Brandon Bruce Lee
February 1, 1965
Oakland, California, U.S.
|Died||March 31, 1993 (aged 28)|
|Burial place||Lake View Cemetery, Seattle, Washington, U.S.|
|Occupation||Actor, martial artist, fight choreographer|
|Partner(s)||Eliza Hutton (1990–1993)|
|Family||Shannon Lee (sister)|
Brandon Bruce Lee (February 1, 1965 – March 31, 1993) was an American actor, fight choreographer and martial artist. Establishing himself as a rising action star in the early 1990s, he landed his breakthrough role as Eric Draven in the dark fantasy film The Crow (1994). Lee's career, however, would be cut short by his death during The Crow's production. The only son of film star and martial artist Bruce Lee (1940-1973) who died when he was eight years old. Lee trained martial arts and studied acting at Emerson College and the Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute.
He followed his father's career path with leading appearances in the Hong Kong action film Legacy of Rage (1986) and the straight-to-video Laser Mission (1989). Lee also appeared in two spin-offs of the 1970s series Kung Fu, the television film Kung Fu: The Movie (1986) and the pilot Kung Fu: The Next Generation (1987). Transitioning to Hollywood productions, Lee first starred in the Warner Bros buddy cop film Showdown in Little Tokyo (1991), co-starring Dolph Lundgren. While it did not do well with audiences and critics upon its release, it later became a cult film. This was followed by a leading role in Rapid Fire (1992) produced by 20th Century Fox. Though the film was not well-received, critics praised Lee's onscreen presence.
After being cast to headline The Crow, Lee had filmed nearly all of his scenes when he was fatally wounded on set by a prop gun. Lee posthumously received praise for his performance, while the film became a critical and commercial success. His career has drawn parallels with his father, having both died young prior to the release of their breakthrough film.
Brandon was born on February 1, 1965, at East Oakland Hospital in Oakland, California, the son of martial artist and actor Bruce Lee (1940 – 1973) and Linda Lee Cadwell (née Emery). From a young age, Lee learned martial arts from his father, who was a well known practitioner and a martial arts movie star. Lee said the family lived between Hong Kong and the United States, due to his father's career. While visiting his sets Brandon became interested in acting. Lee's father died suddenly in 1973, with a legacy making him an icon of martial arts and cinema.
Afterwards, Lee's family moved back to California. Lee started studying with Dan Inosanto, one of his father's students, when he was 9. Later in his youth, Lee also trained with Richard Bustillo and Jeff Imada. Imada said that when Lee was in his teens, he was struggling with his identity, and having to train in dojos which included large photos of his father troubled him. According to Imada, this led Lee to leave martial arts in favor of soccer. Both would reconnect later in their film career, with Imada working as stunt and fight coordinator in several of Lee's upcoming films. Meanwhile, Lee was a rebellious high school student. In 1983, four months prior his graduation, Lee was asked to leave the Chadwick School for misbehavior. That year Lee received his GED from Miraleste High School.
Lee pursued his studies in New York City, where he took acting lessons at the Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute. Lee went on to Emerson College in Boston, Massachusetts, where he majored in theater. During this time, Lee said he appeared in several stage productions. He was part of the Eric Morris American New Theatre, with them he acted in John Lee Hancock's play Full Fed Beast.
1985 to 1990: Early roles
Lee returned to Los Angeles in 1985 and worked as a script reader. During this period, he was approached by casting director Lynn Stalmaster and successfully auditioned for his first credited acting role in Kung Fu: The Movie. It was a feature-length television movie that was a follow-up to the 1970s television series Kung Fu, with David Carradine returning as the lead. On set Lee reconnected with his former instructor Jeff Imada who worked in the stunt department. Imada said Lee had to be talked into accepting the role, since the martial arts nature of the film it had no appeal to Lee who avoided any connection with his father's type of film. In the film, the character of Kwai Chang Caine (Carradine) has a conflict with his illegitimate son (Lee). Kung Fu: The Movie first aired on ABC on February 1, 1986. Lee said that he felt there was some justice in being cast for this role in his first feature, since the TV show's pilot had been conceived for his father.
That year saw the release of Ronny Yu's Hong Kong action crime thriller Legacy of Rage. It's Lee's first leading film role. Yu said that Lee and him did not get along during shooting. In the film, Lee plays a young man blamed for a crime he did not commit. It was the only film Lee made in Hong Kong, and in Cantonese. Lee was nominated for a Hong Kong Film Award for Best New Performer in this role. In July of the following year, it was reported that it was a critical success at the Cannes Film Festival, and a commercial success in Japan.
In 1987, Lee starred in another spin-off of Kung Fu, the unsold television pilot Kung Fu: The Next Generation. On the 19th of June, it aired on CBS Summer Playhouse, a program that specialized in rejected pilots and allowed the audience to call in to vote for a show to be picked up as a series. The story centers on the grandson and the great-grandson (Lee) of the main character from the original serie. The pilot was poorly received and not picked up as a series.
In 1988, Lee played a role in "What's In a Name", an episode of the American television series Ohara, starring Pat Morita, In the episode, Lee as the son of a yakuza plays the main villain. Imada who worked as stunt coordinator, said that Lee was recommended not to do the role due to the nature of the character. However, seeing a chance to expand his acting range Lee took the role.
In 1990, Laser Mission was released. In the shot in Namibia action film, Lee stars as mercenary on a mission. Distributed by Turner Home Entertainment, it was a commercial success on home video. The film is generally panned by critics with a few finding it to be an amusing action B movie.
In the 1980s, Lee started to train again with Dan Inosanto. Inosanto said that Lee would bring a camera to the training facilities to see which technique looked good on screen. Margaret Loesch, Marvel's CEO from 1984 to 1990, had a meeting with Lee and his mother through comic book writer Stan Lee (no relation). Stan Lee felt that Brandon would be ideal in the role of super-hero Shang-Chi in a film or television adaptation.
1991–1993: Hollywood breakthrough
In April 1991, Lee was in Universal Pictures' list of contenders to play his father in the biopic Dragon: The Bruce Lee Story (1993). He turned the role down, finding it awkward to play his father, and too strange to approach the romance between his parents. The role went to Jason Scott Lee (no relation), who said at first he felt intimidated by his role portraying Bruce Lee but he overcame his fear after speaking to Brandon. According to Jason, Brandon told him the following in regards to playing the role of Bruce: "He said I wouldn't survive in this part if I treated his father like a god. He said his father was, after all, a man who had a profound destiny, but he was not a god. He was a man who had a temper, a lot of anger, who found mediocrity offensive. Sometimes he was rather merciless." Director Rob Cohen said he spent hours talking to Brandon during preparations. On August 23, Mark L. Lester's Showdown in Little Tokyo premiered, which Warner Bros. produced and distributed. Lee starred opposite Dolph Lundgren in the buddy cop action film. Lee secured his role on October 13, 1990, to make his American feature. It was meant to start shooting after his casting but was delayed until the following January. In the film, Lee and Lundgren play cops who are partnered to investigate yakuzas. In the US, the domestic gross was $2,275,557. The movie faced largely negative reviews; retrospectively, however, some critics find it entertaining for its genre.
On August 22, 1992, premiered 20th Century Fox' Rapid Fire, directed by Dwight H. Little, with Lee as the lead. Lee plays a student named Jake Lo who witnesses a murder and is put in a witness protection programme. The film came about when producer Robert Lawrence started working with Lee, who noticed his potential to be an action leading man in Hollywood after screening Lee's earlier project Legacy of Rage. Lee was involved with the story development, and connected with the plot point where his character loses his father. Jeff Imada who was the stunt coordinator witnessed Lee bringing of book of work by his father to emotionally prepare himself in the scene where the character loses his dad. Imada said that in preparation Lee bulked up. Lee and Imada are credited for the fight choreography, the fighting style contain elements of Lee father's Jeet Kune Do. Lee said that while being typecast was allowed to add his own little touches of humor to script. On playing the character of Jake Lo, Lee said "I always saw that character as not being gung-ho to get himself involved in those situations. I wanted to keep that throughout the film, that sarcastic edge. So he's not just becoming Joe Action Hero." In the US, the film is debuted at No.3 at the box office, making $4,815,850. After its 19 weeks run in cinemas, it made a total of $14,356,479. Most critics did not like the film, but many of them found Lee charismatic. A minority of critics found Rapid Fire to be slick, well acted, and a serviceable action film. Also that year, it was reported that Lee signed a three-picture deal with 20th Century Fox and a multi-picture deal with Carolco Pictures. That year, according to John Lee Hancock, Lee read the first draft of The Little Things (2021).
In the fall, while doing publicity for Rapid Fire, Lee landed the lead role in the Alex Proyas' The Crow, an adaptation of a comic book by the same name. It tells the story of Eric Draven (Lee), a rock musician raised from the dead by a supernatural crow to avenge his own death as well as the rape and murder of his fiancée by a dangerous gang in his city. According to producer Jeff Most, Lee had good insight on the character, that he liked the lyrical lines within the script, but didn't want the dialogue to spread aimlessly. Hence Lee focused on the brevity and the rhythm to be make the character threatening. In preparation for the fight sequence, Most described that director Proyas and Lee studied Martial arts movies. Also according to Most, Lee pushed on not adding more metaphysical characters in the film. Costumer Roberta Bile said that Lee modeled Draven after singer Chris Robinson. Lee convinced the team to hire Jeff Imada who became the stunt coordinator, both took care of the fight choreography. Imada and Lee agreed that the character of Eric Draven shouldn't do conventional martial arts moves and be something unique, since he is a character that didn't have any formal martial arts training, but supernatural abilities upon resurrection. Hence, they added aerobics to Draven's fighting style. Both Imada and Most said Lee was delighted to incorporate his martial arts to the design of the character, without it being part of the story. Imada said that in order to look like a rocker and not an action hero that weeks before shooting Lee went on a strict diet to removed a lot of bulk, and that he would even weight the food he was eating. Imada observed Lee focusing on cardiovascular with a stairmaster, did repetitions on lighter weights to elongate and stretch his muscles, as well as aerobics lost lose body fat rapidly. During pre-production Imada said that is order to get into his character resurrecting for the death Lee bought bags of ice in which he would submerged himself, because Lee thought that the feeling of resurrecting must be freezing cold. The resurrection scene was shot the first night of production, during the cold of winter, Imada was surprised that Lee requested the bags of ice due to the weather, also was already barefoot and bare-naked. Key hairstylist, Michelle Johnson, said that in rain scenes Lee would soak himself prior to filming the scenes, where he would act without a shirt in cold weather. Lee left the film crew impressed with his performance.
1993 to present day: Posthumous success
After Lee's death in 1993, his fiancée Eliza Hutton and his mother supported director Proyas' decision to complete The Crow. At the time of Lee's death, only eight days were left before completion of the movie. A majority of the film had already been completed with Lee, and he was only required to shoot scenes for three more days. To complete the film, stunt double Chad Stahelski and Jeff Cadiente served as a stand-in; special effects were used to give him Lee's face. Lee's on-set death paved the way for resurrecting actors to complete or have new performances, since pioneering CGI techniques were used to complete The Crow. A month after, it was reported that Lee's previous films Laser Mission, Showdown in Little Tokyo, and Rapid Fire saw a surge in video sales. On April 28, Dragon: The Bruce Lee Story premiered at the Mann’s Chinese Theatre in Hollywood. The film is dedicated to Brandon with the quote: “The key to immortality is first living a life worth remembering.” The event was considered a celebration of both Brandon and his father Bruce. Brandon's mother Linda and sister Shannon attended the premiere. Linda found the film to be excellent and a great tribute for her whole family.
In 1994, The Crow opened at number one in the United States in 1,573 theaters grossing $11.7 million, averaging $7,485 per theater. The film ultimately grossed $50.7 million, above its $23 million budget, 24th among all films released in the U.S. that year and 10th among R-rated films released that year. It was the most successful film of Lee's career, and is considered a cult classic. The film is dedicated to him and his fiancée Eliza Hutton. The Crow has an approval rating of 82 percent on Rotten Tomatoes based on 55 reviews; critical consensus there is: "Filled with style and dark, lurid energy, The Crow is an action-packed visual feast that also has a soul in the performance of the late Brandon Lee." The Crow has a score of 71 out of 100 on Metacritic based on 14 critics, indicating "Generally favorable reviews". Reviewers praised the action and visual style. Rolling Stone called it a "dazzling fever dream of a movie"; Caryn James, writing for The New York Times, called it "a genre film of a high order, stylish and smooth"; Roger Ebert called it "a stunning work of visual style". The Los Angeles Times also praised the film. Lee's death was alleged to have a melancholic effect on viewers; Desson Howe of The Washington Post wrote that Lee "haunts every frame" and James Berardinelli called the film "a case of 'art imitating death', and that specter will always hang over The Crow". Jessica Seigel of the Chicago Tribune found that Lee never quite left the shadow of his father and that The Crow did not live up to Lee's full unexploited potential. Amber McKee of The Park Record thinks the film is a very good film and successful but an eerie conclusion to Lee's career, since he wanted to escape the action genre and move on to dramatic roles. Berardinelli called it an appropriate epitaph to Lee, Howe called it an appropriate sendoff, and Ebert stated that not only was this Lee's best film, but it was better than any of his father's.The Crow retained a loyal following many years after its release. Due to the source material, and Lee's fate it is often described as a goth cult film.
On March 31, 1993, Lee was filming a scene in The Crow where his character is shot and killed by thugs. In the scene, Lee's character walks into his apartment and discovers his fiancée being beaten and raped. Actor Michael Massee's character fires a Smith & Wesson Model 629 .44 Magnum revolver at Lee as he walks into the room.
In the scene preceding the fatal scene, the gun was loaded with improperly-made dummy rounds, cartridges from which the special-effects crew had removed the powder charges, so in close-ups the revolver would show normal-looking bullets. However, the crew neglected to remove the primers from the cartridges. At some point before the fatal event, one of the rounds had been fired; although there was no powder charge, the energy from the fired primer was enough to push the bullet into the gun barrel. For the fatal scene, which called for the revolver to be fired at Lee from a distance of 3.6–4.5 meters (12–15 ft), the dummy cartridges were replaced with blank rounds, which contained a powder charge and primer, but no bullet, allowing the gun to be fired without the risk of an actual projectile. When the blank round was fired, the bullet lodged in the barrel was propelled forward with almost the same force as if the round were live, and it struck Lee in the abdomen.
After Massee pulled the trigger, Lee was supposed to fall forward instead of backward. When the director said "cut", Lee did not stand up and the crew thought he was either still acting or kidding around. Jeff Imada, who immediately checked Lee, noticed something wrong when he came close and noted Lee was unconscious and breathing heavily. Medic Clyde Baisey went over and shook Lee to see if he was dazed by hitting his head during the fall, but did not think Lee had been shot since there was no bleeding. Baisey took Lee's pulse, which was regular, but within two to three minutes it slowed down dramatically, and stopped.
Lee was rushed to the New Hanover Regional Medical Center in Wilmington, North Carolina. Attempts to save him were unsuccessful and after six hours of surgery, Lee was pronounced dead on March 31, 1993 at 1:03 pm. He was 28 years old. The shooting was ruled an accident due to negligence. Lee's death led to the re-emergence of conspiracy theories surrounding his father's similarly early death. Lee was buried next to his father at the Lake View Cemetery in Seattle, Washington. A private funeral attended by 50 took place in Seattle on April 3. The following day, 200 of Lee's family and business associates attended a memorial service at actress Polly Bergen's house in Los Angeles. Among the attendees were Kiefer Sutherland, Lou Diamond Phillips, David Hasselhoff, Steven Seagal, David Carradine, and Melissa Etheridge.
Because we don't know when we will die, we get to think of life as an inexhaustible well. And yet everything happens only a certain number of times, and a very small number really. How many more times will you remember a certain afternoon of your childhood, an afternoon that is so deeply a part of your being that you can't even conceive of your life without it? Perhaps four, or five times more? Perhaps not even that. How many more times will you watch the full moon rise? Perhaps twenty. And yet it all seems limitless...
Martial arts and philosophy
Lee was trained from a young age by his father Bruce in martial arts. During this time, martial artist Bob Wall, a friend and collaborator of Bruce, observed that Lee hit with power and had good footwork. At age eight, after his father's death, Bruce's disciple Dan Inosanto trained Lee. According to Jeff Imada who at the time was helping with children's classes at Inosanto's Kali Institute, the fact that he was the son of one of its founders was kept quiet; Lee had difficulty focusing due to seeing his father's photos taking so much space in his studio. Imada said Lee stopped training in his mid-teens to play soccer. Richard Bustillo also trained Lee during his teens and said that Lee worked hard and was always respectful. Lee said that with his training Arnis with Inosanto he specialized in both Kali and Escrima and lasted three to four years.
In 1986, Lee said that he was training in Yee Chuan Tao, a relaxation-based martial art, with a trainer named Mike Vendrell. Lee said that it consisted of exercises such as slow sparring, Chi sao practice; they also worked on a wooden dummy, as well as Vendrell swinging a staff at him while he would duck or jump over. He said later that the exercise helped him be less tense.
Also in the 1980s, Lee returned to Dan Inosanto's Academy. Lee said he did a few amateur fights but did not seek to compete in tournaments. He would bring a camera to Inosanto's studio, both would choreograph fights for Lee's films and would allow him to see how various moves played out on screen. During this time, Lee also trained in weapon-based martial arts such as Eskrima and Silat. In 1991, Lee was certified by the Thai Boxing Association. While his main goal was dramatic acting, credited the skill to have helped him to get roles that require it.
During the filming of The Crow, Lee said he did cardiovascular exercises to the point of exhaustion using a jump rope, running, riding a LifeCycle, or using a StairMaster, after which he would train at Inosanto's academy where he took Muay Thai classes.
According to Lee's mother, years prior to his death Lee became consumed with his father's written philosophy, taking lengthy notes. When asked which martial arts he practiced, he responded:
When people ask me that question, I usually say that my father created the art of Jeet Kune Do and I have been trained in that. However, that's a little too simple to say because Jeet Kune Do was my father's very personal expression of the martial arts. So I always feel a little bit silly saying I practice Jeet Kune Do, although I certainly have been trained in it. It would be more accurate to say that I practice my own interpretation of Jeet Kune Do, just as everyone who practices Jeet Kune Do does.
Well, I would say this: when you move down the road towards mastery of the martial arts—and you know, you are constantly moving down that road—you end up coming up against these barriers inside yourself that will attempt to stop you from continuing to pursue the mastery of the martial arts. And these barriers are such things as when you come up against your own limitations, when you come up against the limitations of your will, your ability, your natural ability, your courage, how you deal with success—and failure as well, for that matter. And as you overcome each one of these barriers, you end up learning something about yourself. And sometimes, the things you learn about yourself can, to the individual, seem to convey a certain spiritual sense along with them.
...It's funny, every time you come up against a true barrier to your progress, you are a child again. And it's a very interesting experience to be reduced, once again, to the level of knowing nothing about what you're doing. I think there's a lot of room for learning and growth when that happens—if you face it head-on and don't choose to say, "Ah, screw that! I'm going to do something else!"
We reduce ourselves at a certain point in our lives to kind of solely pursuing things that we already know how to do. You know, because you don't want to have that experience of not knowing what you're doing and being an amateur again. And I think that's rather unfortunate. It's so much more interesting and usually illuminating to put yourself in a situation where you don't know what's going to happen, than to do something again that you already know essentially what the outcome will be within three or four points either way.
Lee's paternal great grandfather was Ho Kom-tong, a Chinese philanthropist of Dutch-Jewish descent who was son of Charles Henry Maurice Bosman (1839–1892). Lee's mother, Linda Emery, has Swedish and German roots. Lee’s father has been said to have “proudly told everyone” about his newborn son Brandon’s diverse features, describing him as perhaps the only Chinese person with blond hair and grey eyes. He is the brother of Shannon Lee.
According to Chuck Norris, a friend and collaborator of Lee's father, his son, Eric Norris, and Lee were childhood friends. John Lee Hancock said he had a friendship with Lee who would read all of his scripts. Lee was a friend of Chad Stahelski, his double after his death during The Crow. The two trained together at the Inosanto Martial Arts Academy.
In 1990, Lee met Eliza Hutton at director Renny Harlin's office, where she was working as his personal assistant. Lee and Hutton moved in together in early 1991 and became engaged in October 1992. They planned to get married in Ensenada, Mexico, on April 17, 1993, a week after Lee was to complete filming on The Crow.
|1986||Legacy of Rage||Brandon Ma||Alternative title: Long Zai Jiang Hu, Dragon Blood.|
|1989||Laser Mission||Michael Gold||Alternative titles: Mercenary Man, Soldier of Fortune.|
|1991||Showdown in Little Tokyo||Johnny Murata|
|1992||Rapid Fire||Jake Lo|
|1994||The Crow||Eric Draven||Shot and killed as a result of negligence during filming. Special effects and a stand-in were used to complete Lee's remaining scenes. Released posthumously.|
|2002||Sex, Lögner och Videovåld||Cameo||Alternative titles: Sex, Lies, & Video Violence. Swedish film released posthumously.|
|1986||Kung Fu: The Movie||Chung Wang||Television film|
|1987||Kung Fu: The Next Generation||Johnny Caine||Television Pilot. Aired on CBS Summer Playhouse|
|1988||Ohara||Kenji||Episode: What's in a Name|
Awards and nominations
|6th Hong Kong Film Awards||Best New Performer||Legacy of Rage (1986)||Nominated|
|1995 Fangoria Chainsaw Awards||Best Actor||The Crow (1994)||Won|
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