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|Dukedom of York|
|Creation date||23 June 1986|
|Monarch||Queen Elizabeth II|
|Peerage||Peerage of the United Kingdom|
|Present holder||Prince Andrew|
|Remainder to||the 1st Duke's heirs male of the body lawfully begotten|
Duke of York is a title of nobility in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Since the 15th century, it has, when granted, usually been given to the second son of English (later British) monarchs. The equivalent title in the Scottish peerage was Duke of Albany. However, King George I and Queen Victoria granted the second sons of their eldest sons the titles Duke of York and Albany and Duke of York respectively.
Initially granted in the 14th century in the Peerage of England, the title Duke of York has been created eight times. The title Duke of York and Albany has been created three times. These occurred during the 18th century, following the 1707 unification of the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland into a single, united realm. The double naming was done so that a territorial designation from each of the previously separate realms could be included.
York under its Viking name "Jorvik" was a petty kingdom in the Early Medieval period. In the interval between the fall of independent Jorvik under Eric Bloodaxe, last king of Jorvik (d. 954), and the first creation of the Dukedom of York, there were a few earls of York.
The title Duke of York was first created in the Peerage of England in 1385 for Edmund of Langley, the fourth surviving son of Edward III, and an important character in Shakespeare's Richard II. His son Edward, who inherited the title, was killed at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. The title passed to Edward's nephew Richard, the son of Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge (who had been executed for plotting against King Henry V). The younger Richard managed to obtain a restoration of the title, but when his eldest son, who inherited the title, became king in 1461 as Edward IV, the title merged into the Crown.
The third creation was for Henry Tudor, second son of King Henry VII. When his elder brother Arthur, Prince of Wales, died in 1502, Henry became heir-apparent to the throne. When Henry ultimately became King Henry VIII in 1509, his titles merged into the crown.
The title was created for the fourth time for Charles Stuart, second son of James I. When his elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, died in 1612, Charles became heir-apparent. He was created Prince of Wales in 1616 and eventually became Charles I in 1625 when the title again merged into the Crown.
The fifth creation was in favour of James Stuart, the second son of Charles I. New York, its capital Albany, and New York City, in what is now the United States, were named for this particular Duke of Albany and York. In 1664, Charles II of England granted American territory between the Delaware and Connecticut rivers to his younger brother James. Following its capture by the English the former Dutch territory of New Netherland and its principal port, New Amsterdam, were named the Province and City of New York in James's honour. After the founding, the Duke gave part of the colony to proprietors George Carteret and John Berkeley. Fort Orange, 150 miles (240 km) north on the Hudson River, was renamed Albany after James's Scottish title. When his elder brother, King Charles II, died without heirs, James succeeded to the throne as King James II of England and King James VII of Scotland, and the title once again merged into the Crown.
During the 18th century the double dukedom of York and Albany was created a number of times in the Peerage of Great Britain. The title was first held by Duke Ernest Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Bishop of Osnabrück, the youngest brother of King George I. He died without heirs. The second creation of the double dukedom was for Prince Edward, younger brother of King George III, who also died without heirs, having never married. The third and last creation of the double dukedom was for Prince Frederick Augustus, the second son of King George III. He served as Commander-in-Chief of the British Army for many years, and was the original "Grand old Duke of York" in the popular rhyme. He too died without heirs.
The sixth creation of the Dukedom of York (without being combined with Albany) was for Prince George of Wales, second son of the future King Edward VII. He was created Duke of York following the death of his elder brother, Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale. The title merged with the Crown when George succeeded his father as King George V.
The seventh creation was for Prince Albert, second son of King George V, and younger brother of the future King Edward VIII. Albert came unexpectedly to the throne when his brother abdicated, and took the name George VI, the Dukedom then merging into the Crown.
The title was created for the eighth time for Prince Andrew, second son of Queen Elizabeth II. As of 2021,[update] he only has two daughters. Thus, if he has no future (legitimate) sons, the title will again become extinct at his death.
Aside from the first creation, every time the Dukedom of York has been created it has had only one occupant, that person either inheriting the throne or dying without male heirs.
In the late 15th Century, Perkin Warbeck unsuccessfully claimed the Crown by pretending the identity of Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York. The pretend Dukedom was merged into the pretend Crown.
In the early 18th century, the eldest son of the overthrown King James II & VII and thus Jacobite claimant to the throne, James Francis Edward Stuart, known to his opponents as the Old Pretender, granted the title "Duke of York" (in the Jacobite Peerage) to his own second son, Henry, using his purported authority as King James III & VIII. Henry later became a cardinal in the Catholic church and is thus known as the Cardinal Duke of York. Since James was not recognised as king by English law, the grant is also not recognised as a legitimate creation.
Dukes of York
First creation, 1385–1415, 1425–1461
|Edmund of Langley
also: Earl of Cambridge (1362)
|5 June 1341
4th surviving son of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault
|Isabella of Castile
1 August 1402
|Edward of Norwich
also: Duke of Aumale (1397–1399), Earl of Cambridge (1362–1414), Earl of Rutland (1390–1402), Earl of Cork (c. 1396)
son of 1st Duke by his first wife Isabella of Castile
|Philippa de Mohun
|25 October 1415|
Battle of Agincourt
|Richard of York
also: Lord Protector of England, Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester, Duke of Cornwall (1460, see Act of Accord); Earl of Ulster (1264), Earl of March (1328), Earl of Cambridge (1414, restored 1426), feudal Lord of Clare (bt. 1066–1075), Baron Mortimer of Wigmore (1331)
|21 September 1411
Nephew of 2nd Duke and son of Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge (attainted and executed for treason in August 1415) and Anne de Mortimer; restored in blood
|30 December 1460|
also: Earl of Ulster (1264), Earl of March (1328), Earl of Cambridge (1414), feudal Lord of Clare (bt. 1066–1075), Baron Mortimer of Wigmore (1331)
|28 April 1442
son of 3rd Duke by his wife Cecily Neville
1 May 1464
|9 April 1483|
Edward Plantagenet seized the throne in 1461 as Edward IV and the title of duke merged in the crown.
Second creation, 1474
|Richard of Shrewsbury
also: Duke of Norfolk (1477), Earl of Norfolk (1477), Earl of Nottingham (1476), possibly Earl of Warenne (1477)
|17 August 1473
Second son and of King Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville
|Anne de Mowbray
15 January 1478
|Disappeared in the Tower of London, with his older brother, the "Princes in the Tower".|
Richard of Shrewsbury died without issue and the title of duke became extinct.
Third creation, 1494
also: Prince of Wales (1504), Duke of Cornwall (1337)
|28 June 1491
Greenwich Palace, London
son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York
|Catherine of Aragon
11 June 1509 – 23 May 1533
1 surviving daughter, others stillborn or briefly-lived
25 January 1533 – 17 May 1536
30 May 1536 – 24 October 1537
Anne of Cleves
6 January 1540 – 9 July 1540
28 July 1540 – 23 November 1541
12 July 1543
|28 January 1547|
Whitehall Palace, London
Prince Henry succeeded as Henry VIII in 1509 upon his father's death and the title of duke merged with the crown.
Fourth creation, 1605
also: Duke of Albany (1600);
Prince of Wales (1616), Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay (1612)
|19 November 1600
Dunfermline Palace, Dunfermline
son of James I and Anne of Denmark
|Henrietta Maria of France
13 June 1625
|30 January 1649|
Whitehall Palace, London
Prince Charles succeeded as Charles I in 1625 upon his father's death and the title of duke merged with the crown.
Fifth creation, 1633/1644
James was styled Duke of York from birth and officially created as such in 1644.
also: Duke of Albany (1660), Earl of Ulster (1659)
|14 October 1633
St. James's Palace, London
son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France
3 September 1660
Mary of Modena
21 November 1673
|16 September 1701|
Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris
James succeeded as James II in 1685 upon his brother's death and the title of duke merged with the crown.
Jacobite creation, 1725
|Henry Benedict Stuart
also: Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church (1747), Dean of the College of Cardinals (1803)
|6 March 1725
son of "James III and VIII" (Jacobite Pretender) and Maria Clementina Sobieska
|____||13 July 1807|
In the Jacobite succession, the Cardinal Duke of York succeeded to the thrones of England, Ireland and Scotland as Henry IX, but was not recognized as either Duke or King in the British peerage.
Sixth creation, 1892
|George Frederick Ernest Albert
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
also: Earl of Inverness and Baron Killarney (1892);
Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, and Duke of Rothesay (1901)
|3 June 1865
son of Edward VII and Alexandra of Denmark
|Mary of Teck
6 July 1893
|20 January 1936|
Sandringham House, Sandringham
George succeeded as George V in 1910 upon his father's death and the title of duke merged with the crown.
Seventh creation, 1920
House of Windsor
also: Earl of Inverness and Baron Killarney (1920)
|14 December 1895
Sandringham House, Sandringham
son of George V and Mary of Teck
26 April 1923
|6 February 1952|
Sandringham House, Sandringham
Eighth creation, 1986
House of Windsor
also: Earl of Inverness and Baron Killyleagh (1986)
|19 February 1960
son of Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
23 July 1986 – 30 May 1996
| – |
now 61 years, 213 days old
Places and things named after the Dukes of York
- Cape York Peninsula, Australia
- Duke of York Island, Antarctica
- Duke of York Island, Papua New Guinea
- Duke of York Islands, Papua New Guinea
- New York, a U.S. state
- New York City, the largest city in the state of New York and the United States
- Duke of York's Royal Military School, Dover, Kent, United Kingdom
- Duke of York School, Nairobi, Kenya, renamed Lenana School after Kenya attained independence in 1963.
- HMS Duke of York (1763), a 4-gun cutter purchased in 1763 and sold in 1776
- HMS Duke of York (17), a King George V-class battleship launched in 1940, and broken up in 1958
- Hired armed cutter Duke of York
- Hired armed lugger Duke of York
- TSS Duke of York (1894)
- TSS Duke of York (1935)
- Duke of York was one of the GWR 3031 Class locomotives that were built for and run on the Great Western Railway between 1891 and 1915.
- Duke of Albany
- Duke of York and Albany
- Earl of Inverness, a subsidiary title of the current creation
- Baron Killyleagh, a subsidiary title of the current creation
- Henry Benedict Stuart, created Duke of York in the Jacobite Peerage by his father the titular King James III in 1725. Living in Italy as a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, he called himself the "Cardinal Duke of York" (or "Cardinal called Duke of York") for most of his life and was recognised as such by the Papacy, Modena, France, and Spain. He became the Jacobite pretender himself as "Henry IX" in 1788. The last surviving legitimate descendant of James II, his grandfather, he died without issue in 1807.
- "New York". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006. Archived from the original on 2009-10-28. Retrieved 2007-02-24.
- "James II". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2011-01-02.
- Miller, 44–45
- Encyclopædia Britannica Edmund of Langley First Duke of York
- Encyclopædia Britannica Edward of Norwich Second Duke of York
- English Monarchs
- BBC Edward IV
- Scarisbrick, J. J. (1997). Henry VIII (2nd ed.). Yale University Press. ISBN 0300071582.
- Gregg, Pauline (1981), King Charles I, London: Dent
- Callow, John, The Making of King James II: The Formative Years of a King, Sutton Publishing, Ltd, Stroud, Gloucestershire, 2000. Page
- https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/31931/supplement/6313[bare URL]
- https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/50606/supplement/1[bare URL]
- "Cape York". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
- Scadding, Henry (1873). Toronto of old: collections and recollections illustrative of the early settlement and social life of the capital of Ontario. Toronto, ON.: Adam, Stevenson & Co. p. 21. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
- "York County". Where is Home? New Brunswick Communities Past and Present. Provincial Archives of New Brunswick. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
- "New York Under The Duke of York". Empire State History. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
- The Duke of York at the Royal Family website