Lackawanna & Western #664B, to match the two F3s that operate at Steamtown National Historic Site in Scranton.
- The Lake Superior Railroad Museum in Duluth, Minnesota, owns a Milwaukee Road F7B unit, 71B. It was used to power a snow plow.
- The Don Rhodes Mining and Transport Museum at Port Hedland, Western Australia, has a former Western Pacific Railroad F7A: 923A. It was sold to Mt. Newman Mining and operated as locomotive #5451 before being transferred to the Shire of Port Hedland. It is now a static display, with the prime mover removed.
- The Minnesota Transportation Museum owns Great Northern Railway F7A 454-A, which is painted in Northern Pacific Railway colors, unrestored, and lacking its internal machinery. They also have steam heat car 16, which Great Northern constructed from F7B 458-B, originally 306-B.
- The Galveston Railroad Museum owned F7As Texas Limited #100 (ex-Southern Pacific #6379) and #200 (ex-Southern Pacific #6309). This duo headed the "Texas Limited" passenger train which made runs to and from Houston until track speed restrictions and liability insurance costs ended operations.[when?] Both units were scrapped in 2011 after extensive damage resulting from being submerged in saltwater after Hurricane Ike. The museum now owns 2 more F7's, #315 and #316, which are both painted in ATSF warbonnet colors. Both units are ex-Southern Pacific, #'s 6443 (315) and 365 (316); they have parts salvaged from the Texas Limited units.
- The Indiana Transportation Museum owned two former Milwaukee Road F7A's: #83A & #72C and one F7B: #68B. #83A operated in the Monon Railroad passenger livery, and later into a Nickle Plate "bluebird" livery at the ITM. #72C was being restored to Monon freight colors. F7B #68B was to be restored to match #72C. As of May 8, 2019, #68B & #72C were put up for auction.
- The United Railroad Historical Society of New Jersey owns four former C&NW F7As that were acquired from New Jersey Transit upon their retirement in 1991. The units were leased to the Metro North Commuter Railroad on the condition that they would be returned at the end of their lease in operating condition. Two of the units (Ex C&NW #4073C to NJT No. #417 to LV #576 and Ex C&NW 4087C to NJT #420 to LV #578 are currently painted for Lehigh Valley. One unit Ex C&NW #4074A to NJT #424 been restored to represent a Reading Company locomotive #284. The last of the four Ex Chicago & Northwestern RR # 4073A, to New Jersey Transit # 418, Is to be restored to represent an Erie Railroad locomotive # 715.
- The Wisconsin Great Northern Railroad uses F7A #423 to operate it's excursion trains. The heritage railroad also uses ex-Columbia Star Dinner Train F7As #1950 and #1951 as backup power for #423.
- The Illinois Railway Museum owns four F7s (Three A units and one B unit) including Metra 308 and Chicago and Northwestern 411, both of which are operational.
- Two Bessemer and Lake Erie F7's, 718 and 716B, are in Schellville, CA. Neither are operational.
- The Royal Gorge Route Railroad in Canon City, Colorado operates two of these Locomotives. They are numbers 402 and 403.
- The Potomac Eagle Scenic Railroad owns an Ex-Bessemer and Lake Erie F7 numbered 722. It is currently in a Baltimore & Ohio paint scheme.
- Cook 2015, p. 30
- Pinkpank, Jerry A (1973). The Second Diesel Spotter's Guide. Kalmbach Books. pp. 13, 26, 90–101. ISBN 0-89024-026-4.
- Ross, David, ed. (2003). The Encyclopedia of Trains and Locomotives. pp. 261, 273. ISBN 978-0-7607-9679-5.
- EMD 567C Engine Manual, EMD F7 Operators Manual
- Kettering, E.W. (November 29, 1951). History and Development of the 567 Series General Motors Locomotive Engine. ASME 1951 Annual Meeting. Atlantic City, New Jersey: Electro-Motive Division, General Motors Corporation.
- "The MARC 7100 Returns! (November 1999 CSX Railfan Magazine)". TrainWeb. Retrieved September 1, 2012.
- "AltoonaWorks.info -- NS F Unit Rebuilds".
- "NS to dispose of executive F units, other roster oddities | Trains Magazine".
- "Last two NS F-units sold to North Carolina short line | Trains Magazine".
- Glischinski, Steve (2007). Regional Railroads of the Midwest. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-7603-2351-9.
- "Internal Combustion Locomotives" Archived February 13, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. California State Railroad Museum Foundation. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
- Radecki, Alan. "The Western Pacific Surviving Locomotive List". Railfan.net. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
- (untitled) Archived October 13, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- Duncan, Stephan. "History Of The Warbonnets". Galveston Railroad Museum. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
- Cook, Preston (Spring 2015). "F Units, T to 9". Classic Trains. pp. 20–35. ISSN 1527-0718.
- Dorin, Patrick C. (1972). Chicago and North Western Power. Burbank, California: Superior Publishing. pp. 119–121. ISBN 0-87564-715-4.
- Lamb, J. Parker (2007). Evolution of the American Diesel Locomotive. Railroads Past and Present. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-34863-0.
- Marre, Louis A. (1995). Diesel Locomotives: The First 50 Years: A Guide to Diesels Built Before 1972. Railroad Reference Series. Waukesha, Wisconsin: Kalmbach Publishing. ISBN 978-0-89024-258-2.
- Pinkepank, Jerry A. (1973). The Second Diesel Spotter's Guide. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Kalmbach Publishing. pp. 12, 91–94. ISBN 978-0-89024-026-7.
- Schafer, Mike (1998). Vintage Diesel Locomotives. Enthusiast Color Series. Osceola, Wisconsin: MBI Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7603-0507-2.
- Solomon, Brian (2000). The American Diesel Locomotive. Osceola, Wisconsin: MBI Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-7603-0666-6.
- Solomon, Brian (2005). EMD F-Unit Locomotives. North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press. ISBN 978-1-58007-192-5.
- Solomon, Brian (2006). EMD Locomotives. St. Paul, Minnesota: Voyageur Press. ISBN 978-0-7603-2396-0.
- Solomon, Brian (2010). Vintage Diesel Power. Minneapolis, Minnesota: MBI Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7603-3795-0.
- Solomon, Brian (2011). Electro-Motive E-Units and F-Units: The Illustrated History of North America's Favorite Locomotives. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Voyageur Press. ISBN 978-0-7603-4007-3.
- Solomon, Brian (2012). North American Locomotives: A Railroad-by-Railroad Photohistory. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Voyageur Press. ISBN 978-0-7603-4370-8.
- Wilson, Jeff (1999). F Units: The Diesels That Did It. Golden Years of Railroading. Waukesha, Wisconsin: Kalmbach Publishing. ISBN 978-0-89024-374-9.
- EMD Product Reference Data Card dated January 1, 1959 has the 567BC and 567C engine data used in the as-built roster.
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