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Al-Kaffarah means the expiation of sin and is a special sanction to compensate offense or sin, when the particular violation (evil-doing) or unintentional murder is commited.
The root of Al-Kaffarah is Kafar (Arabic: کَفَرَ), means covering. In Quran, Kaffarah causes that Allah ignore sins to cover them. By language Kaffarah means "a trait that tends to the expiation of sin". By Technique, it means a determined penalty that is done expiation for sin. Al-Kaffarah (atonement or expiation) is a kind of worship and it is a penalty against a sin or an act of defiance.
Kaffarah is a special sanction to compensate offense or sin when the particular violation (evil-doing) or unintentional murder is commited. According to the Quran and Ahadith, Kaffarah is classified such as a following categories:
Unintentional murder and semi-unintentional murder
Kaffarah of Fasting
According to Qur'an, 2:184 [b]someone who breaking fast without valid reason that accredited in Sharia or by non-observing the fast from the inception or sexual intercourse with one’s spouse,have to pay Kaffarah. For the first step he have to release a salve, if it is not possible, he should fast for two successive months,if this two solution doesn't work he must feed sixty poor persons
Kaffarah of oath
- Feeding sixty poor persons
- Dress up to them(poor persons)
- Releasing a salve
Kaffarah of Hajj
According to Qur'an, 2:196[d], anyone who violates ihram restrictions in Hajj, such as sexual intercourse, wearing the sewn dress, and killing the hunted animals, he have to pay kaffarah. In this situation, Kaffarah respectively includes:
- Three days fasting
- Feeding sixty persons
- Slaughtering a goat or even carrying a badnah (carrying seven slaughters)
- Pay Sadaqah
Kaffarah of zihar
Zihar had been the kind of the divorces that it had been usual among pagan Arabs. According to Qur'an, 58:3-4[e], if someone commits an act of Zihar then returns to his wife, in the second time, he must pay Kaffarah. In this situation, Kaffarah respectively includes::
- Fast for two successive months
- Feeding sixty poor persons
- Islamic economics
- Islamic socialism
- Islamic taxes
- Qard al-Hassan
- Zakat Council (Pakistan)
- Fitrana, a different form of zakat which follows the pillar of Sawm (fasting in Ramadan).
Charity practices in other religions:
- Qur'an, 4:92...And never is it for a believer to kill a believer except by mistake. And whoever kills a believer by mistake - then the freeing of a believing slave and a compensation payment presented to the deceased's family [is required] unless they give [up their right as] charity. But if the deceased was from a people at war with you and he was a believer - then [only] the freeing of a believing slave; and if he was from a people with whom you have a treaty - then a compensation payment presented to his family and the freeing of a believing slave. And whoever does not find [one or cannot afford to buy one] - then [instead], a fast for two months consecutively, [seeking] acceptance of repentance from Allah. And Allah is ever Knowing and Wise"
- Qur'an, 2:184...[Fasting for] a limited number of days. So whoever among you is ill or on a journey [during them] - then an equal number of days [are to be made up]. And upon those who are able [to fast, but with hardship] - a ransom [as substitute] of feeding a poor person [each day]. And whoever volunteers excess - it is better for him. But to fast is best for you, if you only knew"
- Qur'an, 66:2...Allah has already ordained for you [Muslims] the dissolution of your oaths. And Allah is your protector, and He is the Knowing, the Wise"
- Qur'an, 2:196...And complete the Hajj and 'umrah for Allah. But if you are prevented, then [offer] what can be obtained with ease of sacrificial animals. And do not shave your heads until the sacrificial animal has reached its place of slaughter. And whoever among you is ill or has an ailment of the head [making shaving necessary must offer] a ransom of fasting [three days] or charity or sacrifice. And when you are secure, then whoever performs 'umrah [during the Hajj months] followed by Hajj [offers] what can be obtained with ease of sacrificial animals. And whoever cannot find [or afford such an animal] - then a fast of three days during Hajj and of seven when you have returned [home]. Those are ten complete [days]. This is for those whose family is not in the area of al-Masjid al-Haram. And fear Allah and know that Allah is severe in penalty"
- Qur'an, 58:3-4...And those who pronounce thihar from their wives and then [wish to] go back on what they said - then [there must be] the freeing of a slave before they touch one another. That is what you are admonished thereby; and Allah is Acquainted with what you do. (3) And he who does not find [a slave] - then a fast for two months consecutively before they touch one another; and he who is unable - then the feeding of sixty poor persons. That is for you to believe [completely] in Allah and His Messenger; and those are the limits [set by] Allah. And for the disbelievers is a painful punishment"
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