|"Gwine to Run All Night, or|
De Camptown Races"
|Song by Christy's Minstrels|
"Gwine to Run All Night, or De Camptown Races" (popularly known simply as "Camptown Races") is a minstrel song by Stephen Foster (1826–1864). (Play (help·info)) It was published in February 1850 by F. D. Benteen of Baltimore, Maryland, and Benteen published a different version with guitar accompaniment in 1852 under the title "The Celebrated Ethiopian Song/Camptown Races". The song quickly entered the realm of popular Americana. Louis Moreau Gottschalk (1829–1869) quotes the melody in his virtuoso piano work Grotesque Fantasie, the Banjo, op. 15 published in 1855. In 1909, composer Charles Ives incorporated the tune and other vernacular American melodies into his orchestral Symphony No. 2.
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Camptown ladies sing dis song, Doo-dah! doo-dah!
Camptown race-track five miles long, Oh, doo-dah day!
I come down dah wid my hat caved in, Doo-dah! doo-dah!
I go back home wid a pocketful of tin, Oh, doo-dah day!
Gwine to run all night!
Gwine to run all day!
I'll bet my money on de bob-tail nag,
Somebody bet on de bay.
Foster quite specifically tailored the song for use on the minstrel stage. He composed it as a piece for solo voice with group interjections and refrain ... his dialect verses have all the wild exaggeration and rough charm of folk tale as well as some of his most vivid imagery ... Together with "Oh! Susanna", "Camptown Races" is one of the gems of the minstrel era."
In The Americana Song Reader, William Emmett Studwell writes that the song was introduced by the Christy Minstrels, noting that Foster's "nonsense lyrics are much of the charm of this bouncy and enduring bit of Americana", and the song was a big hit with minstrel troupes throughout the country. Foster's music was used for derivatives that include "Banks of the Sacramento", "A Capital Ship" (1875), and a pro-Lincoln parody introduced during the 1860 presidential campaign.
Richard Crawford observes in America's Musical Life that the song resembles Dan Emmett's "Old Dan Tucker", and he suggests that Foster used Emmett's piece as a model. Both songs feature contrast between a high instrumental register with a low vocal one, comic exaggeration, hyperbole, verse and refrain, call and response, and syncopation. However, Foster's melody is "jaunty and tuneful" while Emmett's is "driven and aggressive". Crawford points out that the differences in the two songs represent two different musical styles, as well as a shift in minstrelsy from the rough spirit and "muscular, unlyrical music" of the 1840s, to a more genteel spirit and lyricism with an expanding repertoire that included sad songs, sentimental and love songs, and parodies of opera. Crawford explains that, by mid-century, the "noisy, impromptu entertainments" characteristic of Dan Emmett and the Virginia Minstrels were passé and the minstrel stage was changing to a "restrained and balanced kind of spectacle".
Historians cite the village of Camptown, Pennsylvania as the basis for the song, located in the mountains of northeast Pennsylvania. The races were resumed nearby in 1965 as a footrace, without horses. The Pennsylvania Historical Society confirmed that Foster traveled through the small town and afterwards wrote the song. The Bradford County Historical Society documents Foster attending school in nearby Towanda and Athens in 1840 and 1841. The schools were located 5 miles (8 km) from the racetrack. The current annual running of the Camptown Races was replaced by a 6.2-mile (10 km) track covering rough lumbering trails.
The song was the impetus for renaming Camptown, a village of Clinton Township, Essex County, New Jersey. When the new ballad was published in 1850, some residents of the village were mortified to be associated with the bawdiness in song. The wife of the local postmaster suggested Irvington, to commemorate writer Washington Irving, which was adopted in 1852.
In one of the most widely familiar uses of "Camptown Races" in popular culture, the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies cartoon character Foghorn Leghorn frequently hums the tune to himself (breaking into song only for the "Doo-Dah" refrain) in most of the 28 cartoons the character appears in, produced between 1946 and 1963. Occasionally, he would also sing his own lyrics if they were related to what he was doing at the moment. Notably, Leghorn was not based on a minstrel character, but on Kenny Delmar's popular radio character, the overbearing Southerner Senator Claghorn.
The song was revived on a number of occasions in the twentieth century with recordings by Bing Crosby (recorded December 9, 1940), Johnny Mercer (1945), Al Jolson (recorded July 17, 1950), Julie London (included in her album Swing Me an Old Song – 1959), and Frankie Laine (included in his album Deuces Wild – 1961).
In popular culture
- "Two World Wars and One World Cup" is a football song sung by supporters of the England national football team to the tune of "Camptown Races" as part of the England–Germany football rivalry.
- 1938 Holiday – played on banjo by Lew Ayres and sung by Lew Ayres, Katharine Hepburn, Jean Dixon and Edward Everett Horton.
- 1939 Swanee River – sung by Al Jolson
- 1950 Riding High – sung by Bing Crosby, Coleen Gray, Clarence Muse, and children
- 1952 O. Henry's Full House is an anthology film wherein the second segment, "The Clarion Call", based on O Henry's 1908 short story of the same name, has a plot involving a Yonkers detective (played by Dale Robertson) tracking down a murderer (played by Richard Widmark) with the only clue being a golden pencil inscribed with the words "Camptown Races". The song is sung by Widmark. This segment is directed by Henry Hathaway.
- 1974 Blazing Saddles - sung by Lyle
- 1978 Sweet Savage - X-rated movie in the style of a Western
- 1982 Creepshow - instrumental only at a slower tempo during the segment "Something to Tide You Over"
- 1997 Waiting for Guffman – sung by Eugene Levy's character, Dr. Allan Pearl
- 1999 Passion – sung by two characters then played on piano by Richard Roxburgh.
- 2010 The King's Speech – sung by Colin Firth and Geoffrey Rush.
- Humphries, Carl (2010). The Piano Improvisation Handbook, p. 199. ISBN 978-0-87930-977-0.
- New York: William Hall & son, c1855
- https://performingarts.georgetown.edu/Charles-Ives-America Georgetown University:"Charles Ives's America"
- J. Peter Burkholder, '"Quotation" and Paraphrase in Ives' Second Symphony', 19th Century Music, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 3-25. [accessed 26 July 2013]
- "A Century of Music at The New York Public Library". The New York Public Library. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
- Richard Jackson (ed.). 1974. Stephen Foster Song Book: original sheet music of 40 songs. Courier Dover Publications. p. 174.
- "Stephen Foster Song Book". store.doverpublications.com. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
- Foster, Stephen Collins; Jackson, Richard (7 September 1974). Stephen Foster Song Book: Original Sheet Music of 40 Songs. Courier Corporation. ISBN 9780486230481. Retrieved 7 September 2018 – via Google Books.
- William Emmett Studwell. The Americana Song Reader. Psychology Press. p. 63.
- Richard Crawford. 2001. America's Musical Life: a history. W. W. Norton. pp. 210–11.
- "Camptown Races Historical Marker". WITF-TV and Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- "Bradford County Historical Society". www.bradfordhistory.com. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
- "Another 'Doo-dah-day' in Camptown". upi.com. 10 September 1982. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
- Siegel, Alan A. "History of Irvington". Township of Irvingon. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
- ""It's a Joke, Son!"", AFI Catalog of Motion Pictures Produced in the United States 1, University of California Press, 1971, p. 1190, ISBN 9780520215214
- "A Bing Crosby Discography". BING magazine. International Club Crosby. Retrieved August 5, 2017.
- "Johnny Mercer And The Pied Pipers With Paul Weston And His Orchestra – Surprise Party / Camptown Races". Discogs. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
- "Al Jolson Society Official Website". www.jolson.org. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
- "Frankie Laine – Deuces Wild". Discogs. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
- Mason, Mark (2005). Bluffer's Guide To Football. Oval Projects Ltd. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-903096-49-9.
- "Holiday (1938)". Retrieved 7 September 2018 – via www.imdb.com.
- "Passion (1999)". Retrieved 6 October 2018 – via www.imdb.com.
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