Subah of Bengal
A German map from 1740 showing North India and Central Asia, including Mughal Bengal on the eastern flank.
|Status||Subah of the Mughal Empire|
|Governor later Nawab|
|Historical era||Early modern period|
|Today part of|
The Bengal Subah, also referred to as Mughal Bengal (Bengali: মোগল বাংলা), was the largest subdivision of the Mughal Empire encompassing much of the Bengal region, which includes modern Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, between the 16th and 18th centuries. The state was established following the dissolution of the Bengal Sultanate, a major trading nation in the world, when the region was absorbed into one of the gunpowder empires. Bengal was the wealthiest region in the Indian subcontinent, and its proto-industrial economy showed signs of driving an Industrial revolution.
Bengal Subah has been variously described the "Paradise of Nations" and the "Golden Age of Bengal", due to its inhabitants's living standards and real wages, which were among the highest in the world. It alone accounted for 40% of Dutch imports from Asia. The eastern part of Bengal was globally prominent in industries such as textile manufacturing and shipbuilding, and it was a major exporter of silk and cotton textiles, steel, saltpeter, and agricultural and industrial produce in the world. The region was also the basis of the Anglo-Mughal War.
By the 18th century, Mughal Bengal emerged as a quasi-independent state, under the Nawabs of Bengal, and already observing the proto-industrialization, it made direct significant contribution to the first Industrial Revolution (substantially textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution), but led to its deindustrialization, after being conquered by the British East India Company at the Battle of Plassey in 1757. The Subah was later established as the Bengal Presidency.
The Mughal absorption of Bengal began during the reign of the first Mughal emperor Babur. In 1529, Babur defeated Sultan Nasiruddin Nasrat Shah of the Bengal Sultanate during the Battle of Ghaghra. Babur later annexed parts of Bengal. His son and successor Humayun occupied the Bengali capital Gaur, where he stayed for six months. Humayun was later forced to seek in refuge in Persia because of Sher Shah Suri's conquests. Sher Shah Suri briefly interrupted the reigns of the both the Mughals and Bengal Sultans.
After the defeat of expansionist Bengal Sultan Daud Khan Karrani at the Battle of Rajmahal in 1576, Mughal Emperor Akbar the Great announced the creation of Bengal as one of the original twelve Subahs (top-level provinces), bordering Bihar and Orissa subahs, as well as Burma.
Bengal's physical features gave it such a fertile soil, and a favourable climate that it became a terminus of a continent-wide process of Turko-Mongol conquest and migration, informs Prof. Richard Eaton. The Mughal conquest of Bengal began with the decisive victory of Akbar's army over the independent Afghan ruler of the province Daud Karrani, at Tukaroi (near Danton, Midnapore district) on 3 March 1575. It took many years to overcome the resistance of ambitious and local chiefs. By a royal decree of 24 November 1586 Akbar introduced uniform subah administration throughout the empire. However, in Tapan Raychaudhuri's view the consolidation of Mughal power in Bengal and the pacification of the province really began in 1594.
Most prominent local chiefs or landlords being the 'Bara Bhuiyas' or Baro-Bhuyans (twelve bhuiyas). Many of the chiefs subjugated by the Mughals, some of the Bara Bhuiyas in particular, were Hindu or Pathan upstarts who grabbed territories during the transition from Afghan to Mughal rule, but a few such as the Rajas of Bishnupur, Susang, and Chandradwip; were older Hindu princes who had ruled independently from time immemorial. By the 17th century, the Mughals subdued opposition from the Baro-Bhuyans landlords, notably Isa Khan. Bengal was integrated into a powerful and prosperous empire; and shaped by imperial policies of pluralistic government. The Mughals built a new imperial metropolis in Dhaka from 1610, with well-developed fortifications, gardens, tombs, palaces and mosques. It served as the Mughal capital of Bengal for 75 years. The city was renamed in honour of Emperor Jahangir. Dhaka emerged as the commercial capital of the Mughal Empire, given that it was the centre for the empire's largest exports: cotton muslin textiles.
The Mughal conquest of Chittagong in 1666 defeated the (Burmese) Kingdom of Arakan and reestablished Bengali control of the port city, which was renamed as Islamabad. The Chittagong Hill Tracts frontier region was made a tributary state of Mughal Bengal and a treaty was signed with the Chakma Circle in 1713.
Between 1576 and 1717, Bengal was ruled by a Mughal Subedar (imperial governor). Members of the imperial family were often appointed to the position. Viceroy Prince Shah Shuja was the son of Emperor Shah Jahan. During the struggle for succession with his brothers Prince Aurangazeb, Prince Dara Shikoh and Prince Murad Baksh, Prince Shuja proclaimed himself as the Mughal Emperor in Bengal. He was eventually defeated by the armies of Aurangazeb. Shuja fled to the Kingdom of Arakan, where he and his family were killed on the orders of the King at Mrauk U. Shaista Khan was an influential viceroy during the reign of Aurangazeb. He consolidated Mughal control of eastern Bengal. Prince Muhammad Azam Shah, who served as one of Bengal's viceroys, was installed on the Mughal throne for four months in 1707. Viceroy Ibrahim Khan II gave permits to English and French traders for commercial activities in Bengal. The last viceroy Prince Azim-us-Shan gave permits for the establishment of the British East India Company's Fort William in Calcutta, the French East India Company's Fort Orleans in Chandernagore and the Dutch East India Company's fort in Chinsura. During Azim-us-Shan's tenure, his prime minister Murshid Quli Khan emerged as a powerful figure in Bengal. Khan gained control of imperial finances. Azim-us-Shan was transferred to Bihar. In 1717, the Mughal Court upgraded the prime minister's position to the hereditary Nawab of Bengal. Khan founded a new capital in Murshidabad. His descendants formed the Nasiri dynasty. Alivardi Khan founded a new dynasty in 1740. The Nawabs ruled over a territory which included Bengal proper, Bihar and Orissa.
Nawabs of Bengal
The authority of the Mughal Court rapidly disintegrated in the 18th century, following the rise of the Maratha Empire in India and foreign invasions by Nader Shah of Persia and Ahmad Shah Abdali of Afghanistan. In Bengal, the system saw most wealth hoarded by the elites, with low wages for manual labour.
The resurgent Hindu Maratha Empire launched brutal raids against the prosperous Bengali state in the 18th century, which further added to the decline of the Nawabs of Bengal. A decade of ruthless Maratha invasions of Bengal from the 1740s to early 1750s forced the Nawab of Bengal to pay Rs. 1.2 million of tribute annually as the Chauth of Bengal and Bihar to the Marathas, and the Marathas agreed not to invade Bengal again.[full citation needed] The expeditions, led by Raghuji Bhonsle of Nagpur, also established the De facto Maratha control over Orissa, which was formally incorporated in the Maratha Dominion in 1752. The Nawab of Bengal also paid Rs. 3.2 million to the Marathas, towards the arrears of chauth for the preceding years. The chauth was paid annually by the Nawab of Bengal to the Marathas up to 1758, until the British occupation of Bengal.
During their occupation of Bihar and western Bengal up to the Hooghly River, the Maratha invaders, called "Bargi" in Bengali, perpetrated atrocities against the local population. The Marathas are estimated to have killed about 400,000 people. This devastated Bengal's economy, as many of the people killed in the Maratha raids included merchants, textile weavers, silk winders, and mulberry cultivators. The Cossimbazar factory reported in 1742, for example, that the Marathas burnt down many of the houses where silk piece goods were made, along with weavers' looms.
By the late-18th century, the British East India Company emerged as the foremost military power in the region, defeating the French-allied Siraj-ud-Daulah at the Battle of Plassey in 1757, that was largely brought about by the betrayal of the Nawab's once trusted general Mir Jafar. The company gained administrative control over the Nawab's dominions, including Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. It gained the right to collect taxes on behalf of the Mughal Court after the Battle of Buxar in 1765. Bengal, Bihar and Orissa were made part of the Bengal Presidency and annexed into the British colonial empire in 1793. The Indian mutiny of 1857 formally ended the authority of the Mughal court, when the British Raj replaced Company rule in India.
Other European powers also carved out small colonies on the territory of Mughal Bengal, including the Dutch East India Company's Dutch Bengal settlements, the French colonial settlement in Chandernagore, the Danish colonial settlement in Serampore and the Habsburg Monarchy Ostend Company settlement in Bankipur.
According to João de Barros, Bengal enjoyed military supremacy over Arakan and Tripura due to good artillery. Its forces possessed notable large cannons. It was also a major exporter of gunpowder and saltpeter to Europe. The Mughal Army built fortifications across the region, including Idrakpur Fort, Sonakanda Fort, Hajiganj Fort, Lalbagh Fort and Jangalbari Fort. The Mughals expelled Arakanese and Portuguese pirates from the northeastern coastline of the Bay of Bengal. Throughout the late medieval and early modern periods, Bengal was notable for its navy and shipbuilding. The following table covers a list of notable military engagements by Mughal Bengal:-
|Battle of Tukaroi||1575||Akbar||Bengal Sultanate||Daud Khan Karrani||Mughal victory|
|Battle of Raj Mahal||1576||Khan Jahan I||Bengal Sultanate||Daud Khan Karrani||Mughal victory|
|Conquest of Bhati||1576–1611||Baro-Bhuyan||Mughal victory|
|Ahom-Mughal conflicts||1615–1682||Ahom kingdom||Ahom kings||Assamese victory|
|Mughal-Arakan War||1665–66||Shaista Khan||Kingdom of Mrauk U||Thiri Thudhamma||Mughal victory|
|Battle of Plassey||1757||Siraj-ud-Daulah||British Empire||Robert Clive||British victory|
Mughal architecture proliferated Bengal in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, with the earliest example being the Kherua Mosque in Bogra (1582). They replaced the earlier sultanate-style of architecture. It was in Dhaka that the imperial style was most lavishly indulged in. Located on the banks of the Buriganga River, the old Mughal city was described as the Venice of the East. Its Lalbagh Fort was an elaborately designed complex of gardens, fountains, a mosque, a tomb, an audience hall (Diwan-i-Khas) and a walled enclosure with gates. The Great Caravanserai and Shaista Khan Caravanserai in Dhaka were centres of commercial activities. Other monuments in the city include the Dhanmondi Shahi Eidgah (1640), the Sat Gambuj Mosque (c. 1664–76), the Shahbaz Khan Mosque (1679) and the Khan Mohammad Mridha Mosque (1704). The city of Murshidabad also became a haven of Mughal architecture under the Nawabs of Bengal, with the Caravanserai Mosque (1723) being its most prominent monument.
In rural hinterlands, the indigenous Bengali Islamic style continued to flourish, blended with Mughal elements. One of the finest examples of this style is the Atiya Mosque in Tangail (1609). Several masterpieces of terracotta Hindu temple architecture were also created during this period. Notable examples include the Kantajew Temple (1704) and the temples of Bishnupur (1600–1729).
An authentic Bengali-Mughal art was reflected in the muslin fabric of Jamdani (meaning "flower" in Persian). The making of Jamdani was pioneered by Persian weavers. The art passed to the hands of Bengali Muslim weavers known as juhulas. The artisan industry was historically based around the city of Dhaka. The city had over 80,000 weavers. Jamdanis traditionally employ geometric designs in floral shapes. Its motifs are often similar to those in Iranian textile art (buta motif) and Western textile art (paisley). Dhaka's jamdanis enjoyed a loyal following and received imperial patronage from the Mughal court in Delhi and the Nawabs of Bengal.
A provincial Bengali style of Mughal painting flourished in Murshidabad during the 18th century. Scroll painting and ivory sculptures were also prevalent.
Scroll painting of a Ghazi riding a Bengal tiger
Bengal's population is estimated to be 30 million in 1769, after the British East India Company's conquest of Bengal at the Battle of Plassey in 1757 and prior to the resulting Great Bengal famine of 1770. In comparison, the entire Indian population is estimated to be 190 million in 1750 (with Bengal accounting for 16% of its population), the Asian population is estimated at 502 million in 1750 (with Bengal accounting for 6% of its population), and the world population is estimated at 791 million in 1750 (with Bengal accounting for 3.8% of its population).
There was a significant influx of migrants from the Safavid Empire into Bengal during the Mughal period. Persian administrators and military commanders were enlisted by the Mughal government in Bengal. An Armenian community settled in Dhaka and was involved in the city's textile trade, paying a 3.5% tax.
Economy and trade
The Bengal Subah had the largest regional economy in the Mughal Empire. It was described as the paradise of nations. The region exported grains, fine cotton muslin and silk, liquors and wines, salt, ornaments, fruits, and metals. European companies set up numerous trading posts in Mughal Bengal during the 17th and 18th centuries. Dhaka was the largest city in Mughal Bengal and the commercial capital of the empire. Chittagong was the largest seaport, with maritime trade routes connecting it to Arakan, Ayuthya, Aceh, Melaka, Johore, Bantam, Makassar, Ceylon, Bandar Abbas, Mocha and the Maldives.[page needed]
Parthasarathi cites his estimates that grain wages for weaving and spinning in mid 18 century Bengal and South India is comparable to Britain However, due to the scarcity of data, more research is needed, before drawing any conclusion
The Mughals launched a vast economic development project in the Bengal delta which transformed its demographic makeup. The government cleared vast swathes of forest in the fertile Bhati region to expand farmland. It encouraged settlers, including farmers and jagirdars, to populate the delta. It assigned Sufis as the chieftains of villages. Emperor Akbar re-adapted the modern Bengali calendar to improve harvests and tax collection. The region became the largest grain producer in the subcontinent.
We find meagre accounts of the Bengal revenue administration in Abul Fazl's Ain-i-Akbari and some in Mirza Nathan's Baharistan-i-Ghaybi. According to the Ain,
“The demands of each year are paid by installments in eight months, they (the ryots) themselves bringing mohurs and rupees to the appointed place for the receipt of revenue, as the division of grain between the government and the husbandman is not here customary. The harvests are always abundant, measurement is not insisted upon, and the revenue demands are determined by estimate of the crop.”
From the above extract we learn that the payment of the annual revenue demand was carried out in eight monthly instalments. However, Raychaudhuri points out that according to the Baharistan, there were two collections a year following the two harvests in autumn and spring. Secondly, it tells us that the payments were made in cash, and directly to the government. The last fact obviously refers to only khalisa lands. Finally, the most important fact that we come across is that the method of crop-estimation and not land measurement was current in Bengal.
Bengali peasants were quick to adapt to profitable new crops between 1600 and 1650. Bengali peasants rapidly learned techniques of mulberry cultivation and sericulture, establishing Bengal Subah as a major silk-producing region of the world.
The increased agricultural productivity led to lower food prices. In turn, this benefited the Indian textile industry. Compared to Britain, the price of grain was about one-half in South India and one-third in Bengal, in terms of silver coinage. This resulted in lower silver coin prices for Indian textiles, giving them a price advantage in global markets.
The Mughal Empire had 25% of the world's GDP.[when?] Bengal was an affluent province that was, according to economic historian Indrajit Ray, globally prominent in industries such as textile manufacturing and shipbuilding. Bengal's capital city of Dhaka was the empire's financial capital, with a population exceeding a million people, and with an estimated 80,000 skilled textile weavers. It was an exporter of silk and cotton textiles, steel, saltpeter, and agricultural and industrial produce. Bengal's industrial economy in the Mughal era has been described as a form of proto-industrialization.[page needed]
The plunder of Bengal directly contributed to the Industrial Revolution in Britain, with the capital amassed from Bengal used to invest in British industries such as textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution and greatly increase British wealth, while at the same time leading to deindustrialization in Bengal.
- Textile industry
Under Mughal rule, Bengal was a center of the worldwide muslin and silk trades. During the Mughal era, the most important center of cotton production was Bengal, particularly around its capital city of Dhaka, leading to muslin being called "daka" in distant markets such as Central Asia. Domestically, much of India depended on Bengali products such as rice, silks and cotton textiles. Overseas, Europeans depended on Bengali products such as cotton textiles, silks and opium; Bengal accounted for 40% of Dutch imports from Asia, for example, including more than 50% of textiles and around 80% of silks. From Bengal, saltpeter was also shipped to Europe, opium was sold in Indonesia, raw silk was exported to Japan and the Netherlands, and cotton and silk textiles were exported to Europe, Indonesia and Japan.
- Shipbuilding industry
Bengal had a large shipbuilding industry. Indrajit Ray estimates shipbuilding output of Bengal during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries at 223,250 tons annually, compared with 23,061 tons produced in nineteen colonies in North America from 1769 to 1771. He also assesses ship repairing as very advanced in Bengal.
Bengali shipbuilding was advanced compared to European shipbuilding at the time. An important innovation in shipbuilding was the introduction of a flushed deck design in Bengal rice ships, resulting in hulls that were stronger and less prone to leak than the structurally weak hulls of traditional European ships built with a stepped deck design. The British East India Company later duplicated the flushed deck and hull designs of Bengal rice ships in the 1760s, leading to significant improvements in seaworthiness and navigation for European ships during the Industrial Revolution.
In the revenue settlement by Todar Mal in 1582, Bengal Subah was divided into 24 sarkars (districts), which included 19 sarkars of Bengal proper and 5 sarkars of Orissa. In 1607, during the reign of Jahangir Orissa became a separate Subah. These 19 sarkars were further divided into 682 parganas. In 1658, subsequent to the revenue settlement by Shah Shuja, 15 new sarkars and 361 new parganas were added. In 1722, Murshid Quli Khan divided the whole Subah into 13 chakalahs, which were further divided into 1660 parganas.
Initially the capital of the Subah was Tanda. On 9 November 1595, the foundations of a new capital were laid at Rajmahal by Man Singh I who renamed it Akbarnagar. In 1610 the capital was shifted from Rajmahal to Dhaka and it was renamed Jahangirnagar. In 1639, Shah Shuja again shifted the capital to Rajmahal. In 1660, Muazzam Khan (Mir Jumla) again shifted the capital to Dhaka. In 1703, Murshid Quli Khan, then diwan (prime minister in charge of finance) of Bengal shifted his office from Dhaka to Maqsudabad and later renamed it Murshidabad.
|Udamabar/Tanda (modern-day areas include North Birbhum, Rajmahal and Murshidabad)||52 parganas|
|Jannatabad (Lakhnauti) (Modern day Malda division)||66 parganas|
|Mahmudabad (modern-day areas include North Nadia and Jessore)||88 parganas|
|Tajpur (East Dinajpur)||29 parganas|
|Ghoraghat (South Rangpur Division, Bogura)||84 parganas|
|Barbakabad (West Dinajpur)||38 parganas|
|Sonargaon modern day Dhaka Division||52 parganas|
|Satgaon (Modern day Hooghly District and Howrah District)||53 parganas|
Sarkars of Orissa:
The state government was headed by a Viceroy (Subedar Nizam) appointed by the Mughal Emperor between 1576 and 1717. The Viceroy exercised tremendous authority, with his own cabinet and four prime ministers (Diwan). The three deputy viceroys for Bengal proper, Bihar and Orissa were known as the Naib Nazims. An extensive landed aristocracy was established by the Mughals in Bengal. The aristocracy was responsible for taxation and revenue collection. Land holders were bestowed with the title of Jagirdar. The Qadi title was reserved for the chief judge. Mansabdars were leaders of the Mughal Army, while faujdars were generals. The Mughals were credited for secular pluralism during the reign of Akbar, who promoted the religious doctrine of Din-i Ilahi. Later rulers promoted more conservative Islam.
In 1717, the Mughal government replaced Viceroy Azim-us-Shan due to conflicts with his influential deputy viceroy and prime minister Murshid Quli Khan. Growing regional autonomy caused the Mughal Court to establish a hereditary principality in Bengal, with Khan being recognised in the official title of Nazim. He founded the Nasiri dynasty. In 1740, following the Battle of Giria, Alivardi Khan staged a coup and founded the short-lived Afsar dynasty. For all practical purposes, the Nazims acted as independent princes. European colonial powers referred to them as Nawabs or Nababs.
List of Viceroys
|Munim Khan Khan-i-Khanan
منعم خان، خان خاناں
|25 September 1574 – 23 October 1575|
|Hussain Quli Beg Khan Jahan I
حسین قلی بیگ، خان جہاں اول
|15 November 1575 – 19 December 1578|
|Muzaffar Khan Turbati
مظفر خان تربتی
|Mirza Aziz Koka Khan-e-Azam
میرزا عزیز کوکہ،خان اعظم
|Shahbaz Khan Kamboh
شھباز خان کمبوہ
|Wazir Khan Tajik
|Raja Man Singh I
راجہ مان سنگھ
|4 June 1594 – 1606|
|Qutb-ud-din Khan Koka
قطب الدین خان کوکہ
|2 September 1606 – May 1607|
|Jahangir Quli Beg
جہانگیر قلی بیگ
|Sheikh Ala-ud-din Chisti Islam Khan Chisti
اسلام خان چشتی
|June 1608 – 1613|
|Qasim Khan Chishti
قاسم خان چشتی
|Ibrahim Khan Fateh Jang
ابراہیم خان فتح جنگ
|Mirza Amanullah Khan Zaman II
میرزا أمان اللہ ، خان زماں ثانی
|Qasim Khan Juvayni Qasim Manija
قاسم خان جوینی، قاسم مانیجہ
|Mir Muhammad Baqir Azam Khan
میر محمد باقر، اعظم خان
|Mir Abdus Salam Islam Khan Mashhadi
اسلام خان مشھدی
|Sultan Shah Shuja
|Mir Jumla II
|May 1660 – 30 March 1663|
|Mirza Abu Talib Shaista Khan I
میرزا ابو طالب، شایستہ خان
|March 1664 – 1676|
|Azam Khan Koka, Fidai Khan II
اعظم خان کوکہ، فدای خان ثانی
|Sultan Muhammad Azam Shah Alijah
محمد اعظم شاہ عالی جاہ
|Mirza Abu Talib Shaista Khan I
میرزا ابو ��الب، شایستہ خان
|Ibrahim Khan ibn Ali Mardan Khan
ابراہیم خان ابن علی مردان خان
|Others appointed but did not show up from 1712 to 1717 and managed by Deputy Subahdar Murshid Quli Khan.|
|Murshid Quli Khan
مرشد قلی خان
List of Nawab Nazims
|Portrait||Titular Name||Personal Name||Birth||Reign||Death|
|Jaafar Khan Bahadur Nasiri||Murshid Quli Khan||1665||1717– 1727||30 June 1727|
|Ala-ud-Din Haidar Jang||Sarfaraz Khan Bahadur||?||1727-1727||29 April 1740|
|Shuja ud-Daula||Shuja-ud-Din Muhammad Khan||Around 1670 (date not available)||July 1727 – 26 August 1739||26 August 1739|
|Ala-ud-Din Haidar Jang||Sarfaraz Khan Bahadur||?||13 March 1739 – April 1740||29 April 1740|
|Hashim ud-Daula||Muhammad Alivardi Khan Bahadur||Before 10 May 1671||29 April 1740 – 9 April 1756||9 April 1756|
|Siraj ud-Daulah||Muhammad Siraj-ud-Daulah||1733||April 1756 – 2 June 1757||2 July 1757|
- Akhtaruzzaman, Muhammad (2012). "Tandah". In Islam, Sirajul; Miah, Sajahan; Khanam, Mahfuza; Ahmed, Sabbir (eds.). Banglapedia: the National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Online ed.). Dhaka, Bangladesh: Banglapedia Trust, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. ISBN 984-32-0576-6. OCLC 52727562. Retrieved 30 July 2021.
- "Rajmahal - India". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "Dhaka - national capital, Bangladesh". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- Lex Heerma van Voss; Els Hiemstra-Kuperus; Elise van Nederveen Meerkerk (2010). "The Long Globalization and Textile Producers in India". The Ashgate Companion to the History of Textile Workers, 1650–2000. Ashgate Publishing. p. 255. ISBN 9780754664284.
- Steel, Tim (19 December 2014). "The paradise of nations". Op-ed. Dhaka Tribune. Archived from the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
- Pakistan Quarterly. 1956.
- Islam, Sirajul (1992). History of Bangladesh, 1704-1971: Economic history. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. ISBN 978-984-512-337-2.
- M. Shahid Alam (2016). Poverty From The Wealth of Nations: Integration and Polarization in the Global Economy since 1760. Springer Science+Business Media. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-333-98564-9.
- Om Prakash, "Empire, Mughal", History of World Trade Since 1450, edited by John J. McCusker, vol. 1, Macmillan Reference USA, 2006, pp. 237–240, World History in Context. Retrieved 3 August 2017
- Indrajit Ray (2011). Bengal Industries and the British Industrial Revolution (1757-1857). Routledge. pp. 57, 90, 174. ISBN 978-1-136-82552-1.
- Khandker, Hissam (31 July 2015). "Which India is claiming to have been colonised?". The Daily Star (Op-ed).
- Hasan, Farhat (1991). "Conflict and Cooperation in Anglo-Mughal Trade Relations during the Reign of Aurangzeb". Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient. 34 (4): 351–360. doi:10.1163/156852091X00058. JSTOR 3632456.
- Vaugn, James (September 2017). "John Company Armed: The English East India Company, the Anglo-Mughal War and Absolutist Imperialism, c. 1675–1690". Britain and the World. 11 (1).
- Junie T. Tong (2016). Finance and Society in 21st Century China: Chinese Culture Versus Western Markets. CRC Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-1-317-13522-7.
- John L. Esposito, ed. (2004). The Islamic World: Past and Present. Volume 1: Abba - Hist. Oxford University Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-19-516520-3.
|volume=has extra text (help)
- Indrajit Ray (2011). Bengal Industries and the British Industrial Revolution (1757-1857). Routledge. pp. 7–10. ISBN 978-1-136-82552-1.
- Shombit Sengupta, Bengals plunder gifted the British Industrial Revolution, The Financial Express, 8 February 2010
- Maddison, Angus (2007). Contours of the World Economy 1-2030 AD: Essays in Macro-Economic History. Oxford University Press. Table A.7. ISBN 978-1-4008-3138-8.
- "Humayun". Banglapedia. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- Eaton, Richard M. (1996). The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier:1204-1760. Oxford University Press. pp. xxiii. ISBN 0-520-20507-3.
- Tapan Raychaudhuri (1953). Bengal under Akbar and Jahangir: An Introductory Study in Social History. Calcutta: A. Mukherjee. p. 2. OCLC 1031927334.
- Tapan Raychaudhuri (1953). Bengal under Akbar and Jahangir: An Introductory Study in Social History. Calcutta: A. Mukherjee. pp. 17–18. OCLC 1031927334.
- "Dhaka". Encyclopædia Britannica. 14 July 2016. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
- Schmidt, Karl J. (2015). An Atlas and Survey of South Asian History. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-47681-8. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
- Wheeler, Sir Robert Eric Mortimer (1953). The Cambridge History of India: The Indus civilization. Supplementary volume. Cambridge University Publishers. pp. 237–.
- Saradindu Shekhar Chakma. Ethnic Cleansing in Chittagong Hill Tracts. p. 23.
- "Forgotten Indian history: The brutal Maratha invasions of Bengal".
- OUM. pp. 16, 17
- Nitish K. Sengupta (2011). Land of Two Rivers: A History of Bengal from the Mahabharata to Mujib. ISBN 9780143416784.
- Jaswant Lal Mehta (2005). Advanced Study in the History of Modern India 1707-1813. ISBN 9781932705546.
- Jadunath Sarkar (1991). Fall Of The Mughal Empire. ISBN 9788125011491.
- Kirti N. Chaudhuri (2006). The Trading World of Asia and the English East India Company: 1660-1760. Cambridge University Press. p. 253. ISBN 978-0-521-03159-2.
- P. J. Marshall (2006). Bengal: The British Bridgehead: Eastern India 1740-1828. Cambridge University Press. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-521-02822-6.
- P. J. Marshall (2006). Bengal: The British Bridgehead: Eastern India 1740-1828. Cambridge University Press. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-521-02822-6.
- Mamatājura Rahamāna Taraphadāra; University of Dhaka (1999). Husain Shahi Bengal, 1494-1538 A.D.: A Socio-political Study. University of Dhaka. p. 110. OCLC 43324741.
- "Military". Banglapedia. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
- Steel, Tim (31 October 2014). "Gunpowder plots". Dhaka Tribune. Archived from the original on 29 September 2017. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
- "Saltpetre". Banglapedia. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "Nimtoli Deuri becomes heritage museum". The Daily Star. 17 January 2019. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
- ঢাকার নিমতলি দেউড়ি এখন ঐতিহ্য জাদুঘর | Nimtoli Deuri Becomes Heritage Museum - YouTube. www.youtube.com. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
- "The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204–1760". Publishing.cdlib.org. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
- Hough, Michael (2004). Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. Psychology Press. pp. 57–. ISBN 978-0-415-29854-4.
- "In Search of Bangladeshi Islamic Art". The Metropolitan Museum of Art, i.e. The Met Museum. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- Janam Mukherjee (2015), Hungry Bengal: War, Famine and the End of Empire, page 27, Oxford University Press
- Amiya Kumar Bagchi (2008), Perilous Passage: Mankind and the Global Ascendancy of Capital, page 145, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
- Data from United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.
1950–2100 estimates (only medium variants shown): (a) World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. Archived 21 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine
Estimates prior to 1950: (b) "The World at Six Billion", 1999.
Estimates from 1950 to 2100: (c) "Population of the entire world, yearly, 1950 - 2100", 2013. Archived 19 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- Karim, Abdul (2012). "Iranians, The". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- Ali, Ansar; Chaudhury, Sushil; Islam, Sirajul (2012). "Armenians, The". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- Pearson, Michael (2003). The Indian Ocean. Routledge. pp. 136, 164. ISBN 978-0-415-21489-6.
[page 136: From 1500-1850,] in Bengal the main market was Chittagong ... [page 164:] Mir Jumla, who in the 1640s had his own ships ... travelling all over the ocean: to Bengal, Surat, Arakan, Ayuthya, Aceh, Melaka, Johore, Bantam, Makassar, Ceylon, Bandar Abbas, Mocha and the Maldives.
- Nanda, J. N. (2005). Bengal: The Unique State. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 9788180691492. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
- Parthasarathi, Prasannan (2011). Why Europe Grew Rich and Asia Did Not: Global Economic Divergence, 1600-1850. p. 39.
- Parthasarathi, Prasannan (2011), Why Europe Grew Rich and Asia Did Not: Global Economic Divergence, 1600–1850, Cambridge University Press, p. 45, ISBN 978-1-139-49889-0
- Eaton, Richard Maxwell (1996). The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204–1760. University of California Press. pp. 312–313. ISBN 978-0-520-20507-9. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
- Tapan Raychaudhuri (1953). Bengal under Akbar and Jahangir: An Introductory Study in Social History. Calcutta: A. Mukherjee. p. 24. OCLC 1031927334.
- John F. Richards (1995), The Mughal Empire, page 190, Cambridge University Press
- Abhay Kumar Singh (2006), Modern World System and Indian Proto-industrialization: Bengal 1650-1800, Volume 1, Northern Book Centre
- Richard Maxwell Eaton (1996), The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204-1760, page 202, University of California Press
- John F. Richards (1995), The Mughal Empire, page 202, Cambridge University Press
- Indrajit Ray (2011). Bengal Industries and the British Industrial Revolution (1757-1857). Routledge. p. 174. ISBN 978-1-136-82552-1.
- "Technological Dynamism in a Stagnant Sector: Safety at Sea during the Early Industrial Revolution" (PDF).
- Jarrett, H. S. (1949)  The Ain-i-Akbari by Abul Fazl-i-Allami, Vol.II, (ed.) J. N. Sarkar, Calcutta: The Asiatic Society, pp.142–55
- Sarkar, Jadunath (1984). A History of Jaipur, c. 1503–1938. New Delhi: Orient Longman. p. 81. ISBN 81-250-0333-9.
- Gommans, Jos (2002). Mughal Warfare: Indian Frontiers and Highroads to Empire, 1500–1700. Oxon: Routledge. p. 27. ISBN 0-415-23988-5.
- Chatterjee, Anjali (2012). "Azim-us-Shan". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- Islam, Sirajul (2012). "Nawab". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- Eaton, Richard M. (1993). The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204–1760. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 325–6. ISBN 0-520-20507-3.