|City of Calgary|
|Region||Calgary Metropolitan Region|
|Adjacent municipal districts||Rocky View County and Foothills County|
|• Town||November 7, 1884|
|• City||January 1, 1894|
|Named for||Calgary, Mull|
|• Mayor||Naheed Nenshi|
|• Manager||David Duckworth|
|• Land||825.56 km2 (318.75 sq mi)|
|• Urban||586.08 km2 (226.29 sq mi)|
|• Metro||5,110.21 km2 (1,973.06 sq mi)|
|Elevation||1,045 m (3,428 ft)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||1,501.1/km2 (3,888/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||2,111/km2 (5,470/sq mi)|
|• Metro||1,392,609 (4th)|
|• Metro density||272.5/km2 (706/sq mi)|
|• Municipal census (2019)||1,285,711|
|Time zone||UTC−07:00 (MST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−06:00 (MDT)|
|Forward sortation areas|
|Area code(s)||403, 587, 825|
|Major airport||Calgary International Airport (YYC)|
|Public transit||Calgary Transit|
|Waterways||Bow River, Elbow River, Glenmore Reservoir|
|GDP (Calgary CMA)||CA$101.1 billion (2016)|
|GDP per capita (Calgary CMA)||CA$72,610 (2016)|
Calgary (// (listen)) is a city in the western Canadian province of Alberta. It is situated at the confluence of the Bow River and the Elbow River in the south of the province, in an area of foothills and prairie, about 80 km (50 mi) east of the front ranges of the Canadian Rockies, roughly 299 km (186 mi) south of the provincial capital of Edmonton and approximately 240 km (150 mi) north of the Canada–United States border. The city anchors the south end of the Statistics Canada-defined urban area, the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor.
The Calgary Metropolitan Area had a population of roughly 1,581,000 in the beginning of 2021, making it Alberta's most-populous city and the second most-populous in western Canada. In 2016, Calgary had a metropolitan population of 1,392,609, making it the fourth-largest census metropolitan area (CMA) in Canada, though with a stand-alone population of 1,239,220, the City of Calgary was Canada’s third-largest city in 2016.
Calgary's economy includes activity in the energy, financial services, film and television, transportation and logistics, technology, manufacturing, aerospace, health and wellness, retail, and tourism sectors. The Calgary Metropolitan Region is home to Canada's second-highest number of corporate head offices among the country's 800 largest corporations. In 2015 Calgary had the highest number of millionaires per capita of any major Canadian city. In 1988 it became the first Canadian city to host the Winter Olympic Games.
Calgary was named after Calgary on the Isle of Mull, Scotland, United Kingdom. In turn, the name originates from a compound of kald and gart, similar Old Norse words, meaning "cold" and "garden", likely used when named by the Vikings who inhabited the Inner Hebrides. Alternatively, the name might be Gaelic Cala ghearraidh, meaning "beach of the meadow (pasture)", or Gaelic for either "clear running water" or "bay farm".
The Indigenous peoples of Southern Alberta referred to the Calgary area as "elbow", in reference to the sharp bend made by the Bow River and the Elbow River. In some cases, the area was named after the reeds that grew along the riverbanks, reeds which had been used to fashion bows. In the Blackfoot language (Siksiká), the area was known as Mohkínstsis akápiyoyis, meaning "elbow many houses", reflecting its strong settler presence. The shorter form of the Blackfoot name, Mohkínstsis, simply meaning "elbow", has been the popular Indigenous term for the Calgary area. In the Nakoda (Stoney) language, the area is known as Wincheesh-pah or Wenchi Ispase, both meaning "elbow". In the Nehiyaw (Cree) Language, the area was known as otôskwanihk (ᐅᑑᐢᑿᓂᕽ) meaning "at the elbow" or Otôskwunee meaning "elbow". In the Tsuut'ina (Sarcee) language, the area is known as Guts’ists’i (older orthography, Kootsisáw) meaning "elbow". In the Slavey language, the area was known as Klincho-tinay-indihay meaning "many horse town", referring to the Calgary Stampede and the city's settler heritage.
There have been several attempts to revive the indigenous names of Calgary. In response to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, local post-secondary institutions have adopted "official acknowledgements" of indigenous territory using the Blackfoot name of the city, Mohkínstsis. In 2017, the Stoney Nakoda sent an application to the Government of Alberta, to rename Calgary as Wichispa Oyade meaning "elbow town"; however, this has been challenged by the Piikani Blackfoot.
The Calgary area was inhabited by pre-Clovis people whose presence has been traced back at least 11,000 years. The area has been inhabited by the Niitsitapi (Blackfoot Confederacy; Siksika, Kainai, Piikani), îyârhe Nakoda, the Tsuut'ina First Nations peoples and Métis Nation, Region 3. As Mayor Naheed Nenshi (A'paistootsiipsii; Iitiya) describes, "There have always been people here. In Biblical times there were people here. For generations beyond number, people have come here to this land, drawn here by the water. They come here to hunt and fish; to trade; to live; to love; to have great victories; to taste bitter disappointment; but above all to engage in that very human act of building community."
In 1787, cartographer David Thompson spent the winter with a band of Peigan encamped along the Bow River. He was a Hudson's Bay Company trader and the first recorded European to visit the area. John Glenn was the first documented European settler in the Calgary area, in 1873. In Spring 1875, Fathers Lacombe, Remus, and Scollen built a small log cabin on the banks of the Elbow River.
In the fall of 1875, the site became a post of the North-West Mounted Police (NWMP) (now the Royal Canadian Mounted Police or RCMP). The NWMP detachment was assigned to protect the western plains from US whisky traders, and to protect the fur trade, and Inspector Éphrem-A. Brisebois led fifty Mounties as part of "F Troop" north from Fort Macleod to establish the site The I. G. Baker Company of Fort Benton, Montana was contracted to construct a suitable Fort, and after its completion, the Baker company built a log store next to the Fort. The NWMP Fort remained officially nameless until construction was complete, although it had been referred to as "The Mouth" by people at Fort Macleod. At Christmas dinner NWMP Inspector Éphrem-A. Brisebois christened the unnamed Fort "Fort Brisebois", a decision which caught the ire of his superiors Colonel James Macleod and Major Acheson Gosford Irvine. Major Irvine cancelled the order by Brisebois and wrote the Deputy Minister of Justice Hewitt Bernard at Ottawa describing the situation and suggesting the name "Calgary" put forward by Colonel Macleod. Minister of Justice Edward Blake agreed with the name and in Spring 1876 Fort Calgary was officially established.
In 1881 the federal government began to offer leases for cattle ranching in Alberta (up to 100,000 acres (400 km2) for one cent per acre per year) under the Dominion Lands Act, which became a catalyst for immigration to the settlement. The I. G. Baker Company drove the first herd of cattle to the region in the same year for the Cochrane area by order of Major James Walker.
The Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) reached the area in August 1883, and constructed a rail station on the CPR owned section 15, neighbouring the townsite across the Elbow River to the east located on Section 14. The difficulty in crossing the river and the CPR's efforts to persuade residents resulted in the core of the Calgary townsite moving onto Section 15, with the fate of the old townsite sealed when the Post Office was anonymously moved across the icy Elbow River during the night. The CPR subdivided Section 15 and began selling lots surrounding the station, $450 for corner lots and $350 for all others; and pioneer Felix McHugh constructed the first private building on the site. Earlier in the decade it was not expected that the railroad would pass near Calgary, instead the preferred route put forward by people concerned with the young nation's defense was passing near Edmonton and through the Yellowhead Pass. However, in 1881 CPR changed the plans preferring the a direct route through the prairies by way of Kicking Horse Pass. Along with the CPR, August 1883 brought Calgary the first edition of the Calgary Herald published on the 31st under the title The Calgary Herald, Mining and Ranche Advocate and General Advertiser by teacher Andrew M. Armour and printer Thomas B. Braden, a weekly newspaper with a subscription price of $1 per year.
Residents of the now eight year old settlement sought to form a local government of their own. In the first weeks of 1884, James Reilly who was building the Royal Hotel east of the Elbow River circulated 200 handbills announcing a public meeting on January 7, 1884 at the Methodist Church. At the full meeting Reilly advocated for a bridge across the Elbow River and a civic committee to watch over the interests of the public until Calgary could be incorporated. The attendees were enthusiastic about the committee and on the next evening a vote was held to elected the seven members. A total of 24 candidates were nominated which equalled 10 per cent of Calgary's male population. Major James Walker received 88 votes, the most amongst the candidates, the other six members were Dr. Andrew Henderson, George Clift King, Thomas Swan, George Murdoch, J. D. Moulton, and Captain John Stewart. The civic committee met with Lieutenant Governor Edgar Dewdney who happened to be in Calgary at the time, to discuss an allowance for a school, an increase from $300 to $1,000 grant for a bridge over the Elbow River, incorporation as a Town, and representation for Calgary in the Legislative Council of the Northwest Territories. The committee was successful in getting an additional $200 for the bridge, and eventually a by-election was held on June 28, 1884 where James Davidson Geddes defeated James Kidd Oswald to become the Calgary electoral district representative to 1st Council of the Northwest Territories. As for education, Calgary moved quickly, the Citizen's Committee raised $125 on February 6, 1884 and the first school opened for twelve children days later on February 18 led by teacher John William Costello. The private school was not enough for the needs of the town, and following a petition by James Walker the Calgary Protestant Public School District No. 19 was formed by the Legislature on March 2, 1885.
On November 27, 1884 the wait was finally over as Lieutenant Governor Dewdney proclaimed the incorporation of The Town of Calgary. Shortly after on December 3, Calgarians went to the polls to elect their first Mayor and four Councillors. The North-West Municipal Ordinance of 1884 provided voting rights to any male British subject over 21 years of age who owned at minimum $300 of property. The election was held under multiple non-transferable vote where each elector was able to cast a ballot for the mayor and up to four ballots for separate councillors. George Murdoch won the mayoral race in a landslide victory with 202 votes over E. Redpath's 16, while Simon Jackson Hogg, Neville James Lindsay, Joseph Henry Millward, and Simon John Clarke were elected Councillors. The next morning the Council met for the first time at Beaudoin and Clarke's Saloon.
Law and order remained top of mind in the frontier town, in early 1884 Jack Campbell was appointed as a constable for the community, and in early 1885 the Town Council passed By-law Eleven creating the position of Chief Constable and assigning relevant duties, a precursor to the Calgary Police Service. The first Chief Constable John (Jack) S. Ingram, who had previously served as the first police chief in Winnipeg, was empowered to arrest drunken and disorderly people, stop all fast riding in town, attend all fires and council meetings. Calgary Town Council was eager to employ constables versus contracting the NWMP for town duty as the police force was seen as a money-making proposition. Constables received half of the fines from liquor cases, meaning Chief Constable Ingram could easily pay his $60 per month salary and the expense of a town jail.
Turmoil in 1885 and 1886 and "The Sandstone City"
For the Town of Calgary 1884 turned out to be a success, however, two dark years were ahead for the fledging community. The turmoil started in late-1885 when Councillor Clarke was arrested for threatening a plain clothes Mountie who entered his saloon to conduct a late night search. When the officer failed to produce a search warrant Clarke chased him off the premise, however the Mountie returned with reinforcements and arrested Clarke. Clarke found himself before Stipendiary Magistrate Jeremiah Travis, a proponent of the temperance movement who was appalled by the open traffic of liquor, gambling and prostitution in Calgary despite prohibition in the Northwest Territories. Travis' view was accurate as the Royal Commission of Liquor Traffic of 1892 found liquor was sold openly, both day and night during prohibition. Travis associated Clarke with the troubles he saw in Calgary and found him guilty, and sentenced Clarke to six months with hard labour. Murdoch and the other members of Council were shocked and a public meeting was held at Boynton's Hall in which a decision was made to send a delegation to Ottawa to seek an overruling of Travis' judgement by the Department of Justice. The community quickly raised $500 and Murdoch and a group of residents headed east. The punishment of Clarke did not escape Hugh Cayley the editor of the Calgary Herald and Clerk of the District Court. Cayley published articles critical of Travis and his judgment, in which Travis responded by calling Cayley to court, dismissing him from his position as Clerk, ordering Cayley to apologized and pay a $100 fine. Cayley refused to pay the fine, which Travis increased to $500, and on January 5, the day after the election, Cayley was imprisoned by Travis.
Murdoch returned to Calgary on December 27, 1885, only a week before the upcoming election to find the Town in disarray. Shortly before the 1886 election, G. E. Marsh brought a charge of corruption against Murdoch and council over irregularities in the voters' list. Travis found Murdoch and the councillors guilty, disqualifying them from running in the 1886 election, barring them from municipal office for two years, and fining Murdoch $100, and the councillors $20. This was despite the fact Murdoch was visiting Eastern Canada while the alleged tampering was occurring. Travis' disqualification did not dissuade Calgary voters and Murdoch defeated his opponent James Reilly by a significant margin in early January to be re-elected as Mayor. Travis accepted a petition from Reilly to unseat Murdoch and two of the elected Councillors, and declare Reilly the Mayor of Calgary. Both Murdoch and Reilly claimed to be the lawful Mayor of the growingly disorganized Town of Calgary, both holding council meetings and attempting to govern. Word of the issues in Calgary reached the Minister of Justice John Sparrow David Thompson in Ottawa who ordered Justice Thomas Wardlaw Taylor of Winnipeg to conduct an Inquiry into the "Case of Jeremiah Travis". The federal government acted before receiving Taylor's report, Jeremiah Travis was suspended and the government waited for his official tenure to expire, after which he was pensioned off. Justice Taylor's report which was released in June 1887 found Travis had exceeded his authority and erred in his judgements.
Calgary would only have a couple days peace following the November election before the Calgary Fire of 1886 destroyed much of the community's downtown. Part of the slow response to the fire can be attributed to the absence of functioning local government during 1886. As neither George Murdoch or James Reilly was capable of effectively governing the town, the newly ordered chemical engine for the recently organized Calgary Fire Department (Calgary Hook, Ladder and Bucket Corps) was held in the CPR's storage yard due to lack of payment. Members of the Calgary Fire Department broke into the CPR storage yard on the day of the fire to retrieve the engine. In total, fourteen buildings were destroyed with losses estimated at $103,200, although no one was killed or injured.
The new Town Council sprung into action, drafting a bylaw requiring all large downtown buildings were to be built with sandstone, which was readily available nearby in the form of Paskapoo sandstone. Following the fire several quarries were opened around the city by prominent local businessmen including Thomas Edworthy, Wesley Fletcher Orr, J. G. McCallum, and William Oliver. Prominent buildings built with Sandstone following the fire include Knox Presbyterian Church (1887), Imperial Bank Building (1887), Calgary City Hall (1911), and Calgary Courthouse No. 2 (1914).
1887 to 1900
Calgary continued to expand when real estate speculation took hold of Calgary in 1889. Speculators began buying and building west of Centre Street and Calgary quickly began to sprawl west to the ire of property owners on the east side of town. Property owners on both side of Centre Street sought to bring development to their side of Calgary, lost successfully by east sider James Walker who convinced the Town Council to purchase land on the east side for a stockyard purposes, guaranteeing meat packing and processing plants would be constructed on the east side. By 1892 Calgary had reached present-day Seventeenth Avenue, east to the Elbow River and west to Eighth Street, and the first federal census listed the boom town at 3,876 inhabitants. The economic conditions in Calgary began to deteriorate in 1892, as development in the downtown slowed, the streetcar system started in 1889 was put on hold and smaller property owners began to sell.
The first step in connecting the District of Alberta happened in Calgary on July 21, 1890 as Minister of the Interior Edgar Dewdney turned the first sod for the Calgary and Edmonton Railway in front of two thousand residents. The railway was completed in August 1891 and immensely shortened travel time between the two communities, previously stagecoach passengers and mail could arrive in five days and animal pulled freight anywhere between two and three weeks, the train was able to make the trip in only a few hours.
Smallpox arrived in Calgary in June 1892 when a Chinese resident was found with the disease, and by August nine people had contracted the disease with three deaths. Calgarians placed the blame for the disease on the local Chinese population, resulting in a riot on August 2, 1892. Residents descended on the Town's Chinese-owned laundries, smashing windows and attempting to burn the structures to the ground. The local police did not attempt to intervene. Mayor Alexander Lucas had inexplicably left town during the riot, and when he returned home he called the NWMP in to patrol Calgary for three weeks to prevent further riots.
Finally on January 1, 1894, Calgary was granted a Charter by the 2nd North-West Legislative Assembly, officially titled Ordinance 33 of 1894, the City of Calgary Charter elevated the frontier town to the status of a full-fledged city. Calgary became the first City in the Northwest Territories, receiving it's Charter a decade before Edmonton and Regina, the Calgary Charter would remain enforce until it was repealed with the Cities Act in 1950. The Charter came into effect in such a way as to prevent the regularly scheduled municipal election in December 1893, and recognizing the importance of the moment, the entire Town Council resigned to ensure the new City could choose the first Calgary City Council. Calgary's first municipal election as a City saw Wesley Fletcher Orr garner 244 votes, narrowly defeating his opponent William Henry Cushing's 220 votes, and Orr was named the first Mayor of the City of Calgary.
By late 19th century, the Hudson's Bay Company expanded into the interior and established posts along rivers that later developed into the modern cities of Winnipeg, Calgary and Edmonton. In 1884, the HBC established a sales shop in Calgary. HBC also built the first of the grand "original six" department stores in Calgary in 1913; others that followed are Edmonton, Vancouver, Victoria, Saskatoon, and Winnipeg.
In October 1899 the Village of Rouleauville was incorporated by French Catholic residents south of Calgary's city limits in what is now known as Mission, the town would not remain independent for long, and became the first incorporated municipality to be amalgamated into Calgary eight years later in 1907.
The turn of the century brought questions of provincehood the top of mind in Calgary. On September 1, 1905, Alberta was proclaimed a province with a provisional capital in Edmonton, it would be left up to the Legislature to choose the permanent location. One of the first decisions of the new Alberta Legislature was the capital, and although William Henry Cushing advocated strongly for Calgary, the resulting vote saw Edmonton win the capital 16–8. Calgarians were disappointed on the city not being named the capital, and focused their attention on the formation of the provincial university. However, the efforts by the community could not sway the government, and the University of Alberta was founded in the City of Strathcona, Premier Rutherford's home, which was subsequently amalgamated into the City of Edmonton in 1912. Calgary was not to be left without higher education facilities as the provincial Normal School opened in the McDougall School building in 1905. In 1910, R. B. Bennett introduced a bill in the Alberta Legislature to incorporate the "Calgary University", however there was significant opposition to two degree-granting institutions in such a small province. A commission was appointed to evaluate the Calgary proposal which found the second university to be unnecessary, however, the commission did recommend the formation of the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art in Calgary (SAIT), which was formed later in 1915.
Built-up areas of Calgary between 1905 and 1912 were serviced by power and water, the City continued a program of paving and sidewalk laying and with the CPR constructed a series of subways under the tracks to connect the town with streetcars. The first three motor buses hit Calgary streets in 1907, and two years later the municipally owned street railway system, fit with seven miles of track opened in Calgary. The immediately popular street railway system reached 250,000 passengers per month by 1910. The privately owned MacArthur Bridge (precursor to the Centre Street Bridge over the Bow River) opened in 1907 which provided for residential expansion north of the Bow River. The early-1910s saw real estate speculation hit Calgary once again, with property prices rising significantly with growing municipal investment, CPR's decision to construct a car shop at Ogden set to employ over 5,000 people, the projected arrival of the Grand Trunk Pacific and Canadian Northern Railways in the city and Calgary's growing reputation as a growing economic hub. The period between 1906 and 1911 was the largest population growth period in the city's history, expanding from 11,967 to 43,704 inhabitants in the five-year period. Several ambitious projects were started during this period including a new City Hall, the Hudson's Bay Department Store, the Grain Exchange Building, and the Palliser Hotel, this period also corresponded to the end of the "Sandstone City" era as steel frames and terracotta facades such as the Burns Building (1913) which were prevalent in other North American cities overtook the unique standstone character of Calgary.
The growing City and enthusiastic residents were rewarded in 1908 with the federally funded Dominion Exhibition. Seeking to take advantage of the opportunity to promote itself, the city spent CA$145,000 to build six new pavilions and a racetrack. It held a lavish parade as well as rodeo, horse racing, and trick roping competitions as part of the event. The exhibition was a success, drawing 100,000 people to the fairgrounds over seven days despite an economic recession that afflicted the city of 25,000. Calgary had previously held a number of Agricultural exhibitions dating back to 1886, and recognizing the city's enthusiasm, Guy Weadick, an American trick roper who participated in the Dominion Exhibition as part of the Miller Brothers 101 Ranch Real Wild West Show, returned to Calgary in 1912 to host the first Calgary Stampede in the hopes of establishing an event that more accurately represented the "wild west" than the shows he was a part of. He initially failed to sell civic leaders and the Calgary Industrial Exhibition on his plans, but with the assistance of local livestock agent H. C. McMullen, Weadick convinced businessmen Pat Burns, George Lane, A. J. McLean, and A. E. Cross to put up $100,000 to guarantee funding for the event.
The Big Four, as they came to be known, viewed the project as a final celebration of their life as cattlemen. The city constructed a rodeo arena on the fairgrounds and over 100,000 people attended the six-day event in September 1912 to watch hundreds of cowboys from Western Canada, the United States, and Mexico compete for $20,000 in prizes. The event generated $120,000 in revenue and was hailed as a success. The Calgary Stampede has continued as a civic tradition for over 100 years, marketing itself as the "greatest outdoor show on earth", with Calgarians sporting western wear for 10 days while attending the annual parade, daily pancake breakfasts.
Early oil and gas
While agriculture and railway activities were the dominate aspects of Calgary's early economy, the Turner Valley Discovery Well blew South-West of Calgary on May 14, 1914 marked the beginning of the oil and gas age in Calgary. Archibald Wayne Dingman and Calgary Petroleum Product's discovery was heralded as the "biggest oil field in the British Empire" at around 19 million cubic metres, and in a three-week period an estimated 500 oil companies sprang into existence. Calgarians were enthusiastic to invest in new oil companies, with many losing life savings during the short 1914 boom in hastily formed companies. Outbreak of the First World War further dampened the oil craze as more men and resources left for Europe and agricultural prices for wheat and cattle increased. Turner Valley's oil fields would boom again in 1924 and 1936, and by the Second World War the Turner Valley oilfield was producing more than 95 per cent of the oil in Canada. however the city would wait until 1947 for Leduc No. 1 to definitively shift Calgary to an oil and gas city. While Edmonton would see significant population and economic growth with the Leduc discovery, many corporate offices established in Calgary after Turner Valley refused to relocate north. Consequently, by 1967, Calgary had more millionaires than any other city in Canada, and per capita, more cars than any city in the world.
Early politics 1910s to 1940s
Early 20th Century Calgary served as a hotbed for political activity. Historically Calgarians supported the provincial and federal conservative parties, the opposite of the Liberal friendly City of Edmonton. However, Calgarians were sympathetic to the cause of workers and supported the development of labour organizations. In 1909 an the upstart United Farmers of Alberta (UFA) formed in Calgary as a non-partisan lobbying organization to represent the interests of farmers. The UFA quickly dropped the non-partisan aspect of the organization and contested the 1921 provincial election forming the province's first non-Liberal government.
Calgary endured a six-year recession following the First World War, the rising unemployment rate from reduced manufacturing demand compounded with service men returned from Europe eager to seek work created economic and social unrest. By 1921, over 2,000 men (representing 11 per cent of the male workforce) were officially unemployed. Labour organizations began endorsing candidates for Calgary City Council in the late 1910s and were quickly successful in electing sympathetic candidates to office, including Mayor Samuel Hunter Adams in 1920. In 1922, Civic Government Association formed in opposition of growing influence of labour groups, endorsing their own competing slate of candidates. Labour's influence would be short lived on City Council, with Labour candidates failing to receive substantial support after 1924. The city's support of labour and agricultural groups made it a natural location for the founding meeting of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (precursor to the New Democratic Party). The organizational meeting was held in Calgary on July 31, 1932 with attendance exceeding 1,300 people.
Calgary gained further political prominence when R. B. Bennett's Conservative Party won the 1930 federal election and formed government and became Canada's 11th Prime Minister. Bennett arrived in Calgary from New Brunswick in 1897 was previously served as the leader of the provincial Conservative Party, advocated for Calgary as the capital of Alberta, and championed the growing city. Calgary would have to wait another decade to have a sitting Premier represent the city, when sitting Social Credit Premier William Aberhart moved from his Okotoks-High River to Calgary for the 1940 provincial election after his Okotoks-High River constituents almost successful in recalling the Premier.
1960s to 1970s
Only a little over a decade after shuttering the municipal tram lines Calgary City Council began investigating rapid transit. In 1966 a heavy rail transit proposal was developed, however the estimated costs continued to grow rapidly, and the plan was re-evaluated in 1975. In May 1977 Calgary City Council directed that a detailed design and construction start on the south leg of a light rail transit system, which opened on May 25, 1981 and dubbed the CTrain.
The University of Calgary gained autonomy as a degree granting institution in 1966 with the passage of the Universities Act by the Alberta Legislature. The campus provided as a one dollar lease from the City of Calgary in 1957, had previously previously served as a satellite campus of the University of Alberta.
1970s and 80s economic boom and bust
The 1970s energy crisis resulted in significant investment and growth in Calgary. By 1981, 45 per cent of the Calgary labour force was made up of management, administrative or clerical staff, above the national average of 35 per cent. Calgary's population grew with the opportunity the oil boom brought, the 20-year period from 1966 to 1986 saw the population increase from 330,575 to 636,107. Population growth became a source of pride, the June 1980 Calgary Magazine exclaimed "Welcome to Calgary! Calgary almost specializes in newcomers...".
The economic boom saw a number of high-rises popup on the Calgary skyline. The flurry of construction saw Calgary open more office space in 1979 than New York City and Chicago combined. While the end of the oil boom can be tied with the National Energy Program implemented by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau's government, the end of the construction boom was tied to the completion of the Petro-Canada Centre in 1984. The two tower granite Petro-Canada Centre, commonly referred to by locals as Red Square alluding to the city's hostile view of the state-owned petroleum company, saw the larger 53-storey west tower rise to 215 metres and become the largest building in Calgary for 26 years, and a smaller 32-storey east tower rise 130 metres. The City further expanded the CTrain system, planning began in 1981 and the northeast leg of the system was approved on to be operational in time for the 1988 Olympics.
The boom could not last forever. The 1980s oil glut caused by falling demand and the National Energy Program marked the end of Calgary's boom. In 1983 Calgary City Council announced service cuts to ease the $16 million deficit, 421 city employees were laid off, unemployment rose from 5 to 11 per cent between November 1981 and November 1982, eventually peaking at 14.9 per cent in March 1983. The decline was so swift that the city's population went down for the first time in history from April 1982 to April 1983, and 3,331 homes were foreclosed by financial institutions in 1983. Low oil prices in the 1980s prevented a full economic recovery until the 1990s.
Amongst the most invigorating news of the decade came on May 21, 1980 when Nelson Skalbania announced the relocation of the Atlanta Flames hockey club to become the Calgary Flames. Skalbania represented a group of Calgary businessmen that included oil magnates Harley Hotchkiss, Ralph T. Scurfield, Norman Green, Doc and Byron Seaman, and former Calgary Stampeders great Norman Kwong. A last-ditch effort to keep the team in Atlanta fell short, and Atlanta team owner Tom Cousins sold the team to Skalbania for US$16 million, a record sale price for an NHL team at the time. The team was successful right away making the playoffs each year in the first 10 years in Calgary. The Flames fell short of the Stanley Cup in 1986 to the Montreal Canadiens, but finally won the team's only Stanley Cup in 1989.
Public concern existed regarding the potential long-term debt implications which had plagued Montreal following the 1976 Olympics. The Calgary Olympic Development Association led the bid for Calgary and spent two years building local support for the project, selling memberships to 80,000 of the city's 600,000 residents. It secured CA$270 million in funding from the federal and provincial governments while civic leaders, including Mayor Ralph Klein, crisscrossed the world attempting to woo International Olympic Committee (IOC) delegates. Calgary was one of three finalists, opposed by the Swedish community of Falun and Italian community of Cortina d'Ampezzo. On September 30, 1981, the International Olympic Committee voted to give Calgary the right to host the 1988 Winter Olympic Games, becoming the first Canadian host for the winter games.
The Games' five primary venues were all purpose-built however, at significant cost. The Olympic Saddledome was the primary venue for ice hockey and figure skating. Located at Stampede Park, the facility was expected to cost $83 million but cost overruns pushed the facility to nearly $100 million. The Olympic Oval was built on the campus of the University of Calgary. It was the first fully enclosed 400-metre speed skating venue in the world as it was necessary to protect against the possibility of either bitter cold temperatures or ice-melting chinook winds. Seven world and three Olympic records were broken during the Games, resulting in the facility earning praise as "the fastest ice on Earth". Canada Olympic Park was built on the western outskirts of Calgary and hosted bobsled, luge, ski jumping and freestyle skiing. It was the most expensive facility built for the games, costing $200 million.
Despite Canada failing to earn a gold medal in the Games, the events proved to be a major economic boom for the city which had fallen into its worst recession in 40 years following the collapse of both oil and grain prices in the mid-1980s. A report prepared for the city in January 1985 estimated the games would create 11,100 man-years of employment and generate CA$450-million in salaries and wages. In its post-Games report, OCO'88 estimated the Olympics created CA$1.4 billion in economic benefits across Canada during the 1980s, 70 percent within Alberta, as a result of capital spending, increased tourism and new sporting opportunities created by the facilities.
1990s to present
Thanks in part to escalating oil prices, the economy in Calgary and Alberta was booming until the end of 2009, and the region of nearly 1.1 million people was home to the fastest growing economy in the country. While the oil and gas industry comprise an important part of the economy, the city has invested a great deal into other areas such as tourism and high-tech manufacturing. Over 3.1 million people now visit the city annually for its many festivals and attractions, especially the Calgary Stampede. The nearby mountain resort towns of Banff, Lake Louise, and Canmore are also becoming increasingly popular with tourists, and are bringing people into Calgary as a result. Other modern industries include light manufacturing, high-tech, film, e-commerce, transportation, and services.
Widespread flooding throughout southern Alberta, including on the Bow and Elbow rivers, forced the evacuation of over 75,000 city residents on June 21, 2013, and left large areas of the city, including downtown, without power.
Calgary is located at the transition zone between the Canadian Rockies foothills and the Canadian Prairies. The city lies within the foothills of the Parkland Natural Region and the Grasslands Natural Region. Downtown Calgary is about 1,042.4 m (3,420 ft) above sea level, and the airport is 1,076 m (3,531 ft). In 2011, the city covered a land area of 825.29 km2 (318.65 sq mi).
Two rivers run through the city and two creeks. The Bow River is the larger and it flows from the west to the south. The Elbow River flows northwards from the south until it converges with the Bow River at the historic site of Fort Calgary near downtown. Nose Creek flows into Calgary from the northwest then south to join the Bow River several kilometres east of the Elbow-Bow confluence. Fish Creek flows into Calgary from the southwest and converges with the Bow River near McKenzie Towne.
The City of Calgary, 848 km2 (327 sq mi) in size, consists of an inner city surrounded by suburban communities of various density. The city is immediately surrounded by two municipal districts – the Municipal District of Foothills No. 31 to the south and Rocky View County to the north, west and east. Proximate urban communities beyond the city within the Calgary Metropolitan Region include: the City of Airdrie to the north; the City of Chestermere, the Town of Strathmore and the Hamlet of Langdon to the east; the towns of Okotoks and High River to the south; and the Town of Cochrane to the northwest. Numerous rural subdivisions are located within the Elbow Valley, Springbank and Bearspaw areas to the west and northwest. The Tsuu T'ina Nation Indian Reserve No. 145 borders Calgary to the southwest.
Over the years, the city has made many land annexations to facilitate growth. In the most recent annexation of lands from Rocky View County, completed in July 2007, the city annexed Shepard, a former hamlet, and placed its boundaries adjacent to the Hamlet of Balzac and City of Chestermere, and very close to the City of Airdrie.
Flora and fauna
Numerous plant and animal species are found within and around Calgary. The Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) comes near the eastern limit of its range at Calgary. Another conifer of widespread distribution found in the Calgary area is the White Spruce (Picea glauca). Some notable animals that can be found in and around Calgary include: deer, coyote, moose, bat, rabbit, mink, weasel, black bear, raccoon, skunk, and cougar.
The downtown region of the city consists of five neighbourhoods: Eau Claire (including the Festival District), the Downtown West End, the Downtown Commercial Core, Chinatown, and the Downtown East Village (also part of the Rivers District). The commercial core is itself divided into a number of districts including the Stephen Avenue Retail Core, the Entertainment District, the Arts District and the Government District. Distinct from downtown and south of 9th Avenue is Calgary's densest neighbourhood, the Beltline. The area includes a number of communities such as Connaught, Victoria Crossing and a portion of the Rivers District. The Beltline is the focus of major planning and rejuvenation initiatives on the part of the municipal government to increase the density and liveliness of Calgary's centre.
Adjacent to, or directly radiating from the downtown are the first of the inner-city communities. These include Crescent Heights, Hounsfield Heights/Briar Hill, Hillhurst/Sunnyside (including Kensington BRZ), Bridgeland, Renfrew, Mount Royal, Scarboro, Sunalta, Mission, Ramsay and Inglewood and Albert Park/Radisson Heights directly to the east. The inner city is, in turn, surrounded by relatively dense and established neighbourhoods such as Rosedale and Mount Pleasant to the north; Bowness, Parkdale, Shaganappi and Glendale to the west; Park Hill, South Calgary (including Marda Loop), Bankview, Altadore, and Killarney to the south; and Forest Lawn/International Avenue to the east. Lying beyond these, and usually separated from one another by highways, are suburban communities including Evergreen, Somerset, Auburn Bay, Country Hills, Sundance, Chaparral, Riverbend, and McKenzie Towne. In all, there are over 180 distinct neighbourhoods within the city limits.
Several of Calgary's neighbourhoods were initially separate municipalities that were annexed by the city as it grew. These include Bowness, Montgomery, and Forest Lawn.
Calgary experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dwb) within eastern parts of the city and a subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dwc) within western parts of the city due to an increase in elevation. The city has warm summers and freezing, dry, but like all of Alberta extremely variable winters. It falls into the NRC Plant Hardiness Zone 4a. According to Environment Canada, average daily temperatures in Calgary range from 16.5 °C (61.7 °F) in July to −7.1 °C (19.2 °F) in January.
Winters are cold and the air temperature can drop to or below −20 °C (−4 °F) on average of 22 days of the year and −30 °C (−22 °F) on average of 3.7 days of the year, but are frequently broken up by warm, dry chinook winds that blow into Alberta over the mountains. These winds can raise the winter temperature by 20 °C (36 °F), and as much as 30 °C (54 °F) in just a few hours, and may last several days. As well, Calgary's proximity to the Rocky Mountains affects winter temperatures with a mixture of lows and highs, and tends to result in a mild winter for a city in the Prairie Provinces. Temperatures are also affected by the wind chill factor; Calgary's average wind speed is 14.2 km/h (8.8 mph), one of the highest in Canadian cities.
In summer, daytime temperatures range from 10 to 25 °C (50 to 77 °F) and exceed 30 °C (86 °F) an average of 5.1 days in June, July, and August, and occasionally as late as September or as early as May, and in winter drop below or at −30 °C (−22 °F) 3.7 days of the year. As a consequence of Calgary's high elevation and aridity, summer evenings tend to cool off, with monthly average low temperatures below 10 °C (50 °F) throughout the summer months.
Calgary has the most sunny days year round of Canada's 100 largest cities, with just over 332 days of sun; it has on average 2,396 hours of sunshine annually, with an average relative humidity of 55% in the winter and 45% in the summer (15:00 MST).
Calgary International Airport in the northeastern section of the city receives an average of 418.8 mm (16.49 in) of precipitation annually, with 326.4 mm (12.85 in) of that occurring in the form of rain, and 128.8 cm (50.7 in) as snow. The most rainfall occurs in June and the most snowfall in March. Calgary has also recorded snow every month of the year. It last snowed in July on July 15, 1999.
Thunderstorms can be frequent and sometimes severe with most of them occurring in the summer months. Calgary lies within Alberta's Hailstorm Alley and is prone to damaging hailstorms every few years. A hailstorm that struck Calgary on September 7, 1991, was one of the most destructive natural disasters in Canadian history, with over $400 million in damage. Being west of the dry line on most occasions, tornadoes are rare in the region.
|Climate data for Calgary International Airport, 1981-2010 normals, extremes 1881-present|
|Record high humidex||17.3||21.9||25.2||27.2||31.6||33.3||36.9||36.0||32.9||28.7||22.2||19.4||36.9|
|Record high °C (°F)||17.6
|Average high °C (°F)||−0.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−7.1
|Average low °C (°F)||−13.2
|Record low °C (°F)||−44.4
|Record low wind chill||−52||−53||−45||−37||−24||−6||0||−4||−12||−34||−48||−55||−55|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||9.4
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||0.1
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||15.3
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm)||7.3||6.8||9.2||9.0||11.2||13.8||13.0||10.6||9.1||7.2||7.6||6.9||111.7|
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm)||0.27||0.20||1.3||4.1||10.1||13.8||13.0||10.5||8.7||4.2||1.4||0.40||67.97|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm)||7.7||7.4||9.5||6.4||2.6||0.07||0.0||0.10||1.3||4.1||7.4||7.7||54.2|
|Average relative humidity (%)||54.5||53.2||50.3||40.7||43.5||48.6||46.8||44.6||44.3||44.3||54.0||55.3||48.3|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||119.5||144.6||177.2||220.2||249.4||269.9||314.1||284.0||207.0||175.4||121.1||114.0||2,396.3|
|Percent possible sunshine||45.6||51.3||48.2||53.1||51.8||54.6||63.1||62.9||54.4||52.7||45.0||46.0||52.4|
|Average ultraviolet index||1||1||2||4||6||7||7||6||4||2||1||0||3|
|Source: Environment Canada and Weather Atlas|
|Climate data for Springbank Hill, 1981–2010 normals|
|Record high °C (°F)||16.5
|Average high °C (°F)||−1.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−8.2
|Average low °C (°F)||−14.5
|Record low °C (°F)||−42.8
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||9.9
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||0.2
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||12.7
|Source: Environment Canada|
|Source: Statistics Canada|
In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the City of Calgary recorded a population of 1,239,220 living in 466,725 of its 489,650 total private dwellings, a change of 13% from its 2011 population of 1,096,833. With a land area of 825.56 km2 (318.75 sq mi), it had a population density of 1,501.1/km2 (3,887.7/sq mi) in 2016. Calgary was ranked first among the three cities in Canada that saw their population grow by more than 100,000 people between 2011 and 2016. During this time Calgary saw a population growth of 142,387 people, followed by Edmonton at 120,345 people and Toronto at 116,511 people.
In the 2011 Census, the City of Calgary had a population of 1,096,833 living in 423,417 of its 445,848 total dwellings, a change of 10.9% from its 2006 adjusted population of 988,812. With a land area of 825.29 km2 (318.65 sq mi), it had a population density of 1,329.0/km2 (3,442.2/sq mi) in 2011. According to the 2011 Statistics Canada Census, persons aged 14 years and under made up 17.9% of the population, and those aged 65 and older made up 9.95%. The median age was 36.4 years. In 2011, the city's gender population was 49.9% male and 50.1% female.
The Calgary census metropolitan area (CMA) is the fourth-largest CMA in Canada and largest in Alberta. It had a population of 1,392,609 in the 2016 Census compared to its 2011 population of 1,214,839. Its five-year population change of 14.6 percent was the highest among all CMAs in Canada between 2011 and 2016. With a land area of 5,107.55 km2 (1,972.04 sq mi), the Calgary CMA had a population density of 272.7/km2 (706.2/sq mi) in 2016. Statistics Canada's latest estimate of the Calgary CMA population, as of July 1, 2017, is 1,488,841.
In 2015, the population within an hour commuting distance of the city is 1,511,755.
As a consequence of the large number of corporations, as well as the presence of the energy sector in Alberta, Calgary has a median family income of $104,530.
According to the 2016 Census, 60% of Calgary's population was of European origin, 4% was of Aboriginal heritage, and 36.2% of the population belonged to a visible minority (that is, non-white, non-aboriginal) group. Among those of European origin, the most frequently reported ethnic backgrounds were British, German, Irish, French, and Ukrainian. Among visible minorities, South Asians (mainly from India) make up the largest group (9.5%), followed by Chinese (6.8%) and Filipinos (5.5%). 5.4% were of African or Caribbean origin, 3.5% was of West Asian or Middle Eastern origin, while 2.6% of the population was of Latin American origin. Of the largest Canadian cities, Calgary ranked fourth in proportion of visible minorities, behind Toronto, Vancouver, and Winnipeg. 20.7% of the population identified as "Canadian" in ethnic origin.
|Employment by industry|
|Health and education||25.1%||18.8%|
|Labour force (2016)|
Calgary is recognized as a leader in the Canadian oil and gas industry, and its economy expanded at a significantly higher rate than the overall Canadian economy (43% and 25%, respectively) over the ten-year period from 1999 to 2009. Its high personal and family incomes, low unemployment and high GDP per capita have all benefited from increased sales and prices due to a resource boom, and increasing economic diversification.
Calgary benefits from a relatively strong job market in Alberta, is part of the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor, one of the fastest growing regions in the country. It is the head office for many major oil and gas related companies, and many financial service business have grown up around them. Small business and self-employment levels also rank amongst the highest in Canada. Calgary is a distribution and transportation hub with high retail sales.
Calgary's economy is decreasingly dominated by the oil and gas industry, although it is still the single largest contributor to the city's GDP. In 2006, Calgary's real GDP (in constant 1997 dollars) was CA$52.386 billion, of which oil, gas and mining contributed 12%. The larger oil and gas companies are BP Canada, Canadian Natural Resources Limited, Cenovus Energy, Encana, Imperial Oil, Suncor Energy, Shell Canada, Husky Energy, TransCanada, and Nexen, making the city home to 87% of Canada's oil and natural gas producers and 66% of coal producers.
In 2013, Calgary's four largest industries by employee count were "Trade" (with 112,800 employees), "Professional, Scientific and Technical Services" (100,800 employees), "Health Care and Social Assistance" (89,200 employees), and "Construction" (81,500 employees).
In 2006, the top three private sector employers in Calgary were Shaw Communications (7,500 employees), Nova Chemicals (4,945) and Telus (4,517). Companies rounding out the top ten were Mark's Work Wearhouse, the Calgary Co-op, Nexen, Canadian Pacific Railway, CNRL, Shell Canada and Dow Chemical Canada. The top public sector employers in 2006 were the Calgary Zone of the Alberta Health Services (22,000), the City of Calgary (12,296) and the Calgary Board of Education (8,000). Public sector employers rounding out the top five were the University of Calgary and the Calgary Roman Catholic Separate School Division.
In Canada, Calgary has the second-highest concentration of head offices in Canada (behind Toronto), the most head offices per capita, and the highest head office revenue per capita. Some large employers with Calgary head offices include Canada Safeway Limited, Westfair Foods Ltd., Suncor Energy, Agrium, Flint Energy Services Ltd., Shaw Communications, and Canadian Pacific Railway. CPR moved its head office from Montreal in 1996 and Imperial Oil moved from Toronto in 2005. Encana's new 58-floor corporate headquarters, the Bow, became the tallest building in Canada outside of Toronto. In 2001, the city became the corporate headquarters of the TSX Venture Exchange.
WestJet is headquartered close to the Calgary International Airport, and Enerjet has its headquarters on the airport grounds. Prior to their dissolution, Canadian Airlines and Air Canada's subsidiary Zip were also headquartered near the city's airport. Although its main office is now based in Yellowknife, Canadian North, purchased from Canadian Airlines in September 1998, still maintains operations and charter offices in Calgary.
According to a report by Alexi Olcheski of Avison Young published in August 2015, vacancy rates rose to 11.5 per cent in the second quarter of 2015 from 8.3 per cent in 2014. Oil and gas company office spaces in downtown Calgary are subleasing 40 per cent of their overall vacancies. H&R Real Estate Investment Trust, which owns the 58-storey, 158,000-square-metre Bow Tower, claims the building was fully leased. Tenants such as Suncor "have been letting staff and contractors go in response to the downturn".
Arts and culture
Calgary was designated as one of the cultural capitals of Canada in 2012. While many Calgarians continue to live in the city's suburbs, more central districts such as 17 Avenue, Kensington, Inglewood, Forest Lawn, Marda Loop and the Mission District have become more popular and density in those areas has increased.
The Calgary Public Library is the city's public library network, with 21 branches loaning books, e-books, CDs, DVDs, Blu-rays, audio books, and more. Based on borrowing, the library is the second largest in Canada, and sixth-largest municipal library system in North America. The new flagship branch, the 22,000-square-metre (240,000 sq ft) Calgary Central Library in Downtown East Village, opened on November 1, 2018.
Calgary is the site of the Southern Alberta Jubilee Auditorium performing arts, culture and community facility. The auditorium is one of two "twin" facilities in the province, the other is the Northern Alberta Jubilee Auditorium located in Edmonton, each being locally known as the "Jube." The 2,538-seat auditorium was opened in 1957 and has been host to hundreds of Broadway musical, theatrical, stage and local productions. The Calgary Jube is the resident home of the Alberta Ballet Company, the Calgary Opera, and the annual civic Remembrance Day ceremonies. Both auditoriums operate 365 days a year, and are run by the provincial government. Both received major renovations as part of the province's centennial in 2005.
The city is also home to a number of performing arts spaces, such as Arts Commons, which is a 400,000 square foot performing arts complex housing the Jack Singer Concert Hall, Martha Cohen Theatre, Max Bell Theatre, Big Secret Theatre, and Motel Theatre, the Pumphouse Theatre, which houses the Victor Mitchell and Joyce Doolittle theatres, The GRAND, the Bella Concert Hall, the Wright Theatre, Vertigo Theatre, Stage West Theatre, Lunchbox Theatre, and several other smaller venues.
Some major companies in Calgary include One Yellow Rabbit, which shares the Arts Commons building with the Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra, as well as Theatre Calgary, Alberta Theatre Projects and The Grand, which is a culture house dedicated to the contemporary live arts. Calgary was also the birthplace of the improvisational theatre games known as Theatresports.
Every three years, Calgary hosts the Honens International Piano Competition (formerly known as the Esther Honens International Piano Competition). The finalists of the competition perform piano concerti with the Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra; the laureate is awarded a cash prize (currently $100,000.00 CDN, the largest cash award of any international piano competition), and a three-year career development program. Honens is an integral component of the classical music scene in Calgary.
Visual and conceptual artists like the art collective United Congress are active in the city. There are a number of art galleries in the downtown along Stephen Avenue; the SoDo (South of Downtown) Design District; the 17 Avenue corridor; the neighbourhood of Inglewood, including the Esker Foundation. There are also various arts installations in the +15 system in downtown Calgary.
A number of marching bands are based in Calgary. They include the Calgary Round-Up Band, the Calgary Stetson Show Band, the Bishop Grandin Marching Ghosts, and the six-time World Association for Marching Show Bands champions, the Calgary Stampede Showband, as well as military bands including the Band of HMCS Tecumseh, the King's Own Calgary Regiment Band, and the Regimental Pipes and Drums of The Calgary Highlanders. There are many other civilian pipe bands in the city, notably the Calgary Police Service Pipe Band.
The Alberta Ballet is the third largest dance company in Canada. Under the artistic direction of Jean Grand-Maître, the Alberta Ballet is at the forefront both at home and internationally. Jean Grand-Maître has become well known for his successful portrait series collaborations with pop-artists like Joni Mitchell, Elton John, and Sarah McLachlan. The Alberta Ballet resides in the Nat Christie Centre. Other dance companies include Springboard Performance, which hosts the annual Fluid Movement Arts Festival, Decidedly Jazz Danceworks, which opened its new $25-million facility in 2016 in collaboration with the Kahanoff Foundation, as well as a host of others, including European folk dance ensembles, Afro-based dance companies, and diasporic dance companies. Calgary is also home to a choral music community, including a variety of amateur, community, and semi-professional groups. Some of the mainstays include the Mount Royal Choirs from the Mount Royal University Conservatory, the Calgary Boys' Choir, the Calgary Girls Choir, the Youth Singers of Calgary, the Cantaré Children's Choir, Luminous Voices Music Society, Spiritus Chamber Choir, and pop-choral group Revv52.
Calgary is also home to several post-secondary institutions that provide credit or non-credit instruction in the arts, including the Alberta University of the Arts (formerly Alberta College of Art and Design), the School of Creative and Performing Arts at the University of Calgary, the Mount Royal University Conservatory, and Ambrose University.
Calgary hosts a number of annual festivals and events. These include the Calgary International Film Festival, the Calgary Folk Music Festival, the Calgary Performing Arts Festival (formerly Kiwanis Music Festival), FunnyFest Calgary Comedy Festival, Sled Island music festival, Beakerhead, the Calgary Folk Music Festival, the Greek festival, Carifest, Wordfest, the Lilac Festival, GlobalFest, Otafest, the Calgary Comic and Entertainment Expo, FallCon, the Calgary Fringe Festival, Summerstock, Expo Latino, Calgary Pride, Calgary International Spoken Word Festival, and many other cultural and ethnic festivals. The Calgary International Film Festival is also held annually as well as the International Festival of Animated Objects.
Calgary's best-known event is the Calgary Stampede, which has occurred each July, with the exception of the year 2020, since 1912. It is one of the largest festivals in Canada, with a 2005 attendance of 1,242,928 at the 10-day rodeo and exhibition.
Several museums are located in the city. The Glenbow Museum is the largest in western Canada and includes an art gallery and First Nations gallery. Other major museums include the Chinese Cultural Centre (at 6,500 m2 (70,000 sq ft), the largest stand-alone cultural centre in Canada), Canada's Sports Hall of Fame (at Canada Olympic Park), The Military Museums, the National Music Centre and The Hangar Flight Museum.
Film and television
Numerous films have been shot in Calgary and the surrounding area. Notable films shot in and around the city include: The Assassination of Jesse James, Brokeback Mountain, Dances with Wolves, Doctor Zhivago, Inception, Legends of the Fall, Unforgiven, and The Revenant. The Paul Rudd led Ghostbusters: Afterlife was filmed in downtown Calgary and Inglewood in 2019. Television shows include Fargo (TV series), Black Summer (TV series), Wynonna Earp (TV series) and Wild Roses (TV series).
Downtown Calgary features an eclectic mix of restaurants and bars, cultural venues, public squares and shopping. Downtown attractions include the Calgary Tower, Calgary Zoo, National Music Centre, Telus Convention Centre, Chinatown district, Arts Commons, Central Library, St. Patrick's Island, Glenbow Museum, the Art Gallery of Calgary (AGC), Olympic Plaza, the Calgary Stampede grounds and military museums. Notable shopping areas include the Core Centre, Stephen Avenue and the Eau Claire Market. The Peace Bridge spans the Bow River in the downtown region. The region is also home to Prince's Island Park, an urban park located just north of the Eau Claire district. At 1.0 hectare (2.5 acres), the Devonian Gardens is one of the largest urban indoor gardens in the world, located on the top floor of the Core Centre. Directly south of the city's downtown is the Beltline, an urban community known for its many lively bars, nightclubs, restaurants, and shopping venues. At the Beltline's core is the popular 17 Avenue SW, the community's primary entertainment and nightlife strip, lined with a high concentration of bars and entertainment. During the Calgary Flames' Stanley Cup run in 2004, 17 Avenue SW was frequented by over 50,000 fans and supporters per game night. The concentration of red jersey-wearing fans led to the street's playoff moniker, the "Red Mile". Downtown Calgary is easily accessed using the CTrain transit system with 9 train stations in the city's downtown core. The train is also fare-free while downtown.
Attractions in other areas of the city include the Heritage Park Historical Village, depicting life in pre-1914 Alberta and featuring working historic vehicles such as a steam train, paddle steamer and electric streetcar. The village itself comprises a mixture of replica buildings and historic structures relocated from southern Alberta. Just west of the city limits is Calaway Park, Western Canada's largest outdoor family amusement park, and just north of the park across the Trans Canada Highway is the Springbank/Calgary Airport where the Wings over Springbank Airshow is held every July 18 & 19. Other major city attractions include Canada Olympic Park, which features Canada's Sports Hall of Fame, and Spruce Meadows. In addition to the many shopping areas in the city centre, there are a number of large suburban shopping complexes in the city. Among the largest are Chinook Centre and Southcentre Mall in the south, Westhills and Signal Hill in the southwest, South Trail Crossing and Deerfoot Meadows in the southeast, Market Mall in the northwest, Sunridge Mall in the northeast, and the newly built CrossIron Mills and New Horizon Mall just north of the Calgary city limits, and south of the City of Airdrie.
Downtown Calgary has a prominent and recognizable skyline that includes Brookfield Place, The Bow, the Telus Sky, the Suncor Energy Centre, Eighth Avenue Place and the Calgary Tower. It stretches approximately 16 city blocks from east to west and is visible from many of the city's surrounding suburban communities. Office towers are mostly concentrated to the east end of downtown, while many residential and mixed-use towers are located toward the west end of downtown and in the Beltline, south of the city centre.
There are 14 towers that are at least 150 metres (approximately 40 storeys) or taller in downtown Calgary. The city's skyline is rapidly evolving. As of March 2019, there are 10 skyscrapers over 100 metres (328 ft) under construction, along with another 34 skyscrapers over 100 metres (328 ft) approved or proposed, with another 56 towers over 35 metres (115 ft) under construction or approved for construction. Calgary's tallest skyscraper is the 247-metre (810 ft) Brookfield Place. In second place, the Bow stands at 236 m (774 ft) with 60 storeys, and 222-metre (728 ft) Telus Sky is the third tallest. Bankers Hall Towers in central downtown are the tallest twin towers in Canada.
Sports and recreation
Within Calgary there are approximately 8,000 ha (20,000 acres) of parkland available for public usage and recreation. These parks include Fish Creek Provincial Park, Inglewood Bird Sanctuary, Bowness Park, Edworthy Park, Confederation Park, Prince's Island Park, Nose Hill Park, and Central Memorial Park. Nose Hill Park is one of the largest municipal parks in Canada at 1,129 ha (2,790 acres). The park has been subject to a revitalization plan that began in 2006. Its trail system is currently undergoing rehabilitation in accordance with this plan. The oldest park in Calgary, Central Memorial Park, dates back to 1911. Similar to Nose Hill Park, revitalization also took place in Central Memorial Park in 2008–2009 and reopened to the public in 2010 while still maintaining its Victorian style. An 800 km (500 mi) pathway system connects these parks and various neighbourhoods. Calgary also has multiple private sporting clubs including the Glencoe Club and the Calgary Winter Club.
In large part due to its proximity to the Rocky Mountains, Calgary has traditionally been a popular destination for winter sports. Since hosting the 1988 Winter Olympics, the city has also been home to a number of major winter sporting facilities such as Canada Olympic Park (bobsleigh, luge, cross-country skiing, ski jumping, downhill skiing, snowboarding, and some summer sports) and the Olympic Oval (speed skating and hockey). These facilities serve as the primary training venues for a number of competitive athletes. Also, Canada Olympic Park serves as a mountain biking trail in the summer months.
In the summer, the Bow River is very popular among river rafters and fly-fishermen. Golfing is also an extremely popular activity for Calgarians, and the region has a large number of courses. The Century Downs Racetrack and Casino is a 5+1⁄2-furlong horse track located just north of the city.
As part of the wider Battle of Alberta, the city's sports teams enjoy a popular rivalry with their Edmonton counterparts, most notably the rivalries between the National Hockey League's Calgary Flames and Edmonton Oilers, and the Canadian Football League's Calgary Stampeders and Edmonton Football Team.
Calgary is the hometown of the Hart wrestling family and the location of the Hart family "Dungeon", where the patriarch of the Hart Family, Stu Hart, trained numerous professional wrestlers including Superstar Billy Graham, Brian Pillman, the British Bulldogs, Edge, Christian, Greg Valentine, Chris Jericho, Jushin Thunder Liger and many more. Also among the trainees were the Hart family members themselves, including WWE Hall of Fame member and former WWE champion Bret Hart and his brother, the 1994 WWF King of the Ring, Owen Hart.
In 1997 Calgary hosted The World Police & Fire Games hosting over 16,000 athletes from all over the world.
|Calgary Stampeders||Canadian Football League||McMahon Stadium||1945||8|
|Calgary Flames||National Hockey League||Scotiabank Saddledome||1980||1|
|Calgary Roughnecks||National Lacrosse League||Scotiabank Saddledome||2001||3|
|Cavalry FC||Canadian Premier League||ATCO Field||2018||0|
|Calgary Canucks||Alberta Junior Hockey League||Max Bell Centre||1971||9|
|Calgary Mustangs||Alberta Junior Hockey League||Father David Bauer Olympic Arena||1990||1|
|Calgary Hitmen||Western Hockey League||Scotiabank Saddledome||1995||2|
|Calgary Mavericks||Rugby Canada National Junior Championship||Calgary Rugby Park||1998||1|
|Prairie Wolf Pack||Canadian Rugby Championship||Calgary Rugby Park||2009||1|
The city is a corporate power-centre, a high percentage of the workforce is employed in white-collar jobs. The high concentration of oil and gas corporations led to the rise of Peter Lougheed's Progressive Conservative Party in 1971. However, as Calgary's population has increased, so has the diversity of its politics.
The City of Calgary is a municipal corporation with a council–manager government structure consisting of a fifteen-member Council elected every four years. The Council itself consists of an at-large Mayor and fourteen Councillors who represent geographic regions of the city. The legal authority to govern as a "creature of the province" is derived from various regulations and legislation of the Alberta Legislature, of which the Municipal Government Act and the City of Calgary Charter, 2018 Regulation provide many of the powers and responsibilities for the city. The current Mayor Naheed Nenshi was first elected in the 2010 municipal election, and subsequently re-elected in 2013 and 2017.
Three school boards operate independently of each other in Calgary, the public, the separate (catholic) and francophone systems. Both the public and separate boards have 7 elected trustees each representing 2 of 14 wards. The School Boards are considered part of municipal politics in Calgary as they are elected at the same time as City Council.
On October 19, 2015, Calgary elected its first two Liberal federal MPs since 1968, Darshan Kang for Calgary Skyview and Kent Hehr for Calgary Centre. The remaining MPs are members of the Conservative Party of Canada (CPC). Before 2015, the Liberals had only elected three MPs from Calgary ridings in their entire history-- Manley Edwards (1940–1945), Harry Hays (1963–1965) and Pat Mahoney (1968–1972).
The federal riding of Calgary Heritage was held by former Prime Minister and CPC leader Stephen Harper. That seat was also held by Preston Manning, the leader of the Reform Party of Canada; it was known as Calgary Southwest at the time. Harper is the second Prime Minister to represent a Calgary riding; the first was R. B. Bennett from Calgary West, who held that position from 1930 to 1935. Joe Clark, former Prime Minister and former leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (also a predecessor of the CPC), held the riding of Calgary Centre during his second stint in Parliament from 2000 to 2004.
The Green Party of Canada has also made inroads in Calgary, exemplified by results of the 2011 federal election where they achieved 7.7% of the vote across the city, ranging from 4.7% in Calgary Northeast to 13.1% in Calgary Centre-North.
The Calgary census metropolitan area (CMA) had a crime severity index of 60.4 in 2013, which is lower than the national average of 68.7. A slight majority of the other CMAs in Canada had crime severity indexes greater than Calgary's 60.4. Calgary had the sixth-most homicides in 2013 at 24.
The presence of the Canadian military has been part of the local economy and culture since the early years of the 20th century, beginning with the assignment of a squadron of Strathcona's Horse. After many failed attempts to create the city's own unit, the 103rd Regiment (Calgary Rifles) was finally authorized on April 1, 1910. Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Calgary was established as Currie Barracks and Harvie Barracks following the Second World War. The base remained the most significant Department of National Defence (DND) institution in the city until it was decommissioned in 1998, when most of the units moved to CFB Edmonton. Despite this closure there is still a number of Canadian Forces Reserve units, and cadet units garrisoned throughout the city. They include HMCS Tecumseh Naval Reserve unit, The King's Own Calgary Regiment, The Calgary Highlanders, both headquartered at the Mewata Armouries, 746 Communication Squadron, 41 Canadian Brigade Group, headquartered at the former location of CFB Calgary, 14 (Calgary) Service Battalion, 15 (Edmonton) Field Ambulance Detachment Calgary, 14 (Edmonton) Military Police Platoon Calgary, 41 Combat Engineer Regiment detachment Calgary (33 Engineer Squadron), along with a small cadre of Regular Force support. As of 2013, 746 Communication Squadron is now known as 41 Signals 3 Squadron. Several units have been granted Freedom of the City.
The Calgary Soldiers' Memorial commemorates those who died during wartime or while serving overseas. Along with those from units currently stationed in Calgary it represents the 10th Battalion, CEF and the 50th Battalion, CEF of the Canadian Expeditionary Force.
Public transit and light-rail
Calgary Transit provides public transportation services throughout the city with buses and light rail. Calgary's light rail system, known as the CTrain, was one of the first such systems in North America (behind Edmonton LRT). It consists of two lines (Red Line and Blue Line), 44 stations and 58.2 km (36.2 mi) of track. The Calgary LRT is one of the continent's busiest carrying 270,000 passengers per weekday and approximately half of Calgary downtown workers take the transit to work. The CTrain is also North America's first and only LRT to run on 100% renewable, wind generated energy. In early 2020, city council approved construction of the Calgary Green Line, the third light-rail line in the city's rapid transit network. It will be the first rail line in Calgary to operate low-floor trains and is the largest public works project in the history of Calgary, about three-and-a-half times bigger than the second-largest project.
Calgary International Airport (YYC), in the city's northeast, is a major transportation and cargo hub for much of central and western Canada. It is Canada's fourth busiest airport, serving 18 million passengers in 2019. The airport serves as the primary gateway into Banff National Park, located 90 minutes west, and the entire Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks system. Non-stop destinations include cities throughout Canada, the United States, Europe, Central America, and Asia. Calgary/Springbank Airport, Canada's eleventh busiest, serves as a reliever for the Calgary International taking the general aviation traffic and is also a base for aerial firefighting aircraft.
Pedestrian and cycling
As an alternative to the over 260 km (160 mi) of shared bikeways on streets, the city has a network of multi-use (bicycle, walking, rollerblading, etc.) paths spanning over 935 km (581 mi). The Peace Bridge provides pedestrians and cyclists, access to the downtown core from the north side of the Bow river. The bridge ranked among the top 10 architectural projects in 2012 and among the top 10 public spaces of 2012.
In the 1960s, Calgary started to develop a series of pedestrian bridges connecting many downtown buildings. Today, these bridges connect between most of the city's downtown office towers and make up the world's most extensive skyway network (elevated indoor pedestrian bridges), officially called the +15. The system shields pedestrians from the city's extreme cold winter temperatures. The name derives from the fact that the bridges are usually 15 ft (4.6 m) above ground.
Roads and highways
Calgary lies at the crossroads of Highway 2 and the Trans-Canada Highway, making it an important hub for the transit of goods across Canada and along the CANAMEX Corridor. Stoney Trail forms a nearly completed ring road around the city that will be fully finished by 2024 when the final section opens in west Calgary. Freeways and expressways are mostly called "trails". Highway 2, named Deerfoot Trail, is the main north–south route through Calgary and one of the busiest highways in Canada. Much of Calgary's street network is on a grid where roads are numbered with avenues running east—west and streets running north—south. Until 1904 the streets were named; after that date, all streets were given numbers radiating outwards from the city centre. Roads in predominantly residential areas as well as freeways and expressways do not generally conform to the grid and are usually not numbered. However, it is a developer and city convention in Calgary that non-numbered streets within a new community have the same name prefix as the community itself.
Calgary's presence along the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) mainline (which includes the CPR Alyth Yard) makes the city an important hub of freight rail throughout the province. There is currently no inter-city or regional passenger rail serving the city. In June 2020, the Canada Infrastructure Bank signed a memorandum of understanding with the Government of Alberta to build a 130 kilometre inter-city rail line from downtown Calgary to Banff, and an express line from Calgary International Airport to downtown Calgary.
Between 1955 and 1978, CPR operated a transcontinental passenger rail service called the Canadian, running between Toronto and Vancouver via CPR's right-of-way through Calgary. In 1978, Via Rail assumed responsibility over CPR's Canadian rail service. In the aftermath of another round of deep budget cuts made to Via Rail on January 15, 1990, Via permanently discontinued the Super Continental and rerouted the Canadian along the Super Continental's CN route, bypassing Regina and Calgary in favour of Saskatoon and Edmonton. Since then, there has been no intercity rail service to or from Calgary. But two new rail-tour lines have opened along the now open CPR right-of-way: Rocky Mountaineer and Royal Canadian Pacific. The latter still operates rail-tour services to Calgary, while the former has terminated its westbound services at Banff, two hours to the west.
- Medical centres and hospitals
Calgary has four major adult acute care hospitals and one major pediatric acute care site: the Alberta Children's Hospital, the Foothills Medical Centre, the Peter Lougheed Centre, the Rockyview General Hospital and the South Health Campus. They are all overseen by the Calgary Zone of the Alberta Health Services, formerly the Calgary Health Region. Calgary is also home to the Tom Baker Cancer Centre (located at the Foothills Medical Centre), the Grace Women's Health Centre, which provides a variety of care, and the Libin Cardiovascular Institute. In addition, the Sheldon M. Chumir Centre (a large 24-hour assessment clinic), and the Richmond Road Diagnostic and Treatment Centre (RRDTC), as well as hundreds of smaller medical and dental clinics operate in Calgary. The Faculty of Medicine of the University of Calgary also operates in partnership with Alberta Health Services, by researching cancer, cardiovascular, diabetes, joint injury, arthritis and genetics. The Alberta children's hospital, built in 2006, replaced the old Children's Hospital.
The four largest Calgary hospitals have a combined total of more than 2,100 beds, and employ over 11,500 people.
Primary and secondary
In the 2011–2012 school year, 100,632 K-12 students enrolled in 221 schools in the English language public school system run by the Calgary Board of Education. With other students enrolled in the associated CBe-learn and Chinook Learning Service programs, the school system's total enrolment is 104,182 students. Another 43,000 attend about 95 schools in the separate English language Calgary Catholic School District board. The much smaller Francophone community has their own French language school board (The Southern Francophone Education Region No. 4), which is also based in Calgary, but serves a larger regional district. There are also several public charter schools in the city. Calgary has a number of unique schools, including the country's first high school exclusively designed for Olympic-calibre athletes, the National Sport School. Calgary is also home to many private schools including Mountain View Academy, Rundle College, Rundle Academy, Clear Water Academy, Calgary French and International School, Chinook Winds Adventist Academy, Webber Academy, Delta West Academy, Masters Academy, Calgary Islamic School, Menno Simons Christian School, West Island College, Edge School, Calgary Christian School, Heritage Christian Academy, and Bearspaw Christian School.
Calgary is also home to what was Western Canada's largest public high school, Lord Beaverbrook High School, with 2,241 students enrolled in the 2005–2006 school year. Currently the student population of Lord Beaverbrook is 1,812 students (September 2012) and several other schools are equally as large; Western Canada High School with 2,035 students (2009) and Sir Winston Churchill High School with 1,983 students (2009).
The publicly funded University of Calgary (U of C) is a research university and is Calgary's largest degree-granting facility with an enrolment of 28,464 students in 2011. Mount Royal University, with 13,000 students, grants degrees in a number of fields. SAIT Polytechnic, with over 14,000 students, provides polytechnic and apprentice education, granting certificates, diplomas and applied degrees. Athabasca University provides distance education programs. Both SAIT and the University of Calgary have CTrain light-rail stations on their campuses.
Other publicly funded post-secondary institutions based in Calgary include the Alberta University of the Arts, Ambrose University (associated with the Christian and Missionary Alliance and the Church of the Nazarene), Bow Valley College, and St. Mary's University. The publicly funded Athabasca University, Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (NAIT), and the University of Lethbridge also have campuses in Calgary.
Calgary is the sixth largest television market in Canada. Broadcasts stations serving Calgary include CICT 2 (Global), CFCN 4 (CTV), CKAL 5 (City), CBRT 9 (CBC), CKCS 32 (YesTV), and CJCO 38 (Omni). Network affiliate programming from the United States originates from Spokane, Washington.
There are a wide range of radio stations, including a station for First Nations and the Asian Canadian community.
Calgary is one of nine Canadian cities, out of the total of 98 cities internationally, that is in the New York City Global Partners, Inc. organization, which was formed in 2006 from the former Sister City program of the City of New York, Inc.
- Eric Volmers (May 13, 2012). "Alberta's best in TV, film feted at Rosies". Calgary Herald. Postmedia Network. Archived from the original on June 17, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2015.
- Curtis Stock (July 7, 2009). "Alberta's got plenty of swing". Calgary Herald. Postmedia Network. Archived from the original on January 3, 2015. Retrieved January 3, 2015.
- "Location and History Profile: City of Calgary" (PDF). Alberta Municipal Affairs. June 17, 2016. p. 15. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 25, 2016. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
- "City Manager's Biography". City of Calgary. August 30, 2019. Retrieved September 3, 2019.
- "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2016 and 2011 censuses – 100% data (Alberta)". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2017. Archived from the original on February 11, 2017. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
- "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and population centres, 2016 and 2011 censuses – 100% data (Alberta)". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2017. Archived from the original on February 11, 2017. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
- "Population and dwelling counts, for census metropolitan areas, 2016 and 2011 censuses – 100% data". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2017. Archived from the original on February 11, 2017. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
- "Alberta Private Sewage Systems 2009 Standard of Practice Handbook: Appendix A.3 Alberta Design Data (A.3.A. Alberta Climate Design Data by Town)" (PDF) (PDF). Safety Codes Council. January 2012. pp. 212–215 (PDF pages 226–229). Archived (PDF) from the original on October 16, 2013. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
- "2019 Census Results Released". City of Calgary. September 3, 2019. Retrieved September 3, 2019.
- "Table 36-10-0468-01 Gross domestic product (GDP) at basic prices, by census metropolitan area (CMA) (x 1,000,000)". Statistics Canada. January 27, 2017. Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2021.
- "Calgary-Edmonton Corridor". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on February 23, 2007. Retrieved January 6, 2006.
- "Calgary, Canada Metro Area Population 1950-2021". www.macrotrends.net. Retrieved January 26, 2021.
- "Calgary Industries". Calgary Economic Development. Archived from the original on February 18, 2014. Retrieved January 31, 2014.
- "State of the West 2010: Western Canadian Demographic and Economic Trends" (PDF) (PDF). Canada West Foundation. 2010. pp. 65 & 102. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 14, 2011. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
- "Why Calgary? Our Economy in Depth" (PDF). Calgary Economic Development. 2018. p. 61. Archived from the original on February 16, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
- "Calgary named most livable city in North America". www.calgaryeconomicdevelopment.com. Retrieved November 5, 2019.
- Larry Donovan and Tom Monto (2006). Alberta Place Names : The Fascinating People & Stories Behind the Naming of Alberta. Dragon Hill Publishing Ltd. p. 34.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- [full citation needed] Mull Museum, Tobermory, Isle of Mull, Scotland. Retrieved July 10, 2007.
- Fromhold, Joachim (2001). 2001 Indian Place Names of the West - Part 1. Calgary: Lulu. pp. CCC. ISBN 9780557438365.
- Fromhold, Joachim (2001). 2001 INDIAN PLACE NAMES OF THE WEST, Part 2: Listings by Nation. Calgary: Lulu. p. 24. ISBN 9781300389118.
- "7 names for Calgary before it became Calgary". CBC News. December 3, 2015. Archived from the original on November 16, 2017. Retrieved November 19, 2017.
- Klaszus, Jeremy (October 18, 2017). "How Naheed Nenshi's Tense Re-election Forces Us to Confront Canadian Racism". The Walrus. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved November 20, 2017.
- Nenshi, Naheed. "FINA: Standing Committee on Finance NUMBER 114 ● 1st SESSION ● 42nd PARLIAMENT. EVIDENCE Friday, October 6, 2017" (PDF). Standing Committee on Finance. 114: 8. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved November 21, 2017 – via ourcommons.ca.
We all know that until the Fort McMurray wildfires last year, the flooding in southern Alberta in 2013 was the costliest natural disaster in Canadian history. While we have done great work in the four years since, within the city of Calgary we continue to need assistance in upstream flood mitigation. Calgary is a city that is built at the confluence of two rivers in a place the Blackfoot called Moh-Kins-Tsis, the elbow. We can't move the city. We can't make room for the river. This is where the rivers are. As a result, it is incredibly important that we do the engineering work on the upstream mitigation.
- Wilkes, Rima; Duong, Aaron; Kesler, Linc; Ramos, Howard (February 21, 2017). "Canadian University Acknowledgment of Indigenous Lands, Treaties, and Peoples". Canadian Review of Sociology. 54 (1): 89–102. doi:10.1111/cars.12140. PMID 28220681.
- "Guide to Acknowledging First Peoples & Traditional Territory". Canadian Association of University Teachers. November 19, 2017. Archived from the original on November 10, 2017. Retrieved November 19, 2017.
- "Visit Esker Foundation". Esker Foundation. November 20, 2017. Archived from the original on November 22, 2017. Retrieved November 21, 2017.
It is important to acknowledge and reflect upon the fact that Esker Foundation is located on the traditional territories of the Niitsitapi (Blackfoot) and the people of the Treaty 7 region in Southern Alberta, which includes the Siksika, the Piikuni, the Kainai, the Tsuut'ina, and the Stoney Nakoda First Nations. We are also situated on land adjacent to where the Bow River meets the Elbow River; the traditional Blackfoot name of this place is Mohkinstsis, which we now call the City of Calgary. The City of Calgary is also home to Métis Nation of Alberta, Region III.
- Wolvegrey, Arok (2001). Cree: Words. Regina, Saskatchewan: University of Regina Press. ISBN 978-0889771277.
- "University of Calgary Recommended Acknowledgements of Traditional Indigenous Territories" (PDF). University of Calgary. November 19, 2017.
Welcome to the University of Calgary. I would like to take this opportunity to acknowledge the traditional territories of the Blackfoot and the people of the Treaty 7 region in Southern Alberta, which includes the Siksika, the Piikuni, the Kainai, the Tsuut'ina, and the Stoney Nakoda First Nations, including Chiniki, Bearspaw, and Wesley First Nation. I would also like to note that the University of Calgary is situated on land adjacent to where the Bow River meets the Elbow River, and that the traditional Blackfoot name of this place is "Mohkinstsis" which we now call the City of Calgary. The City of Calgary is also home to Métis Nation of Alberta, Region III.[permanent dead link]
- "Treaty 7 Territory Acknowledgement". Bow Valley College. November 19, 2017. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017.
We are located in the traditional territories of the Niitsitapi (Blackfoot Confederacy) and the people of the Treaty 7 region in Southern Alberta, which includes the Siksika, the Piikani, the Kainai, the Tsuut'ina and the Iyarhe Nakoda. We are situated on land where the Bow River meets the Elbow River, and the traditional Blackfoot name of this place is 'Mohkinstsis' which we now call the City of Calgary. The City of Calgary is also home to Metis Nation of Alberta, Region 3.
- "Oki (Welcome) to the Iniskim Centre". Mount Royal University. November 19, 2017. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved November 20, 2017.
Mount Royal University is located in the traditional territories of the Niitsitapi (Blackfoot) and the people of the Treaty 7 region in southern Alberta, which includes the Siksika, the Piikuni, the Kainai, the Tsuut'ina and the Iyarhe Nakoda. We are situated on land where the Bow River meets the Elbow River. The traditional Blackfoot name of this place is 'Mohkinstsis', which we now call the city of Calgary. The city of Calgary is also home to the Métis Nation.
- The Canadian Press (November 13, 2017). "What's in a name? For Alberta First Nations seeking heritage recognition, plenty". CBC News. Archived from the original on November 15, 2017. Retrieved November 15, 2017.
- Kaufmann, Bill (November 17, 2017). "Piikani Blackfoot dispute Stoney Nakoda push on name changes for Calgary, other locales". The Calgary Herald. Archived from the original on November 20, 2017. Retrieved November 20, 2017.
- "Archaeology Timeline of Alberta". University of Calgary. Archived from the original on February 12, 2012. Retrieved May 10, 2007.
- WDS, CoC (July 18, 2018). "Naming Reconciliation Bridge - Mayor Nenshi's speech". calgarymayor.ca. Archived from the original on July 23, 2018. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
- "The Glenns". Alberta Tourism Parks, Recreation and Culture. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved August 24, 2007.
- McGinnis 1975, p. 7.
- McGinnis 1975, p. 8.
- MacEwan 1975, p. 10.
- MacEwan 1975, p. 11.
- McGinnis 1975, p. 9.
- McGinnis 1975, p. 10.
- MacEwan 1975, p. 30.
- MacEwan 1975, p. 36.
- Susan Taylor and Nicole Mordant (November 23, 2012). "CP Rail moving headquarters from glass tower in Calgary to nearby rail yard: union source". Financial Post. Postmedia Network Inc. Archived from the original on May 30, 2013. Retrieved June 15, 2013.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- MacEwan 1975, p. 38.
- MacEwan 1966, p. 48.
- MacEwan 1975, p. 39.
- MacEwan 1966, pp. 57-58.
- "North-West Territories: Council and Legislative Assembly, 1876-1905" (PDF). saskarchives.com. Saskatchewan Archives. pp. 1–22. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- Stamp 1975, p. 154.
- Stamp 1975, p. 157.
- The North-West Municipal Ordinance of 1884: Proclamation, The Town of Calgary (1884). The North-West Territories Gazette, pp. 56-57.
- Ordinances of the North-West Territories (1884 ed.). Regina, Canada: Queens Printer. pp. 47–94. Archived from the original on March 19, 2020. Retrieved March 14, 2020.
- "The Contest. Murdoch Elected to the Mayor's Chair". The Calgary Herald (14). December 3, 1884. p. 4. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
- MacEwan 1966, p. 49.
- Ward 1966, p. 274. sfn error: no target: CITEREFWard1966 (help)
- Thorner 1975, p. 102.
- MacEwan 1966, p. 50.
- MacEwan 1966, p. 51.
- MacEwan 1966, p. 52.
- Taylor, Thomas Wardlaw (1886). Precis of the Case of Jeremiah Travis (Late Stipendiary Magistrate at Calgary) As Presented By the Report of Mr. Justice Taylor and the Correspondence and Evidence (PDF). Ottawa, Ontario: Privy Council Office. pp. 5–6.
- "Yesterday's Election". The Calgary Herald (18). January 6, 1886. p. 4. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
- MacEwan 1966, p. 53.
- "Biography – TRAVIS, JEREMIAH – Volume XIV (1911-1920) – Dictionary of Canadian Biography". Biographi.ca. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- Mittelstadt, David (August 2005). Foundations of Justice: Alberta's Historic Courthouses. Calgary, Alberta: University of Calgary Press. pp. 17–19. ISBN 978-1-55238-345-2.
- MacEwan 1975, p. 49.
- "The Elections". The Calgary Herald (43). November 6, 1886. p. 1. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
- Ward 1975, p. 255.
- "The Great Fire of 1886". Archived from the original on August 23, 2013. Retrieved January 26, 2012.
- "The Sandstone City". November 21, 2002. Archived from the original on August 13, 2011. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
- MacEwan 1975, p. 75.
- "Fire! Come at Last". The Calgary Weekly Herald (44). November 13, 1886. p. 3. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- Foran 1975, p. 204.
- Foran 1975, p. 208.
- Foran 1975, p. 205.
- "Table IX: Population of cities, towns and incorporated villages in 1906 and 1901 as classed in 1906". Census of the Northwest Provinces, 1906. Sessional Paper No. 17a. Ottawa: Government of Canada. 1907. p. 100.
- Foran 1975, p. 219.
- Foran 1975, p. 206.
- MacEwan 1975, p. 77.
- MacEwan 1975, p. 66.
- Ward 1975, p. 229.
- MacEwan 1975, p. 67.
- Ward 1975, p. 230.
- Dawson 1975, p. 128.
- Dawson 1975, p. 132.
- Dawson 1975, p. 130.
- Thorner 1975, p. 106.
- Calgary Charter, 1893, c. 33
- Bly, David (October 9, 2001). "City Hall history provides tantalizing tales". Calgary Herald. p. B4.
- "The Municipal Elections". The Calgary Herald (38). January 16, 1894. p. 4. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- "Hudson's Bay Company – Our History". hbc.com. Archived from the original on May 31, 2015. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
- "HBC Heritage – Early Stores". hbcheritage.ca. Archived from the original on September 27, 2015.
- Foran 1975, pp. 205-206.
- MacEwan 1966, p. 41.
- MacEwan 1966, p. 44.
- MacEwan 1975, pp. 44-45.
- MacEwan 1975, pp. 129-130.
- Foran 1975, p. 212.
- Foran 1975, pp. 209-210.
- Foran 1975, p. 213.
- "Table I: Area and Population of Canada by Provinces, Districts and Subdistricts in 1911 and Population in 1901". Census of Canada, 1911. Volume I. Ottawa: Government of Canada. 1912. pp. 2–39.
|volume=has extra text (help)
- Byfield, Ted (1992). The Birth of the province. Edmonton: United Western Communications. p. 156. ISBN 978-0969571810.
- Kalman 1994, p. 530.
- Dixon & Read 2005, p. 29.
- Dudley, Wendy (July 3, 1997), "Guy's Stampede dream", Calgary Herald, p. SS2
- Dixon & Read 2005, p. 30.
- Seskus, Tony (April 30, 2012), "Guy Weadick's grand vision", Calgary Herald, retrieved June 9, 2012
- Foran, Max, ed. (2008), Icon, Brand, Myth: The Calgary Stampede, Athabasca, Alberta: Athabasca University Press, p. 5, ISBN 978-1-897425-05-3
- Dixon & Read 2005, p. 32.
- MacEwan 1975, p. 145.
- MacEwan 1975, p. 146.
- "The 1924 Wonder Well in Turner Valley". Calgary Herald. December 18, 2013. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- Stenson 1994, pp. 42-43.
- "Alberta oil strike attracts Americans". Sarasota Journal. April 27, 1967. p. 28. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
- MacEwan 1975, p. 167.
- Bright 1999, p. 125.
- Bright 1999, p. 130.
- Bright 1999, p. 172.
- Bright 1999, p. 178.
- MacEwan 1975, p. 169.
- MacEwan 1975, p. 165.
- MacEwan 1975, pp. 166-167.
- Reasons 1984, p. 47.
- Reasons 1984, p. 10.
- "Population by specified age groups and sex, for census subdivisions, 1966". Census of Canada, 1966. Population, Specified Age Groups and Sex for Counties and Census Subdivisions, 1966. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 1968. p. 6.50–6.53.
- "Table 2: Census Divisions and Subdivisions – Population and Occupied Private Dwellings, 1981 and 1986". Census Canada 1986. Population and Dwelling Counts – Provinces and Territories (Alberta). Ottawa: Statistics Canada. 1987. p. 2.1–2.10. ISBN 978-0-660-53463-3.
- Reasons 1984, p. 11.
- Kalman 1994, p. 838.
- Guimond, Pierre S.; Sinclair, Brian R. (1984). Calgary Architecture: The Boom Years, 1972-1982. Calgary, Alberta: Detselig Enterprises. ISBN 9780920490396.
- Reasons 1984, pp. 50-52.
- Reasons 1984, p. 43.
- Reasons 1984, p. 19.
- Debra J. Davidson; Mike Gismondi (2011). Challenging Legitimacy at the Precipice of Energy Calamity. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-4614-0287-9. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved February 27, 2016.
- "History of the Atlanta Flames". Sports E-Cyclopedia. Tank Productions. Retrieved November 27, 2006.
- Duhatschek, Eric; et al. (2001). Hockey Chronicles. New York City: Checkmark Books. pp. 40–47. ISBN 0-8160-4697-2.
- Reasons 1984, p. 46.
- "Seoul chosen in easy vote for 1988 Summer Olympics", The Record-Journal (Meriden, CT), p. 17, October 1, 1981, retrieved February 14, 2013
- Cotton, Crosbie (September 30, 1981), "Around the world, CODA has given its best shot", Calgary Herald, p. A19
- Cotton, Crosbie (October 1, 1981), "Delighted delegates dance 'victory stomp'", Calgary Herald, p. A1, retrieved February 14, 2013
- Gerlach, Larry (2004), The Winter Olympics – From Chamonix to Salt Lake City, The University of Utah Press, p. 120, ISBN 0-87480-778-6
- "Building on the Olympic Legacy", Calgary Herald, pp. A15–A16, February 9, 2013
- Swift, E. M. (March 9, 1987), "Countdown to the Cowtown hoedown", Sports Illustrated, retrieved February 14, 2013
- Janofsky, Michael (February 4, 1988), "Winter Olympics: boom or bust", The Age (Melbourne), Green Guide, p. 8, retrieved February 23, 2013
- Burns, John F. (February 22, 1987), "A year to go; Enthusiasm prevails, but concerns remain", The New York Times, retrieved March 3, 2013
- Maychak, Matt (April 13, 1985), "Deja vu for Calgary Olympics?", Windsor Star, p. E3, retrieved March 3, 2013
- OCO'88 (1988), XV Olympic Winter Games: Official Report, XV Olympic Winter Games Organizing Committee, p. 79
- The Conference Board of Canada (2005). "Western cities enjoy fastest growing economies". Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved March 7, 2007.
- Alberta Tourism (2004). "Tourism in Calgary and Area; Summary of Visitor Numbers and Revenue" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 25, 2006. Retrieved January 6, 2006.
- "LIVE: Stampede confirms 101st edition will go ahead". calgaryherald.com. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
- "Alberta flooding claims at least 3 lives". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. June 22, 2013. Archived from the original on June 24, 2013. Retrieved June 21, 2013.
- Government of Alberta. "Alberta Natural Regions". Archived from the original on January 22, 2012. Retrieved April 6, 2012.
- "Calgary International Airport Zoning Regulations". Justice Laws Website. Government of Canada. August 4, 2015. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved August 31, 2015.
- "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2011 and 2006 censuses (Alberta)". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2012. Archived from the original on July 22, 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2012.
- "Statistics Profile" (PDF). Alberta Municipal Affairs. March 24, 2015. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
- Services, Community & Neighbourhood (April 1, 2011). "Community Profiles". calgary.ca. Archived from the original on March 17, 2017. Retrieved March 17, 2017.
- Your Official Road Map of Alberta (Map) (2015 ed.). Travel Alberta. 2015. ISBN 9781460120767.
- "Elbow Valley Area Map" (PDF) (PDF). Rocky View County. May 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
- "Springbank Area Map" (PDF) (PDF). Rocky View County. May 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
- "Bearspaw Area Map" (PDF) (PDF). Rocky View County. May 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
- "Annexation Information". City of Calgary. Archived from the original on September 28, 2009. Retrieved August 28, 2009.
- Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca distribution map Archived September 21, 2011, at the Wayback Machine at Flora of North America
- "Sunday, December 4, 2011 - Got Spruce? Plenty of 'em...Thats Fir Sure". Calgary Herald. December 4, 2011. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
- "Calgary's critters: A hinterland who's who on wildlife in the city". CBC. CBC News. Archived from the original on July 27, 2018. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
- City of Calgary. "Beltline—Area Redevelopment Plan" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 24, 2009. Retrieved September 28, 2007.
- "The City of Calgary: Community%20Profiles". June 15, 2010. Archived from the original on June 15, 2010. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
- Canada, Environment and Climate Change (September 25, 2013). "Canadian Climate Normals 1981-2010 Station Data - Climate - Environment and Climate Change Canada". climate.weather.gc.ca. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
- See Szeto Kit K. (2008) ‘Variability of Cold-Season Temperatures in the Mackenzie Basin’, in: Woo M. (eds) Cold Region Atmospheric and Hydrologic Studies. The Mackenzie GEWEX Experience. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-73936-4_4
- "Plant Hardiness Zone by Municipality". Natural Resources Canada. Government of Canada. Archived from the original on July 1, 2016. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
- "Calgary International Airport". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. September 25, 2013. Archived from the original on May 8, 2014. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
- Ward Cameron. "Learn about the Famous Chinook Winds". mountainnature.com. Archived from the original on February 14, 2014. Retrieved February 28, 2014.
- "Average Annual Wind Speed at Canadian Cities". Archived from the original on March 7, 2017. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- "Canadian Climate Normals 1971–2000 Station Data". Environment Canada. Environment Canada. January 19, 2011. Archived from the original on December 23, 2016. Retrieved January 30, 2016.
- "Hourly Data Report for July 15, 1999". climate.weather.gc.ca. Government of Canada. October 31, 2011. Archived from the original on August 10, 2018. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
06:00 Rain, Snow, Fog
- "Stormiest Canadian Cities - Current Results". currentresults.com. Archived from the original on March 17, 2017. Retrieved March 17, 2017.
- The Atlas of Canada (April 2004). "Major Hailstorms". Archived from the original on February 2, 2007. Retrieved February 14, 2007.
- "Daily Data Report for August 2018". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. October 31, 2011. Archived from the original on August 12, 2018. Retrieved August 12, 2018.
- d.o.o, Yu Media Group. "Calgary, Canada - Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Archived from the original on July 6, 2019. Retrieved July 6, 2019.
- "Springbank A". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. September 25, 2013. Retrieved May 22, 2021.
- "Table I: Population of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta by Districts, Townships, Cities, Towns, and Incorporated Villages in 1916, 1911, 1906, and 1901". Census of Prairie Provinces, 1916. Population and Agriculture. Ottawa: Government of Canada. 1918. pp. 77–140.
- "Table 8: Population by districts and sub-districts according to the Redistribution Act of 1914 and the amending act of 1915, compared for the census years 1921, 1911 and 1901". Census of Canada, 1921. Ottawa: Government of Canada. 1922. pp. 169–215.
- "Table 7: Population of cities, towns and villages for the province of Alberta in census years 1901–26, as classed in 1926". Census of Prairie Provinces, 1926. Census of Alberta, 1926. Ottawa: Government of Canada. 1927. pp. 565–567.
- "Table 12: Population of Canada by provinces, counties or census divisions and subdivisions, 1871–1931". Census of Canada, 1931. Ottawa: Government of Canada. 1932. pp. 98–102.
- "Table 4: Population in incorporated cities, towns and villages, 1901–1936". Census of the Prairie Provinces, 1936. Volume I: Population and Agriculture. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 1938. pp. 833–836.
|volume=has extra text (help)
- "Table 10: Population by census subdivisions, 1871–1941". Eighth Census of Canada, 1941. Volume II: Population by Local Subdivisions. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 1944. pp. 134–141.
|volume=has extra text (help)
- "Table 6: Population by census subdivisions, 1926–1946". Census of the Prairie Provinces, 1946. Volume I: Population. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 1949. pp. 401–414.
|volume=has extra text (help)
- "Table 6: Population by census subdivisions, 1871–1951". Ninth Census of Canada, 1951. Volume I: Population, General Characteristics. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 1953. p. 6.73–6.83.
|volume=has extra text (help)
- "Table 6: Population by sex, for census subdivisions, 1956 and 1951". Census of Canada, 1956. Population, Counties and Subdivisions. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 1957. p. 6.50–6.53.
- "Table 6: Population by census subdivisions, 1901–1961". 1961 Census of Canada. Series 1.1: Historical, 1901–1961. Volume I: Population. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 1963. p. 6.77–6.83.
|volume=has extra text (help)
- "Table 2: Population of Census Subdivisions, 1921–1971". 1971 Census of Canada. Volume I: Population, Census Subdivisions (Historical). Ottawa: Statistics Canada. 1973. p. 2.102–2.111.
|volume=has extra text (help)
- "Table 3: Population for census divisions and subdivisions, 1971 and 1976". 1976 Census of Canada. Census Divisions and Subdivisions, Western Provinces and the Territories. Volume I: Population, Geographic Distributions. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. 1977. p. 3.40–3.43.
|volume=has extra text (help)
- "Table 4: Population and Total Occupied Dwellings, for Census Divisions and Subdivisions, 1976 and 1981". 1981 Census of Canada. Volume II: Provincial series, Population, Geographic distributions (Alberta). Ottawa: Statistics Canada. 1982. p. 4.1–4.10. ISBN 978-0-660-51095-8.
|volume=has extra text (help)
- "Table 2: Population and Dwelling Counts, for Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions, 1986 and 1991 – 100% Data". 91 Census. Population and Dwelling Counts – Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. 1992. pp. 100–108. ISBN 978-0-660-57115-7.
- "Table 10: Population and Dwelling Counts, for Census Divisions, Census Subdivisions (Municipalities) and Designated Places, 1991 and 1996 Censuses – 100% Data". 96 Census. A National Overview – Population and Dwelling Counts. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. 1997. pp. 136–146. ISBN 978-0-660-59283-1.
- "Population and Dwelling Counts, for Canada, Provinces and Territories, and Census Divisions, 2001 and 1996 Censuses – 100% Data (Alberta)". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on August 21, 2013. Retrieved April 1, 2012.
- "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2006 and 2001 censuses – 100% data (Alberta)". Statistics Canada. January 6, 2010. Archived from the original on May 28, 2012. Retrieved April 1, 2012.
- "Civic Census 2018". City of Calgary. March 10, 2011. Archived from the original on October 15, 2018. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
- "2016 Census: Population and Dwelling Counts" (PDF). toronto.ca. February 9, 2017. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
• Toronto's population grew by 116,511 residents between 2011 and 2016
- "Statistics Canada. 2012. Calgary, Alberta (Code 4806016) and Alberta (Code 48) (table). Census Profile. 2011 Census. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-316-XWE. Ottawa. Released October 24, 2012". February 8, 2012. Archived from the original on February 8, 2013. Retrieved January 29, 2013.
- "Population and Dwelling Count Highlight Tables, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2017. Archived from the original on September 23, 2018. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
- "Annual population estimates by census metropolitan area, Canada – Population at July 1". Statistics Canada. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
- "Profit Guide Directory of Municipalities 2015". Profit Guide. Archived from the original on November 17, 2015. Retrieved November 15, 2015.
- "Statistics Canada". Archived from the original on March 31, 2017. Retrieved April 15, 2017.
- "National Household Survey – 2011". Statistics Canada. May 8, 2013. Archived from the original on March 8, 2014. Retrieved March 7, 2014.
- "National Household Survey – Reference products, 2011" (PDF). statcan.ca. May 8, 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 25, 2009. Retrieved January 29, 2013.
- "Calgary Community Profile" Archived January 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Statistics Canada. 2002. 2001 Community Profiles. Released June 27, 2002. Last modified: November 30, 2005. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 93F0053XIE
- "2006 Community Profiles Census Subdivision". Statistics Canada. March 13, 2007. Archived from the original on January 21, 2012. Retrieved January 24, 2012.
- "Calgary's Economic Performance: 1999-2009". City of Calgary. 2010. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
- "Calgary Economy". Calgary Herald. Archived from the original on September 3, 2011. Retrieved August 29, 2011.
- "GDP per capita". Tableaudebordmontreal.com. Archived from the original on November 28, 2010. Retrieved August 29, 2011.
- "Transportation & Logistics". Calgary Regional Partnership. Archived from the original on March 6, 2014. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- Calgary Economic Development (2006). "Real GDP by Industry: Calgary Economic Region, 2006". Archived from the original on July 22, 2011. Retrieved March 12, 2007.
- Alberta First (2007). "Calgary". Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Retrieved March 12, 2007.
- Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "Labour force characteristics, seasonally adjusted, by census metropolitan area (3 month moving average) (Calgary (Alta.), Edmonton (Alta.), Kelowna (B.C.))". Archived from the original on December 6, 2016. Retrieved December 4, 2016.
- Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "Labour force characteristics, seasonally adjusted, by province (monthly) (Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia)". Archived from the original on November 28, 2016. Retrieved December 5, 2016.
- [dead link]
- "Calgary Economic Development 2013 Annual Report" (PDF). calgaryeconomicdevelopment.com. Calgary Economic Development. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 22, 2016. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
- "Top Calgary Employers". Calgary Economic Development. April 2006. Archived from the original on August 21, 2013. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- "Largest Employers 2010 | Western Business Insight". Alberta Venture. September 1, 2010. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved August 29, 2011.
- CBC Article. "EnCana Unveils Plans for Downtown Calgary Office Tower". CBC News. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved January 6, 2006.
- Contact Us Archived February 2, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. WestJet. Retrieved January 26, 2011.
- "Customer Service Archived March 24, 2010, at the Wayback Machine." Enerjet. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- Investor & Financial Information. Canadian Airlines. March 3, 2000. Retrieved May 20, 2009.
- Pigg, Susan. "Zip, WestJet in fare war that could hurt them both; Move follows competition bureau ruling Battle could intensify when Zip flies eastward Archived February 7, 2013, at the Wayback Machine." Toronto Star. January 22, 2003. Business C01. Retrieved September 30, 2009.
- "Administration". canadiannorth.com. Archived from the original on August 23, 2013.
- "Charters". canadiannorth.com. Archived from the original on August 23, 2013. Retrieved January 27, 2012.
- Morgan, Geoffrey (August 12, 2015). "'Ghost vacancies' haunt downtown Calgary as oil patch layoffs empty office buildings". Financial Post. Calgary. Archived from the original on October 2, 2015. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
- "Calgary 2012: Federal Government Cancels Cultural Capital Program - Avenue Calgary - July 2012". Avenue Calgary. July 6, 2012. Archived from the original on April 12, 2016. Retrieved April 28, 2016.
- "Past census results". City of Calgary. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
- "Awards Won by Central Library".
- McGregor, Lisa (January 2, 2015). "Calgary Public Library reinvents itself". Global News. Archived from the original on January 7, 2015. Retrieved January 8, 2015.
- Southern Alberta Jubilee Auditorium. "Auditoria History". Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2007.
- 17 Avenue Business Revitalisation Zone. "Hip to Haute". Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved May 22, 2007.
- "Calgary's Design District". Design Quarterly. Archived from the original on May 26, 2013. Retrieved April 18, 2013.
- Recreation (May 16, 2011). "Public Art Collection". www.calgary.ca. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
- Calgary Marching Bands: Round-Up Band Archived January 1, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Stetson Show Band Archived January 3, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Calgary Stampede Showband Archived December 6, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, World Association for Marching Show Bands Archived December 5, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
- Alberta Ballet Company
- "Grand-Maître: the king of pop ballet". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. August 23, 2012. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved August 22, 2017.
- DeMello, Jessica. "Ballet Review: The Alberta Ballet's Fumbling Towards Ecstacy". Archived from the original on May 6, 2013. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
- Louis, Hobson (October 18, 2018). "Contemporary Art and Dance at Forefront of Fluid Fest". Calgary Herald. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
- Hunt, Stephen. "Decidedly Jazz Danceworks breaks ground on $25 million art space". www.calgaryherald.com. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
- "Feature/Review: Tim Shantz, Spiritus and Luminous Voices bring a special resonance to Calgary's choral scene". calgaryherald.com. April 17, 2014. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
- Jarvie, Michele (January 14, 2020). "Calgary pop choir revving up for first show with new artistic director". calgaryherald.com. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
- Jarvie, Michele (January 13, 2017). "City choir helps boys find their voice for forty-three years". calgaryherald.com. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
- Ferguson, Ava (January 18, 2019). "New name, new direction: ACAD becomes Alberta University of the Arts". calgaryherald.com. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
- "First combined Dance and Kinesiology Degree in Canada". www.cda-acd.ca. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
- "Mount Royal University Conservatory | l'Encyclopédie Canadienne". www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
- Calgary Stampede (2006). "History of the Stampede". Archived from the original on June 13, 2006. Retrieved May 8, 2006.
- "Our History - Calgary Pride - 30 Years of Pride in Calgary". Calgary Pride 2020 Reimagined. Retrieved September 3, 2020.
- Hunt, Stephen. "Kiwanis Music Festival gets a name change". www.calgaryherald.com. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
- "Calgary Spoken Word Festival". calgaryspokenwordfestival.com. Archived from the original on August 31, 2011. Retrieved August 29, 2011.
- "About Us | Festival of Animated Objects". www.puppetfestival.ca. Archived from the original on March 18, 2017. Retrieved March 17, 2017.
- Calgary Kiosk (2006). "Glenbow Museum". Archived from the original on July 2, 2012. Retrieved June 28, 2007.
- "Calgary Chinese Cultural Centre". Where. 2007. Archived from the original on October 6, 2006. Retrieved June 28, 2007.
- "Calgary's Film Industry". Calgary Economic Development. Archived from the original on September 7, 2014. Retrieved September 6, 2014.
- "Paul Rudd was just spotted at this downtown Calgary pub (PHOTOS) | Dished". dailyhive.com. Retrieved January 16, 2020.
- Volmers, Eric. "Find Calgary's buildings while watching the Fargo TV series". www.calgaryherald.com. Retrieved January 16, 2020.
- "Netflix's new 'Black Summer' series was filmed in the Calgary area | Etcetera". dailyhive.com. Retrieved January 16, 2020.
- July 2, Eric Volmers Updated; 2019 (July 2, 2019). "Calgary-based Wynonna Earp overcomes financial woes, shooting to begin on Season 4 | Calgary Herald". Retrieved January 16, 2020.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- "PressReader.com - Your favorite newspapers and magazines". www.pressreader.com. Retrieved January 16, 2020.
- City of Calgary. "Devonian Gardens". Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Retrieved September 25, 2007.
- "Calgary Skyscraper Map - SkyscraperPage.com". skyscraperpage.com. Retrieved September 25, 2020.
- "The Bow". Emporis GMBH. 2012. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
- "Eighth Avenue Place I". Skyscraperpage. Retrieved February 12, 2011.
- "Telus Sky". Bjarke Ingels Group. Retrieved November 15, 2016.
- "Canada's tallest buildings - Top 20". Emporis. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
- Parks (March 7, 2011). "Calgary Parks". calgary.ca. Archived from the original on November 14, 2016. Retrieved November 14, 2016.
- Parks (January 11, 2011). "Nose Hill Park". calgary.ca. Archived from the original on November 14, 2016. Retrieved November 14, 2016.
- Parks (November 15, 2010). "Nose Hill Park Trail and Pathway improvement plan". calgary.ca. Archived from the original on November 14, 2016. Retrieved November 14, 2016.
- Parks (November 3, 2010). "Parks history". calgary.ca. Archived from the original on November 14, 2016. Retrieved November 14, 2016.
- City of Calgary. "Calgary Pathways & Bikeways Map" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on November 11, 2011. Retrieved January 25, 2011.
- "Planning on Rafting Down the Bow River This Summer? Here's How to Stay Safe". Archived from the original on November 21, 2018. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
- "Calgary, Alberta Golf Courses". GolfLink. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
- "Century Downs Racetrack and Casino". Archived from the original on March 26, 2019. Retrieved June 3, 2019.
- "2009 WATERSKI WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS". IWWF. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
- Google (June 10, 2020). "Predatory Bay" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
- Campbell, Dave (July 30, 2019). "Edmonton Eskimos prepare for Round 1 of 2019 Battle of Alberta in Calgary". Global News. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
- Johnson, George (October 14, 2005). "Bile back in Battle of Alberta". ESPN. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
- "Stu Hart". WWE. Archived from the original on October 31, 2011. Retrieved November 2, 2011.
- "Calgary's Politics 1971–1991". University of Calgary. 1997. Archived from the original on June 1, 2007. Retrieved June 28, 2007.
- "Municipal Government Act, R.S.A. 2000" (PDF). alberta.ca. Alberta Queen's Printer. Retrieved March 21, 2020.
- "City of Calgary Charter, 2018 Regulation AR 40/2018" (PDF). alberta.ca. Alberta Queen’s Printer. Retrieved March 21, 2020.
- "Election and Information Services". City of Calgary. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
- "Legislative Assembly of Alberta". www.assembly.ab.ca. Legislative Assembly of Alberta.
- "Two new Liberal MPs in Calgary are the first carrying the red banner in cowtown since 1968". National Post. October 20, 2015. Archived from the original on October 23, 2015. Retrieved October 26, 2015.
- "Election Night Results - Major Centres". enr.elections.ca. Archived from the original on October 21, 2015. Retrieved October 26, 2015.
- "PARLINFO – Parliamentarian File – Federal Experience – EDWARDS, Manley Justin, LL.B." parl.gc.ca. Archived from the original on December 20, 2013.
- "PARLINFO – Parliamentarian File – Complete File – HAYS, The Hon. Harry William, P.C." parl.gc.ca. Archived from the original on April 24, 2016. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- "PARLINFO – Parliamentarian File – Complete File – MAHONEY, The Hon. Patrick Morgan, P.C., Q.C., B.A., LL.B." parl.gc.ca. Archived from the original on April 24, 2016. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- Event results Archived February 4, 2012, at the Wayback Machine from Elections Canada
- Jillian Boyce, Adam Cotter and Samuel Perreault (July 23, 2014). "Police-reported crime statistics in Canada, 2013" (PDF). Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. pp. 13 & 30. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 23, 2015. Retrieved May 3, 2015.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Carsted, Douglas. "103rd Regiment 1910-21". The Calgary Highlanders. Retrieved September 25, 2020.
- "Eco-conscious commuting (page 2) – Canadian Geographic". canadiangeographic.ca. Archived from the original on September 3, 2014.
- "Green Line LRT: Calgary councillors approve alternative Stage 1 route". Global News. Retrieved September 3, 2020.
- "YYC > Media > Facts & Figures > Passenger Statistics". yyc.com. Archived from the original on June 22, 2018. Retrieved February 7, 2020.
- "Getting to Banff". Town of Banff. Archived from the original on March 31, 2010. Retrieved September 22, 2011.
- "Aircraft movement Statistics: NAV CANADA Towers and Flight Service Stations: Annual Report (TP 577): Table 2-1 – Total aircraft movements by class of operation – NAV CANADA towers". statcan.gc.ca. Archived from the original on September 7, 2011. Retrieved January 27, 2012.
- Parks, Calgary. "Pathways and bikeways". www.calgary.ca. Retrieved September 3, 2020.
- "designboom 2012 top ten: public spaces". designboom – architecture & design magazine. December 28, 2012. Archived from the original on January 9, 2014. Retrieved January 9, 2014.
- "Calgary's +15 Skywalk". City of Calgary. 2013. Archived from the original on December 25, 2014. Retrieved November 28, 2013.
The first +15 bridge was installed on January 21, 1970, connecting Calgary Place to the Calgary Inn (now the Westin Hotel). By 1984, Calgary's +15 Skywalk consisted of 38 bridges, 8 km (5 mi) of walkways and numerous public spaces. Today there are more than 62 bridges and 18 km (11 mi) of walkways.
- The City of Calgary (February 2007). "Plus 15". Archived from the original on August 21, 2007. Retrieved September 25, 2007.
- Gibson, John (July 5, 2018). "Work on Calgary ring road's $1B final leg to start in 2019". CBC News. Retrieved July 5, 2018.
- Klaszus, Jeremy (June 7, 2012). "Deerfoot's Revenge". Calgary Herald. Archived from the original on January 2, 2016. Retrieved October 20, 2016.
- "The Odd History of Calgary's City Streets". SmartCalgaryHomes.com. Archived from the original on June 18, 2010. Retrieved June 23, 2009.
- Google (June 10, 2020). "Calgary" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
- "Calgary-Banff Rail". Canada Infrastructure Bank - Banque de l'infrastructure du Canada. Retrieved September 3, 2020.
- Faculty of Medicine of the University of Calgary (2011). "Faculty of Medicine Quick Facts". Archived from the original on June 22, 2014. Retrieved January 26, 2007.
- Calgary Economic Development (2006). "Calgary Hospitals". Archived from the original on February 8, 2009. Retrieved March 13, 2007.
- "Quick Facts". Calgary Board of Education. January 11, 2012. Archived from the original on January 31, 2012. Retrieved March 10, 2012.
- Calgary Catholic District School Board. "Calgary Schools". Archived from the original on January 11, 2006. Retrieved January 7, 2006.
- "National Sport School". nationalsportschool.ca. Archived from the original on February 4, 2012. Retrieved January 27, 2012.
- Calgary Board of Education (2007). "Lord Beaverbrook High School". Archived from the original on April 17, 2007. Retrieved May 10, 2007.
- "U of C fact book—page 8" (PDF). University of Calgary. 2011–2012. Retrieved November 19, 2012.[dead link]
- "Publicly Funded Institutions". Alberta Enterprise and Advanced Education. Archived from the original on December 6, 2012. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
- "UA Locations". Athabasca University. Archived from the original on November 25, 2012. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
- "NAIT Calgary". Northern Alberta Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on December 4, 2012. Retrieved December 3, 2012.
- "Faculty of Management Edmonton Campus". University of Lethbridge. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
- "Television Bureau of Canada: TV Basics 2014–2015" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 10, 2015.
- Calgary Economic Development. "Sister Cities". Archived from the original on July 22, 2011. Retrieved January 6, 2007.
- City of Calgary. "Welcome to Calgary". Archived from the original on June 1, 2008. Retrieved July 4, 2009.
- "Phoenix Sister Cities". Phoenix Sister Cities. Archived from the original on July 24, 2013. Retrieved August 6, 2013.
- "NYC's Partner Cities". Government of New York City. Archived from the original on February 1, 2013. Retrieved March 14, 2013.
- "New York City Global Partners". Government of New York City. Archived from the original on March 9, 2013. Retrieved March 14, 2013.
- Bright, David (1999). The Limits of Labour: Class Formation and the Labour Movement in Calgary, 1883-1929. Vancouver, British Columbia: UBC Press. ISBN 9780774852364. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- Dixon, Joan; Read, Tracey (2005), Celebrating the Calgary Exhibition and Stampede, Canmore, Alberta: Altitude Publishing Canada Ltd., ISBN 1-55153-939-X
- Kalman, Harold (1994). A History of Canadian Architecture. 2. Toronto: Oxford University Press. p. 530. ISBN 9780195406962. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- Reasons, Charles E., ed. (1984). Stampede City: Power and Politics in the West. Toronto: Between the Lines. ISBN 0919946461. OL 2580912M.
- Rasporich, Anthony W.; Klassen, Henry C., eds. (1975). Frontier Calgary: Town, City, and Region 1875-1914. Calgary, Alberta: McClelland and Stewart West. ISBN 0771210175. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- McGinnis, J.P. Dickin (1975). "Building in Calgary 1875-1914". In Rasporich, Anthony W.; Klassen, Henry C. (eds.). Frontier Calgary: Town, City, and Region 1875-1914. Calgary, Alberta: McClelland and Stewart West. ISBN 0771210175. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- Thorner, T. (1975). "Crime and Criminal Justice in Calgary". In Rasporich, Anthony W.; Klassen, Henry C. (eds.). Frontier Calgary: Town, City, and Region 1875-1914. Calgary, Alberta: McClelland and Stewart West. ISBN 0771210175. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- Dawson, J. Brian (1975). "The Chinese Experience in Frontier Calgary: 1885-1910". In Rasporich, Anthony W.; Klassen, Henry C. (eds.). Frontier Calgary: Town, City, and Region 1875-1914. Calgary, Alberta: McClelland and Stewart West. ISBN 0771210175. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- Stamp, Robert M. (1975). "The Bureaucratization of Public Education in Calgary". In Rasporich, Anthony W.; Klassen, Henry C. (eds.). Frontier Calgary: Town, City, and Region 1875-1914. Calgary, Alberta: McClelland and Stewart West. ISBN 0771210175. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- Foran, Max (1975). "Land Speculation and Urban Development: Calgary 1884-1912". In Rasporich, Anthony W.; Klassen, Henry C. (eds.). Frontier Calgary: Town, City, and Region 1875-1914. Calgary, Alberta: McClelland and Stewart West. ISBN 0771210175. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- MacEwan, Grant (1975). Calgary Cavalcade from Fort to Fortune. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan: Western Producer Book Service. ISBN 0919306500. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- MacEwan, Grant (1966). Poking into Politics. Edmonton, Alberta: The Institute of Applied Art, Ltd. OCLC 14408511. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- Stenson, Fred (1994), The Story of Calgary, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan: Fifth House Ltd., ISBN 1-895618-36-3, retrieved November 20, 2020
- Ward, Tom (1975). Cowtown: An Album of Early Calgary. Calgary, Alberta: City of Calgary Electric System & McClelland and Stewart West Limited. ISBN 0771210124. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- Janz, Darrel (2001). Calgary – Heart of the New West. Memphis, Tennessee: Towery Pub. ISBN 978-1-881096-93-1.
- Kozub, Mark; Kozub, Janice (2001). A Calgary Album: Glimpses of the Way We Were. Dundurn Press. ISBN 978-0-88882-224-6. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
- Martin, James (2002). Calgary – The Unknown City (revised ed.). Arsenal Pulp Press. ISBN 978-1-55152-111-4. OL 3746623M. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
- McMorran, Jennifer; Brodeur, François (1999). Calgary. Éditions Ulysse. ISBN 978-2-89464-171-2. Retrieved April 6, 2011.