|Attica Prison riot|
Attica Correctional Facility. A memorial to staff who died in the riot is visible between the flagpoles.
New York State Police|
New York State Department of Corrections
New York Army National Guard
|Commanders and leaders|
Governor Nelson Rockefeller
74 correctional officers[d]|
550 state troopers
|42 correctional officers and civilian workers taken hostage|
|Casualties and losses|
33 prisoners killed[e]|
85 prisoners wounded[e]
The Attica Prison riot, also known as the Attica Prison rebellion, Attica massacre or Attica Prison uprising, occurred at the Attica Correctional Facility in Attica, New York, United States, in 1971. It was the bloodiest one-day encounter between Americans since the US Civil War and left 43 people dead.
The revolt was based upon prisoners' demands for better living conditions and political rights. The uprising was one of the best-known and most significant flashpoints of the Prisoners' Rights Movement. On September 9, 1971, two weeks after the killing of George Jackson at San Quentin State Prison, 1,281 of the Attica prison's approximately 2,200 inmates rioted and took control of the prison, taking 42 staff hostage.
During the following four days of negotiations, authorities agreed to most of the prisoners' 27 demands, but would not agree to demands for complete amnesty from criminal prosecution for the prison takeover or for the removal of Attica's superintendent. By the order of Governor Nelson Rockefeller, state police took back control of the prison. When the uprising was over, at least 43 people were dead, including ten correctional officers and civilian employees, and 33 inmates.
Rockefeller, who refused to visit the prisoners during the rebellion, stated that the prisoners "carried out the cold-blood killings they had threatened from the outset", despite only one of the officers and four inmates killed being attributed to the prisoners. New York Times writer Fred Ferretti said the rebellion concluded in "mass deaths that four days of taut negotiations had sought to avert".
As a result of the riot, a number of changes were made in the New York prison system to satisfy some of the prisoners' demands, reduce tension in the system, and prevent such incidents in the future. As of 2021[update], Attica remains the most prominent prison riot to have occurred in the United States.
On Thursday, September 9, 1971, 5 Company lined up for roll-call. Inmate William Ortiz was reported to be missing due to being isolated after an incident in which prison officer Tom Boyle was hit in the face with a full can of soup. A small group of 5 Company inmates protested that they too would be locked up and began walking back towards their cells. The remainder of 5 Company continued towards breakfast. As the protesting group walked past the isolated inmate Ortiz, they freed him from his cell. They then rejoined the rest of 5 Company and proceeded on their way to breakfast. A short time later, when the command staff discovered what had occurred, they changed the usual scheduling of the prisoners, but did not tell prison officer Gordon Kelsey, the correctional officer in charge of leading 5 Company to the yard. Instead of going to the yard after breakfast as they usually did, the prisoners were led there to find a locked door, puzzling them and the correctional officer Kelsey. Complaints led to anger when more correctional officers led by Lt. Robert T. Curtiss arrived to lead the prisoners back to their cells. Officer Kelsey was assaulted and the riot began.
The inmates quickly gained control of sections, D-yard, two tunnels, and the central control room, referred to as "Times Square". Inmates took 42 officers and civilians hostage, and produced a list of grievances demanding their conditions be met before their surrender.
Throughout the negotiations, there was leadership and organization among the prisoners. Frank "Big Black" Smith was appointed as head of security, and he also kept the hostages and the observers safe. Additionally, an ardent orator, 21-year-old Elliott James "L.D." Barkley, was a strong force during the negotiations, speaking with great articulation to the inmates, the camera crews, and outsiders at home. Barkley, just days away from his scheduled release at the time of the uprising, was killed during the recapturing of the prison. Assemblyman Arthur Eve testified that Barkley was alive after the prisoners had surrendered and the state regained control; another inmate stated that the officers searched him out, yelling for Barkley, and shot him in the back.
We are men! We are not beasts and we do not intend to be beaten or driven as such. The entire prison populace, that means each and every one of us here, have set forth to change forever the ruthless brutalization and disregard for the lives of the prisoners here and throughout the United States. What has happened here is but the sound before the fury of those who are oppressed. We will not compromise on any terms except those terms that are agreeable to us. We've called upon all the conscientious citizens of America to assist us in putting an end to this situation that threatens the lives of not only us, but of each and every one of you, as well.— Elliott James "L.D." Barkley, 1971
As speakers like Barkley raised morale, a group of negotiators from among the prisoners made proposals to the commissioner. The Attica Liberation Faction Manifesto of Demands is a compilation of complaints written by the Attica prisoners, which speak directly to the "sincere people of society". It includes 27 demands, such as better medical treatment, fair visitation rights, and an end to physical brutality. The prisoners also requested better sanitation, improved food quality, and one set of rules for the state among numerous other demands. The manifesto specifically assigns the power to negotiate to five inmates: Donald Noble, Peter Butler, Frank Lott, Carl Jones-El, and Herbert Blyden X. Additionally, the document specifically lists out "vile and vicious slave masters" who oppressed the prisoners such as the New York governor, New York corrections, and the United States courts.
The prisoners continued to unsuccessfully negotiate with Correctional Services Commissioner Russell G. Oswald, and then later with a team of observers that included Tom Wicker, an editor of The New York Times, James Ingram of the Michigan Chronicle, State Senator John Dunne, State Representative Arthur Eve, civil rights lawyer William Kunstler, and others. Prisoners requested the presence of Minister Louis Farrakhan, national representative of the Nation of Islam, but he declined.
The situation may have been further complicated by Governor Rockefeller's refusal to come to the scene of the uprising and meet with the inmates, although some later evaluations of the incident would postulate that his absence from the scene actually prevented the situation from deteriorating. Negotiations broke down, and Oswald was unable to make further concessions to the inmates. However, he did not tell them that negotiations had ended and he would take the prison back by force, even stating, "I want to continue negotiations with you." Oswald later called Governor Rockefeller and again begged him to come to the prison to calm the riot. Following the governor's refusal, Oswald stated that he would order the State Police to retake the facility by force. Rockefeller agreed with Oswald's decision to retake the prison by force, a decision which was later criticized.
Prisoner demands included "an end of physical abuse, for basic necessities like toothbrushes and showers everyday, for professional training, and access to newspapers and books." William Kunstler, the lawyer negotiating the demands between the inmates and the state, said, "The prisoners had two non-negotiable demands: the removal of the warden, and general amnesty, and they had already given up on the removal of the warden. And on the general amnesty, we had worked out several formulas that we were discussing with the commissioner hours before the attack, and if we had been allowed to continue, everyone would be alive and the matter would be settled today."
Retaking of the prison and retaliation
As the demands were not met, negotiations broke down and the mood among the inmates deteriorated. It appeared as though Governor Rockefeller remained opposed to the inmates' demands, and they became restless. Defensive trenches had been dug, metal gates had been electrified, crude battlements were fashioned out of metal tables and dirt, gasoline was put in position to be lit in the event of conflict, and the "Times Square" prison command center was fortified. The inmates brought four corrections officers to the top of the command center and threatened to slit their throats. Reporters in helicopters circling the prison reported that the hostages in D yard were also being prepared for killing. Governor Rockefeller had ordered that the prison be retaken that day if negotiations failed. Situation commander Oswald, seeing the danger to the hostages, ordered that the prison be retaken by force. Of the decision, he later said "On a much smaller scale, I think I have some feeling now of how Truman must have felt when he decided to drop the A-bomb."
At 9:46 a.m. on Monday, September 13, 1971, tear gas was dropped into the yard and New York State Police troopers opened fire non-stop for two minutes into the smoke. Among the weapons used by the troopers were shotguns, which led to the wounding and killing of hostages and inmates who were not resisting. Former prison officers were allowed to participate, a decision later called "inexcusable" by the commission established by Rockefeller to study the riot and the aftermath. By the time the facility was retaken, police had killed nine hostages and twenty-nine inmates. A tenth hostage, Correctional Officer Harrison W. Whalen died on October 9, 1971, of gunshot wounds received during the assault.
The final death toll from the uprising also includes the officer fatally injured at the start of the uprising and four inmates who were subjected to vigilante killings. Nine hostages died from gunfire by state troopers and soldiers. The New York State Special Commission on Attica wrote, "With the exception of Indian massacres in the late 19th century, the State Police assault which ended the four-day prison uprising was the bloodiest one-day encounter between Americans since the Civil War."
False media reports claimed that inmate hostage-takers slit the throats of many of their hostages, reports that contradicted official medical evidence. Newspaper headlines made statements such as "I Saw Slit Throats", implying that prisoners had cut the hostages' throats when the armed raid occurred. These reports set the stage for reprisals by troopers and prison officers. Inmates were made to strip and crawl through the mud and then some were made to run naked between lines of enraged officers, who beat the inmates. Several days after the uprising's end, prison doctors reported evidence of more beatings. The Special Commission found that state officials failed to quickly refute those rumors and false reports.
Retaliation by Weather Underground
At 7:30 p.m. on September 17, the radical left militant organization, the Weather Underground launched a retaliatory attack on the New York Department of Corrections, exploding a bomb near Oswald's office. "The communiqué accompanying the attack called the prison system an example of 'how a society run by white racists maintains its control,' with white supremacy being the 'main question white people have to face.'"
Lawsuits and payments
Within four years of the uprising, 62 inmates had been charged in 42 indictments with 1,289 separate counts. One state trooper was indicted for reckless endangerment.
Inmates and families of inmates killed in the prison retaking sued the State of New York for civil rights violations by law enforcement officers during and after the retaking of Attica. After decades in the courts, the State of New York agreed in 2000 to pay $8 million ($12 million minus legal fees) to settle the case. The State of New York separately settled with families of the slain prison employees for $12 million in 2005.
The Forgotten Victims of Attica have asked the State of New York to release state records of the uprising to the public. In 2013, Attorney General Eric Schneiderman said he would seek release of the entire 570-page Meyer Report, the state's review of the uprising, submitted in 1975 by former State Supreme Court Justice Bernard S. Meyer. One volume was made public, but the State Supreme Court ordered in 1981 that the other two be sealed permanently. In May 2015, 46 pages of the report were released. The released pages contain accounts from witnesses and inmates describing torture, burning, and sexual abuse of inmates by prison authorities.
At the time of the uprising, black empowerment was increasing and many black prisoners had transferred to Attica, increasing population from its designed 1,200 prisoners to 2,243. 54% of these were Black American, 9% Puerto Rican, and 37% white. Additionally, two weeks before the uprising at San Quentin State Prison, George Jackson, a member of the Black Panther Party, was shot and killed during an escape attempt, after killing several guards and two white inmates.
Al Jundi v. Mancusi
It was believed that a group of Muslims were responsible for the uprising and the harm of the hostages, when in fact the group of Muslims were protecting the hostages from other inmates. The leader of the Muslims even told the other inmates that if any of the inmates tried to hurt the hostages, that they would "kill [the inmates involved] or die protecting the hostages." The court in Al Jundi v. Mancusi, 113 F.Supp.2d 441 wrote:
A number of former Muslim inmates testified that they had been singled out for "special" brutal treatment by troopers and prison officers because they had played an active role in protecting the hostages during the four days before the retaking. Because a number of militant inmates were prepared to do harm to the hostages, Frank "Big Black" Smith, in conjunction with the Muslim leadership, implemented a plan to secure the safety of the hostages during negotiations.
This view was corroborated by Michael Smith, age 51, a former corrections officer who was a hostage up to September 13, 1971. He testified that he was taken hostage on September 9, 1971, by a group of inmates who were out of control. He described them as a "wave of human emotion". He was in charge of the sheet metal shop and developed a good rapport with the inmates who worked under him and they protected him from the militant group. But eventually he came under the control of the take-over group and found himself in the center of D-Yard with other hostages. One of the inmates, Don Noble, whom he had befriended and who worked in the sheet metal shop, and Carl Reighn (originally referred to in previous interviews as Carl Rain) protected him on September 9, 1971, trying desperately to come up with ways to hide or save him and protect him, and would later save his life on September 13, 1971. Carl Reighn was present from the moment they broke the metal shop doors down.
Smith was interviewed by the media while being held hostage along with Corrections Officer Cunningham. He conveyed that the inmates' demands were for improved conditions and reported that he was not being harmed. He was blindfolded most of the time. Upon receiving news of Corrections Officer Quinn's death, the negotiation process broke down.
On Sunday night, September 12, 1971, the feeling was "somber". He got a pen and wrote a goodbye note to his wife and family on dollar bills which were in his wallet. He testified that the hostages sat in a circle and leaned up against each other for support.
On Monday, September 13, 1971, he was selected along with a few other hostages to be taken up on the A-Yard catwalk and a hostage execution was arranged. He was taken to the top of the catwalk by three inmates and sat on a chair blindfolded. Inmate Don Noble was on his left and held a knife to his throat. As the Army helicopter hovered over them and dropped tear gas, the shooting started and the inmate on his right was shot twice and blown over the railing of the catwalk. Don Noble pulled him to his left and the inmate immediately behind him received a fatal volley of gunfire. Noble was shot and Smith was shot four times in the stomach and once in the arm. The chair on which he had been sitting disintegrated from gunshots. Smith said in court, "I don't know how long the shooting went on. You could hear people crying, people dying and people screaming." He never lost consciousness as he lay on the catwalk until a trooper stood over him pointing a shotgun at his head. A prison officer saw what was going on and yelled to the trooper, "He is one of us", who then focused his attention on Noble, at which point Smith told the trooper, "He saved my life".
He was eventually taken by National Guard medics to St. Jerome's Hospital in Batavia for an extensive period of treatment involving multiple surgeries. He was eventually released from service as a corrections officer because of his physical inability to perform his duties. He commented on the inaccuracy of the McKay Report which claimed that he had been merely knocked unconscious—no mention of his extensive gunshot wounds nor how they were obtained. He openly stated that his life was saved while he was held hostage because of the dedicated efforts of the Muslim group at Attica. "In fact, I can recall hearing one of the Muslim leaders instructing one of their men that if anyone tries to break through their Muslim perimeter to kill them or die protecting the hostages."
Effects on the New York State prison system
As an indirect result of the Attica uprising, the New York State Department of Corrections:
- Began a grievance procedure, in which inmates could grieve (object to) actions by a staff member that violated published policy
- Started at each prison a program under which the warden and other senior management meet on a monthly basis with elected representatives (known as "prisoner rep" or prisoner representative) of the inmates
- Began allowing packages to inmates to be received year round.
In popular culture
The first historical account of the Attica Prison Uprising (A Time to Die, 1975) was written by Tom Wicker, a N.Y. Times editor, who was present at the prison as an observer. A more detailed historical account of the uprising was published by historian Heather Ann Thompson in 2016. The book, entitled Blood in the Water: The Attica Prison Uprising of 1971 and Its Legacy, draws on interviews with former inmates, hostages, families of victims, law enforcement, lawyers, and state officials, as well as significant archives of previously unreleased materials. Malcolm Bell's historical account The Turkey Shoot: Tracking the Attica Cover-up had already been written and Bell was involved with the original New York (State) Special Commission on Attica.
Direct coverage of the Attica Prison rebellion:
Firestone's 1974 film, restored in 2007, culls together primary footage from surveillance and news cameras along with prisoner, family, and guard interviews to create an account of the massacre that has been described as temperate, but undeniably damning with respect to the state's actions. As The New Yorker's 1974 review describes it, "Cinda Firestone's quiet picture uses horrifying film footage: shots taken through state troopers' telescopic rifle lenses; musings by inmates which sometimes sputter into anger against a world that finds descriptions of Attica incredible; riot quellers insensibly proud of their skill with weapons, showing off their prowess before the commission of inquiry. …If Attica disturbed our slumber for a mere month or two, one of the qualities of this trumpet call of a film is that it makes the disturbance enduring."
- At least three fictionalized TV movies of the rebellion have been produced: Attica (1980), with George Grizzard and Morgan Freeman; John Frankenheimer's Against the Wall (1994), with Samuel L. Jackson, Kyle MacLachlan, and Clarence Williams III; and The Killing Yard (2001), directed by Euzhan Palcy, with Alan Alda and Morris Chestnut.
- As part of a 40th anniversary commemoration, filmmakers Chris Christopher and David Marshall, in association with Blue Sky Project, produced a 60-minute, Emmy-nominated documentary called Criminal Injustice: Death and Politics at Attica, first aired on PBS in 2012, which brings together a range of previously unavailable interviewees who deconstruct and expose many myths and misconceptions about the Attica Prison rebellion, its causes, and its coverup.
Criminal Injustice: Death and Politics at Attica brings this historical event to life in completely new and startling ways. Based on scores of interviews of eyewitnesses who just now are telling their stories, as well as filmmaker access to newly discovered documents, Criminal Injustice brings genuinely new evidence to light regarding what exactly happened at Attica between September 9–13, 1971 and the role played there by local, state, and even federal officials. Indeed this film raises important new questions about the deaths caused at Attica, about the involvement by individuals in the White House at Attica, and the influence of Nelson Rockefeller's political aspirations on decision made before, during, and long after the controversial and deadly retaking of that prison. Forty years after this cataclysmic and highly charged event, filmmakers Marshall and Christopher found that many are willing to speak with new candor that adds depth, and in some cases alters, the historic record. The film includes the final interview regarding Attica given by NYT reporter Tom Wicker (who was an observer/negotiator on the scene and author of A Time to Die about his experiences at Attica), Malcolm Bell, the special prosecutor turned whistle blower, Dr. Heather Thompson who is the nation's leading academic authority on the Attica prison uprising—as well as inmates, former hostages, law enforcement officers and others.
Several other films reference the uprising:
- In the film Half Nelson (2006), one of Dunne's students tells the history of Attica with a brief monologue a half hour into the movie.
- In the film Dog Day Afternoon, (1975), Al Pacino's character, Sonny, who is holding eight bank employees hostage, starts the chant, "Attica! Attica!", at the massed police outside, evoking the excessive police force used in response to the Attica uprising. The chant "Attica! Attica!" has since been parodied or used for comedic effect in many films and television shows. For example, In the film Naked Gun 33 1/3: The Final Insult, (1994), Leslie Nielsen's character, Frank Drebin, shouts "Attica! Attica!" when he goes undercover in prison. Similarly, in the film Saturday Night Fever (1977), John Travolta's character, Tony Manero, wakes up after a night out at the disco and, while looking at himself in the mirror and seeing a poster of Al Pacino in Serpico (1973), debates whether he resembles Al Pacino. Becoming enamored of the idea, he yells "Al Pacino!" and then opens his bedroom door, walks into the hallway, and chants "Attica! Attica!"
The incident is directly referenced in several songs and the name of a band:
- The song "Attica" by English band Spear of Destiny.
- The song "Rubber Bullets" by English band 10cc.
- John Lennon's "Attica State" on his Some Time In New York City album.
- Tom Paxton's "The Hostage", which was included by Judy Collins on her 1973 album True Stories and Other Dreams (1973).
- In the Gil Scott-Heron song, "We Beg Your Pardon", Scott-Heron is critical of Governor Rockefeller's handling of the rebellion, stating that "brother Richard X of Buffalo New York faces 1365 years... behind bars for participating in Attica, and Rockefeller faces being the Vice President of this country".
- Paul Simon's "Virgil", on his album Songs from The Capeman (1997).
- The Attica uprising also inspired the Charles Mingus composition "Remember Rockefeller at Attica", and jazz saxophonist Archie Shepp's composition "Attica Blues" (1972) from his album of the same name.
- Rapper Nas mentioned Attica in his collaboration song with Lauryn Hill, "If I Ruled the World (Imagine That)". Nas raps "I'd open every cell in Attica, send 'em to Africa".
- Black Moon's "Powaful Impak!" on the album Enta da Stage the rebellion is mentioned in the lyric "I'm bustin' niggas open, Attica style".
- Frederic Rzewski wrote "Coming together/Attica based on Sam Melville's letters from Attica.
- The Wu Tang Clan's Raekwon mentions the Attica rebellion on "The Hilton" from Ghostface Killah's 2001 Bulletproof Wallets in the lyric "Giants from Attica Riots/Halls is Quiet/CO's with babies on their arms look tight."
- The song Attica by Bahamian artist Exuma.
- The song "Rockefeller Druglaw Blues" by The Felice Brothers references Attica and the protests against the treatment of the prisoners involved in the riot
- Boxer Muhammad Ali recited a poem during an interview on RTÉ on a visit to Ireland in July 1972, imagining what Attica's prisoners would have said before their death.
- In 1972, avant-garde composer and pianist Frederic Rzewski wrote two pieces connected to the Attica uprising, both for percussion ensemble and speaker. "Coming Together" sets text by Sam Melville, a leader of the uprising and one of the people who lost their lives as a result of it, from a letter he wrote in 1971. The second and shorter piece, "Attica", is set to the statement made by inmate Richard X. Clark when he was released from the prison: "Attica is in front of me now." The two pieces was recorded in 1973 for the Opus One label by the Blackearth Percussion Group, with Steven ben Israel of the Living Theater as the speaker.
- The poem "Hadda Be Playing on the Jukebox" by American poet Allen Ginsberg makes a reference to the Attica prison rebellion. This poem was also subsequently performed as a song by political rock band Rage Against the Machine.
- In season 7 episode 6 of Archer, Archer exclaims that the SWAT team outside the house is "about to go full-on Attica." This is in reference to the raiding of the prison by police.
- In the season 1 finale of the HBO series Oz, Attica is referenced by unit manager Tim McManus as his hometown and the rebellion as his original impetus for his wanting to set up Emerald City.
- In the final episode of Orange Is the New Black season 4, the prisoners rise up and chant "Attica! Attica!". The entirety of season 5 is devoted to the rebellion itself, which contains significant parallels to the Attica uprising.
- The Attica Prison uprising served as a source of inspiration for the Bell Riots from the Star Trek: Deep Space Nine episode "Past Tense".
- In the episode "A Date with the Booty Warrior" of the animated series The Boondocks, the episode's titular character takes Tom hostage with a shank, inciting a prison rebellion. After the convicts had taken the guards hostage, they were deciding what to do next. The other convicts were disgruntled to learn that the Booty Warrior's only demands were "to get some booty". One of the other convicts (voiced by Clifton Powell) remarked "I thought this was supposed to be some Attica-type shit!"
- The chant, "Attica! Attica!" has been used in several television shows, including The Fresh Prince of Bel Air, Drawn Together, Bob's Burgers, Gilmore Girls, SpongeBob SquarePants season 3 episode 18, It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia, Mr. Iglesias, The King of Queens, TMNT, Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt, WCW Monday Nitro, Orange Is the New Black, The Wire, NCIS: New Orleans, Law & Order: Special Victims Unit and The Good Fight. Variations of the chant were used in Duckman: Private Dick/Family Man ("Sciatica!"), The League ("Gattaca!"), Sabrina, the Teenage Witch ("Cattica, Cattica!") and House MD Season 3 Episode 4 "Lines in the Sand".
- List of notable prison riots
- We Are Attica: Interviews with Prisoners from Attica (internet archive)
- L.D. Barkley — A leader in the Attica uprising by Monica Moorehead published on February 17, 2021 (internet archive)
- Leader of the riot
- Responsible for the prison security
- Head of the inmates and hostages internal security and served as a liaison between the inmates of D-yard and the authorities
- Who avoided becoming hostages
- 4 prisoners killed by other prisoners before the assault. The rest were killed by police fire during the assault
- By friendly fire
- 1 died from a head injury sustained before the assault, 8 were killed by friendly fire during the assault, and 1 died later from gunshot wounds caused by friendly fire during the assault
- 3 by friendly fire, 2 by inmates' knives
- "Timeline of Events of the Attica Prison Uprising of 1971 and Subsequent Legal Actions". New York State Archives.
- The Milwaukee Star (1971)
- Ferretti (1971)
- "Attica Correctional Facility: 1971 Prison Riot". Attica Central School District. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved October 4, 2006.
- "People & Events: Attica Prison Riot – September 9–13, 1971". American Experience—The Rockefellers. Public Broadcasting Service. Archived from the original on September 8, 2006. Retrieved October 4, 2006.
- Attica Timeline
- Eyes on the Prize (1990)
- Criminal Injustice: Death and Politics at Attica (2013)
- "The Attica Liberation Faction Manifesto of Demands". Race & Class. 53 (2): 28–35. October 1, 2011. doi:10.1177/0306396811414338. ISSN 0306-3968.
- "The Attica Liberation Faction Manifesto of Demands and Anti-Depression Platform". Race & Class. 53 (2). 1971. doi:10.1177/0306396811414338. S2CID 220736353.
- Oppenheimer, Mark (August 18, 2016). "'Blood in the Water,' a Gripping Account of the Attica Prison Uprising". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
- Benjamin, G., & Rappaport, S. (1974). Attica and Prison Reform. Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science, 31 (3), 203-212. Retrieved October 6, 2006, from JSTOR database.
- Ann Thompson, Heather (August 23, 2016). Blood in the Water: The Attica Prison Uprising of 1971 and Its Legacy. Pantheon. p. 170. ISBN 978-0375423222.
- "A Year Ago at Attica". Time. September 25, 1972. Archived from the original on February 9, 2009. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- Olsson, Göran Hugo. Rogell, Annika. Barnes, Joslyn. Glover, Danny. Arnö, Axel. Questlove. Keith, Om'Mas. Carmichael, Stokely. Seale, Bobby, 1936- Davis, Angela Y. (Angela Yvonne), 1944- Chisholm, Shirley, 1924-2005. Farrakhan, Louis. Cleaver, Eldridge, 1935-1998. (2013), The Black power mixtape 1967-1975, Distributed by Pinnacle Films, OCLC 864811922, retrieved June 20, 2020CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "The Nation: War at Attica: Was There No Other Way?". Time. September 27, 1971.
- "Use of Shotguns in Attica Revolt Deplored in House Unit's Report; No Comment on Report". The New York Times. June 27, 1973.
- Attica: The Official Report of the New York State Special Commission on Attica (PDF). New York: Bantam Books. 1972. p. 456 (digital page 496). OCLC 601935. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 4, 2012. Retrieved December 1, 2011.
- Schmalleger, F. & Smykla, J. (2001). Corrections in the 21st Century. New York: McGraw-Hill.
- Kohli, Sonali (March 3, 2015). "America's bloodiest day (since the Civil War) that no one talks about". QZ. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
- "Television | KQED Public Media".
- "Criminal Injustice: Death & Politics at Attica".
- Ferretti, Fred (September 15, 1971). "Autopsies Show Shots Killed 9 Attica Hostages, Not Knives; State Official Admits Mistake". The New York Times. p. 1.
- Farrell, William E. (September 17, 1971). "Rockefeller Lays Hostages' Deaths to Troopers' Fire". The New York Times. p. 1.
- Berger, Dan, Outlaws of America: the Weather Underground and the politics of solidarity, (AK Press, 2006) pp. 182–3, via Google Books. Retrieved September 12, 2011.
- Al-Jundi v. Mancusi, 113 F. Supp. 2d 441 (W.D.N.Y. 2000)
- Chen, David W. (August 29, 2000). "Compensation Set On Attica Uprising". The New York Times. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- "State and Prison Workers Settle Attica Riot Claims". The New York Times. January 14, 2005. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- Kaplan, Thomas (April 19, 2013). "Decades Later, State Seeks Release of Report on Attica Uprising". The New York Times. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- New Attica documents reveal inmate accounts of torture after 1971 prison uprising The Guardian
- "Obituary:Vincent Mancusi". Daily Telegraph. September 24, 2012. Retrieved September 27, 2012.
- Attica: The Official Report of the New York State Special Commission on Attica (PDF). New York: Bantam Books. 1972. pp. 28 (digital page 67). OCLC 601935. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 4, 2012. Retrieved December 1, 2011.
- "Akil Al-jundi, et al., Plaintiffs-appellees, v. Vincent Mancusi, Karl Pfeil, Russell G. Oswald, Defendants-appellants, the Estate of Nelson A. Rockefeller, et al., Defendants, 926 F.2d 235 (2d Cir. 1991)".
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 19, 2006. Retrieved July 31, 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Tuesday, September 13 >> Featured Screening: Attica at BAMcinématek". ScreenSlate. September 13, 2011. Archived from the original on February 19, 2014. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
- "Alexander Street Store | Alexander Street, a ProQuest Company".
- "Criminal Injustice: Death and Politics at Attica".
- Savali, Kirsten West (September 10, 2016). "#Attica45: Muhammad Ali Recites His Powerful Poem About the Attica Prison Uprising". The Root. Retrieved May 13, 2018.
- Rzewski, Frederic. Coming Together / Les Moutons de Panurge / Attica. Opus One: 20.
- Thompson, Heather Ann. "Editorial: 'Orange' is the New Attica on Netflix". NBC News. NBC. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Source: Time Travel Files: "Past Tense". DVD extra included with Star Trek: Deep Space Nine – The Complete Third Season. ASIN B00008KA5A.
- "Traces of Mind Control from Cold War America | Reforming : Legacy of the Attica Prison Riot". traces.brynmawr.edu. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
- Comic Perversion
- Bandele, Asha (September 9, 2011). "After the Attica Uprising. The history of the massacre at Attica should be used to challenge the continued injustices of mass incarceration". The Nation. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
- Hampton, Henry; Fayer, Steve; Flynn, Sarah, eds. (1990). Voices of Freedom: An Oral History of the Civil Rights Movement from the 1950s through the 1980s. New York: Bantam Books. ISBN 9780553352320. OCLC 690078672.
- Zinn, Howard. "Surprises". A People's History of the United States: 1492–Present. New ed. New York: HarperCollins, 2003. 506-539. Print.
- Eyes on the Prize. Dir. Henry Hampton. PBS Video, 1990. Film.
- "Attica Timeline". Attica Is All of Us. N.p., n.d. Web. November 24, 2013. <https://web.archive.org/web/20131219064248/http://atticaisallofus.org/?page_id=506%3E.
- "The Attica Liberation Faction Manifesto of Demands". Race & Class 53.2 (2011): 28–35. Academic Search Complete. Web. November 20, 2013.
- "Episodes from the Attica Rebellion". The Black Scholar 4 (1972): 34-39. JSTOR. Web.
- Criminal Injustice: Death and Politics at Attica. Christine Christopher. Blue Sky Project, 2013.
- Ferretti, Fred. "Like a War Zone". The New York Times September 18, 1971: 1+. ProQuest. Web.
- "41 Dead. Attica: National Tragedy". Milwaukee Star September 18, 1971: 1–2. African American Newspapers, 1827-1998. Web.
- Bell, Malcolm. The Turkey Shoot: Tracking the Attica Cover-up. Grove Press edition, 1985. ISBN 0-394-55020-X.
- Thompson, Heather Ann (August 23, 2016). BLOOD in the WATER : The Attica Prison Uprising of 1971 and Its Legacy (Vintage Books ed.). New York: Pantheon Books. ISBN 9780375423222.
- Attica Manifesto presented to Commissioner Oswald and Governor Rockefeller on July 2,1971 by the Attica Liberation Faction
- Five Demands & 15 Practical Proposals delivered to Commissioner Oswald on September 9, 1971
- Interview with Laverne Barkley
- Yahoo! Directory: Attica Riot links
- Attica Prison Riot: Memories strong after 40 years
- Democrat and Chronicle: Attica – A History In Photographs
- Talking History: Attica Revisited
- Photographs taken during and after the prison riot
- "The Truth about Attica by an Inmate", National Review, March 31, 1972
- video interviews with Frank Smith
- Short history on American Experience at PBS.org
- Short history from Eyes on the Prize at PBS.org
- The Attica Prison Uprising on libcom.org—with links to related articles on the prisoners' movement, Black Panthers, Vietnam, etc.
- 40 Years After the Attica Uprising: Looking Back, Moving Forward - Conference website exploring the uprising 40 years later
- How Power Works. Chris Hedges for Truthdig, October 23, 2016.