|Born||Arthur Asher Miller|
October 17, 1915
Harlem, New York City, U.S.
|Died||February 10, 2005 (aged 89)|
Roxbury, Connecticut, U.S.
|Alma mater||University of Michigan|
|Children||4, including Rebecca Miller|
Arthur Asher Miller (October 17, 1915 – February 10, 2005) was an American playwright and essayist in the 20th-century American theater. Among his most popular plays are All My Sons (1947), Death of a Salesman (1949), The Crucible (1953), and A View from the Bridge (1955, revised 1956). He wrote several screenplays and was most noted for his work on The Misfits (1961). The drama Death of a Salesman has been numbered on the short list of finest American plays in the 20th century.
Miller was often in the public eye, particularly during the late 1940s, 1950s and early 1960s. During this time, he was awarded a Pulitzer Prize for Drama, testified before the House Un-American Activities Committee, and married Marilyn Monroe. In 1980, Miller received the St. Louis Literary Award from the Saint Louis University Library Associates. He received the Prince of Asturias Award, the Praemium Imperiale prize in 2002 and the Jerusalem Prize in 2003, as well as the Dorothy and Lillian Gish Prize in 1999.
Miller was born on October 17, 1915, in Harlem, in the New York City borough of Manhattan, and has published an account of his early years under the title 'A Boy Grew in Brooklyn'; the second of three children of Augusta (Barnett) and Isidore Miller. Miller was Jewish and of Polish-Jewish descent. His father was born in Radomyśl Wielki, Galicia (then part of Austria-Hungary, now Poland), and his mother was a native of New York whose parents also arrived from that town. Isidore owned a women's clothing manufacturing business employing 400 people. He became a wealthy and respected man in the community. The family, including Miller's younger sister Joan Copeland, lived on West 110th Street in Manhattan, owned a summer house in Far Rockaway, Queens, and employed a chauffeur. In the Wall Street Crash of 1929, the family lost almost everything and moved to Gravesend, Brooklyn. (One source says they moved to Midwood.) As a teenager, Miller delivered bread every morning before school to help the family. After graduating in 1932 from Abraham Lincoln High School, he worked at several menial jobs to pay for his college tuition at the University of Michigan. After graduation (circa 1936), he began to work as a psychiatric aide and also a copywriter before accepting faculty posts at New York University and University of New Hampshire. On May 1, 1935, Miller joined the League of American Writers (1935–1943), whose members included Alexander Trachtenberg of International Publishers, Franklin Folsom, Louis Untermeyer, I. F. Stone, Myra Page, Millen Brand, Lillian Hellman, and Dashiell Hammett. (Members were largely either Communist Party members or fellow travelers.)
At the University of Michigan, Miller first majored in journalism and worked for the student newspaper, The Michigan Daily, as well as the satirical Gargoyle Humor Magazine. It was during this time that he wrote his first play, No Villain. Miller switched his major to English, and subsequently won the Avery Hopwood Award for No Villain. The award brought him his first recognition and led him to begin to consider that he could have a career as a playwright. Miller enrolled in a playwriting seminar taught by the influential Professor Kenneth Rowe, who instructed him in his early forays into playwriting; Rowe emphasized how a play is built in order to achieve its intended effect, or what Miller called "the dynamics of play construction". Rowe provided realistic feedback along with much-needed encouragement, and became a lifelong friend. Miller retained strong ties to his alma mater throughout the rest of his life, establishing the university's Arthur Miller Award in 1985 and Arthur Miller Award for Dramatic Writing in 1999, and lending his name to the Arthur Miller Theatre in 2000. In 1937, Miller wrote Honors at Dawn, which also received the Avery Hopwood Award. After his graduation in 1938, he joined the Federal Theatre Project, a New Deal agency established to provide jobs in the theater. He chose the theater project despite the more lucrative offer to work as a scriptwriter for 20th Century Fox. However, Congress, worried about possible Communist infiltration, closed the project in 1939. Miller began working in the Brooklyn Navy Yard while continuing to write radio plays, some of which were broadcast on CBS.
In 1940, Miller married Mary Grace Slattery. The couple had two children, Jane and Robert (born May 31, 1947). Miller was exempted from military service during World War II because of a high school football injury to his left kneecap. That same year his first play was produced; The Man Who Had All the Luck won the Theatre Guild's National Award. The play closed after four performances with disastrous reviews.
In 1947, Miller's play All My Sons, the writing of which had commenced in 1941, was a success on Broadway (earning him his first Tony Award, for Best Author) and his reputation as a playwright was established. Years later, in a 1994 interview with Ron Rifkin, Miller said that most contemporary critics regarded All My Sons as "a very depressing play in a time of great optimism" and that positive reviews from Brooks Atkinson of The New York Times had saved it from failure.
In 1948, Miller built a small studio in Roxbury, Connecticut. There, in less than a day, he wrote Act I of Death of a Salesman. Within six weeks, he completed the rest of the play, one of the classics of world theater. Death of a Salesman premiered on Broadway on February 10, 1949, at the Morosco Theatre, directed by Elia Kazan, and starring Lee J. Cobb as Willy Loman, Mildred Dunnock as Linda, Arthur Kennedy as Biff, and Cameron Mitchell as Happy. The play was commercially successful and critically acclaimed, winning a Tony Award for Best Author, the New York Drama Circle Critics' Award, and the Pulitzer Prize for Drama. It was the first play to win all three of these major awards. The play was performed 742 times.
In 1949, Miller exchanged letters with Eugene O'Neill regarding Miller's production of All My Sons. O'Neill had sent Miller a congratulatory telegram; in response, he wrote a letter that consisted of a few paragraphs detailing his gratitude for the telegram, apologizing for not responding earlier, and inviting Eugene to the opening of Death of a Salesman. O'Neill replied, accepting the apology, but declining the invitation, explaining that his Parkinson's disease made it difficult to travel. He ended the letter with an invitation to Boston, a trip that never occurred.
In 1955, a one-act version of Miller's verse drama A View from the Bridge opened on Broadway in a joint bill with one of Miller's lesser-known plays, A Memory of Two Mondays. The following year, Miller revised A View from the Bridge as a two-act prose drama, which Peter Brook directed in London. A French-Italian co-production Vu du pont, based on the play, was released in 1962.
Marriages and family
In June 1956, Miller left his first wife, Mary Slattery, whom he had married in 1940, and wed film star Marilyn Monroe. They had met in 1951, had a brief affair, and remained in contact since. Monroe had just turned 30 when they married; she never had a real family of her own and was eager to join the family of her new husband.:156
Monroe began to reconsider the her career and the fact that trying to manage it made her feel helpless. She admitted to Miller, "I hate Hollywood. I don't want it anymore. I want to live quietly in the country and just be there when you need me. I can't fight for myself anymore.":154
She converted to Judaism to "express her loyalty and get close to both Miller and his parents", writes biographer Jeffrey Meyers.:156 Monroe told her close friend, Susan Strasberg: "I can identify with the Jews. Everybody's always out to get them, no matter what they do, like me.":156 Soon after she converted, Egypt banned all of her movies.:157
Away from Hollywood and the culture of celebrity, Monroe's life became more normal; she began cooking, keeping house and giving Miller more attention and affection than he had been used to.:157
I am so concerned about protecting Arthur. I love him—and he is the only person—human being I have ever known that I could love not only as a man to which I am attracted to practically out of my senses—but he is the only person—as another human being that I trust as much as myself...
Miller began work on writing the screenplay for The Misfits in 1960, directed by John Huston and starring Monroe. But it was during the filming that Miller and Monroe's relationship hit difficulties, and he later said that the filming was one of the lowest points in his life. Monroe was taking drugs to help her sleep and more drugs to help her wake up, which caused her to arrive on the set late and then have trouble remembering her lines. Huston was unaware that Miller and Monroe were having problems in their private life. He recalled later, "I was impertinent enough to say to Arthur that to allow her to take drugs of any kind was criminal and utterly irresponsible. Shortly after that I realized that she wouldn't listen to Arthur at all; he had no say over her actions."
Shortly before the film's premiere in 1961, Miller and Monroe divorced after their five years of marriage. Nineteen months later, August 5, 1962, Monroe died of a likely drug overdose. Huston, who had also directed her in her first major role in The Asphalt Jungle in 1950, and who had seen her rise to stardom, put the blame for her death on her doctors as opposed to the stresses of being a star: "The girl was an addict of sleeping pills and she was made so by the God-damn doctors. It had nothing to do with the Hollywood set-up."
Miller married photographer Inge Morath in February 1962. She had worked as a photographer documenting the production of The Misfits. The first of their two children, Rebecca, was born September 15, 1962. Their son, Daniel, was born with Down syndrome in November 1966. Against his wife's wishes, Miller had him institutionalized, first at a home for infants in New York City, and then at the Southbury Training School in Connecticut. Though Morath visited Daniel often, Miller never visited him at the school and rarely spoke of him. Miller and Inge remained together until her death in 2002. Arthur Miller's son-in-law, actor Daniel Day-Lewis, is said to have visited Daniel frequently, and to have persuaded Arthur Miller to meet with him.
HUAC controversy and The Crucible
In 1952, Elia Kazan appeared before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC). Kazan named eight members of the Group Theatre, including Clifford Odets, Paula Strasberg, Lillian Hellman, J. Edward Bromberg, and John Garfield, who in recent years had been fellow members of the Communist Party. Miller and Kazan were close friends throughout the late 1940s and early 1950s, but after Kazan's testimony to the HUAC, the pair's friendship ended. After speaking with Kazan about his testimony, Miller traveled to Salem, Massachusetts, to research the witch trials of 1692. He and Kazan did not speak to each other for the next ten years. Kazan later defended his own actions through his film On the Waterfront, in which a dockworker heroically testifies against a corrupt union boss. Miller would retaliate to Kazan's work by writing A View from the Bridge, a play where a longshoreman ousts his co-workers motivated only by jealousy and greed. He sent a copy of the initial script to Kazan and when the director asked in jest to direct the movie, Miller replied "I only sent you the script to let you know what I think of Stool-Pigeons."
In The Crucible, Miller likened the situation with the House Un-American Activities Committee to the witch hunt in Salem in 1692. The play opened at the Martin Beck Theatre on Broadway on January 22, 1953. Though widely considered only somewhat successful at the time of its release, today The Crucible is Miller's most frequently produced work throughout the world. It was adapted into an opera by Robert Ward in 1961.
The HUAC took an interest in Miller himself not long after The Crucible opened, denying him a passport to attend the play's London opening in 1954. When Miller applied in 1956 for a routine renewal of his passport, the House Un-American Activities Committee used this opportunity to subpoena him to appear before the committee. Before appearing, Miller asked the committee not to ask him to name names, to which the chairman, Francis E. Walter (D-PA) agreed. When Miller attended the hearing, to which Monroe accompanied him, risking her own career, he gave the committee a detailed account of his political activities. Reneging on the chairman's promise, the committee demanded the names of friends and colleagues who had participated in similar activities. Miller refused to comply, saying "I could not use the name of another person and bring trouble on him." As a result, a judge found Miller guilty of contempt of Congress in May 1957. Miller was sentenced to a fine and a prison sentence, blacklisted, and disallowed a US passport. In August 1958, his conviction was overturned by the court of appeals, which ruled that Miller had been misled by the chairman of the HUAC.
Miller's experience with the HUAC affected him throughout his life. In the late 1970s, he joined other celebrities (including William Styron and Mike Nichols) who were brought together by the journalist Joan Barthel. Barthel's coverage of the highly publicized Barbara Gibbons murder case helped raise bail for Gibbons' son Peter Reilly, who had been convicted of his mother's murder based on what many felt was a coerced confession and little other evidence. Barthel documented the case in her book A Death in Canaan, which was made as a television film of the same name and broadcast in 1978. City Confidential, an A&E Network series, produced an episode about the murder, postulating that part of the reason Miller took such an active interest (including supporting Reilly's defense and using his own celebrity to bring attention to Reilly's plight) was because he had felt similarly persecuted in his run-ins with the HUAC. He sympathized with Reilly, whom he firmly believed to be innocent and to have been railroaded by the Connecticut State Police and the Attorney General who had initially prosecuted the case.
In 1964, After the Fall was produced, and is said to be a deeply personal view of Miller's experiences during his marriage to Monroe. The play reunited Miller with his former friend Kazan: they collaborated on both the script and the direction. After the Fall opened on January 23, 1964, at the ANTA Theatre in Washington Square Park amid a flurry of publicity and outrage at putting a Monroe-like character, called Maggie, on stage. Robert Brustein, in a review in the New Republic, called After the Fall "a three and one half hour breach of taste, a confessional autobiography of embarrassing explicitness ... there is a misogynistic strain in the play which the author does not seem to recognize. ... He has created a shameless piece of tabloid gossip, an act of exhibitionism which makes us all voyeurs, ... a wretched piece of dramatic writing." That same year, Miller produced Incident at Vichy. In 1965, Miller was elected the first American president of PEN International, a position which he held for four years. A year later, Miller organized the 1966 PEN congress in New York City. Miller also wrote the penetrating family drama, The Price, produced in 1968. It was Miller's most successful play since Death of a Salesman.
In 1968, Miller attended the Democratic National Convention as a delegate for Eugene McCarthy. In 1969, Miller's works were banned in the Soviet Union after he campaigned for the freedom of dissident writers. Throughout the 1970s, Miller spent much of his time experimenting with the theatre, producing one-act plays such as Fame and The Reason Why, and traveling with his wife, producing In The Country and Chinese Encounters with her. Both his 1972 comedy The Creation of the World and Other Business and its musical adaptation, Up from Paradise, were critical and commercial failures.
Miller was an unusually articulate commentator on his own work. In 1978 he published a collection of his Theater Essays, edited by Robert A. Martin and with a foreword by Miller. Highlights of the collection included Miller's introduction to his Collected Plays, his reflections on the theory of tragedy, comments on the McCarthy Era, and pieces arguing for a publicly supported theater. Reviewing this collection in the Chicago Tribune, Studs Terkel remarked, "in reading [the Theater Essays]...you are exhilaratingly aware of a social critic, as well as a playwright, who knows what he's talking about."
In 1983, Miller traveled to China to produce and direct Death of a Salesman at the People's Art Theatre in Beijing. The play was a success in China and in 1984, Salesman in Beijing, a book about Miller's experiences in Beijing, was published. Around the same time, Death of a Salesman was made into a TV movie starring Dustin Hoffman as Willy Loman. Shown on CBS, it attracted 25 million viewers. In late 1987, Miller's autobiographical work, Timebends, was published. Before it was published, it was well known that Miller would not talk about Monroe in interviews; in Timebends Miller talks about his experiences with Monroe in detail.
During the early-mid 1990s, Miller wrote three new plays: The Ride Down Mt. Morgan (1991), The Last Yankee (1992), and Broken Glass (1994). In 1996, a film of The Crucible starring Daniel Day-Lewis, Paul Scofield, Bruce Davison, and Winona Ryder opened. Miller spent much of 1996 working on the screenplay for the film.
Mr. Peters' Connections was staged Off-Broadway in 1998, and Death of a Salesman was revived on Broadway in 1999 to celebrate its fiftieth anniversary. The play, once again, was a large critical success, winning a Tony Award for best revival of a play.
In 1993, he was awarded the National Medal of Arts. Miller was honored with the PEN/Laura Pels Theater Award for a Master American Dramatist in 1998. In 2001 the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) selected Miller for the Jefferson Lecture, the U.S. federal government's highest honor for achievement in the humanities. Miller's lecture was entitled "On Politics and the Art of Acting." Miller's lecture analyzed political events (including the U.S. presidential election of 2000) in terms of the "arts of performance", and it drew attacks from some conservatives such as Jay Nordlinger, who called it "a disgrace", and George Will, who argued that Miller was not legitimately a "scholar".
In 1999, Miller was awarded The Dorothy and Lillian Gish Prize, one of the richest prizes in the arts, given annually to "a man or woman who has made an outstanding contribution to the beauty of the world and to mankind's enjoyment and understanding of life." In 2001, Miller received the National Book Foundation's Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters. On May 1, 2002, Miller was awarded Spain's Principe de Asturias Prize for Literature as "the undisputed master of modern drama". Later that year, Ingeborg Morath died of lymphatic cancer at the age of 78. The following year Miller won the Jerusalem Prize.
In December 2004, 89-year-old Miller announced that he had been in love with 34-year-old minimalist painter Agnes Barley and had been living with her at his Connecticut farm since 2002, and that they intended to marry. Within hours of her father's death, Rebecca Miller ordered Barley to vacate the premises because she had consistently been opposed to the relationship. Miller's final play, Finishing the Picture, opened at the Goodman Theatre, Chicago, in the fall of 2004, with one character said to be based on Barley. It was reported to be based on his experience during the filming The Misfits, though Miller insisted the play is a work of fiction with independent characters that were no more than composite shadows of history.
Miller died on the evening of February 10, 2005 (the 56th anniversary of the Broadway debut of Death of a Salesman) at age 89 of bladder cancer and heart failure, at his home in Roxbury, Connecticut. He had been in hospice care at his sister's apartment in New York since his release from hospital the previous month. He was surrounded by Barley, family and friends. His body was interred at Roxbury Center Cemetery in Roxbury.
Miller's career as a writer spanned over seven decades, and at the time of his death, Miller was considered to be one of the greatest dramatists of the twentieth century. After his death, many respected actors, directors, and producers paid tribute to Miller, some calling him the last great practitioner of the American stage, and Broadway theatres darkened their lights in a show of respect. Miller's alma mater, the University of Michigan, opened the Arthur Miller Theatre in March 2007. As per his express wish, it is the only theatre in the world that bears Miller's name.
Other notable arrangements for Miller's legacy are that his letters, notes, drafts and other papers are housed at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at The University of Texas at Austin.
The Arthur Miller Foundation was founded to honor the legacy of Miller and his New York City Public School Education. The mission of the foundation is: "Promoting increased access and equity to theater arts education in our schools and increasing the number of students receiving theater arts education as an integral part of their academic curriculum." Other initiatives include certification of new theater teachers and their placement in public schools; increasing the number of theater teachers in the system from the current estimate of 180 teachers in 1800 schools; supporting professional development of all certified theater teachers; providing teaching artists, cultural partners, physical spaces, and theater ticket allocations for students. The foundation's primary purpose is to provide arts education in the New York City school system. The current chancellor of the foundation is Carmen Farina, a large proponent of the Common Core State Standards Initiative. The Master Arts Council includes, among others, Alec Baldwin, Ellen Barkin, Bradley Cooper, Dustin Hoffman, Scarlett Johansson, Tony Kushner, Julianne Moore, Michael Moore, Liam Neeson, David O. Russell, and Liev Schreiber. Son-in-law Daniel Day-Lewis serves on the current board of directors.
The foundation celebrated Miller's 100th birthday with a one-night-only performance of Miller's seminal works in November 2015.
The Arthur Miller Foundation currently supports a pilot program in theater and film at the public school Quest to Learn in partnership with the Institute of Play. The model is being used as an in-school elective theater class and lab. The objective is to create a sustainable theater education model to disseminate to teachers at professional development workshops.
Miller donated thirteen boxes of his earliest manuscripts to the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas at Austin in 1961 and 1962. This collection included the original handwritten notebooks and early typed drafts for Death of a Salesman, The Crucible, All My Sons, and other works. In January, 2018, the Ransom Center announced the acquisition of the remainder of the Miller archive totaling over 200 boxes. The full archive opened in November, 2019.
Literary and public criticism
Christopher Bigsby wrote Arthur Miller: The Definitive Biography based on boxes of papers Miller made available to him before his death in 2005. The book was published in November 2008, and is reported to reveal unpublished works in which Miller "bitterly attack[ed] the injustices of American racism long before it was taken up by the civil rights movement".
In his book Trinity of Passion, author Alan M. Wald conjectures that Miller was "a member of a writer's unit of the Communist Party around 1946," using the pseudonym Matt Wayne, and editing a drama column in the magazine The New Masses.
In 1999 the writer Christopher Hitchens attacked Miller for comparing the Monica Lewinsky investigation to the Salem witch hunt. Miller had asserted a parallel between the examination of physical evidence on Lewinsky's dress and the examinations of women's bodies for signs of the "Devil's Marks" in Salem. Hitchens scathingly disputed the parallel. In his memoir, Hitch-22, Hitchens bitterly noted that Miller, despite his prominence as a left-wing intellectual, had failed to support author Salman Rushdie during the Iranian fatwa involving The Satanic Verses.
- No Villain (1936)
- They Too Arise (1937, based on No Villain)
- Honors at Dawn (1938, based on They Too Arise)
- The Grass Still Grows (1938, based on They Too Arise)
- The Great Disobedience (1938)
- Listen My Children (1939, with Norman Rosten)
- The Golden Years (1940)
- The Man Who Had All the Luck (1940)
- The Half-Bridge (1943)
- All My Sons (1947)
- Death of a Salesman (1949)
- An Enemy of the People (1950, based on Henrik Ibsen's play An Enemy of the People)
- The Crucible (1953)
- A View from the Bridge (1955)
- A Memory of Two Mondays (1955)
- After the Fall (1964)
- Incident at Vichy (1964)
- The Price (1968)
- The Reason Why (1970)
- Fame (one-act, 1970; revised for television 1978)
- The Creation of the World and Other Business (1972)
- Up from Paradise (1974)
- The Archbishop's Ceiling (1977)
- The American Clock (1980)
- Playing for Time (television play, 1980)
- Elegy for a Lady (short play, 1982, first part of Two Way Mirror)
- Some Kind of Love Story (short play, 1982, second part of Two Way Mirror)
- I Think About You a Great Deal (1986)
- Playing for Time (stage version, 1985)
- I Can't Remember Anything (1987, collected in Danger: Memory!)
- Clara (1987, collected in Danger: Memory!)
- The Ride Down Mt. Morgan (1991)
- The Last Yankee (1993)
- Broken Glass (1994)
- Mr. Peters' Connections (1998)
- Resurrection Blues (2002)
- Finishing the Picture (2004)
- The Pussycat and the Expert Plumber Who Was a Man (1941)
- Joel Chandler Harris (1941)
- The Battle of the Ovens (1942)
- Thunder from the Mountains (1942)
- I Was Married in Bataan (1942)
- That They May Win (1943)
- Listen for the Sound of Wings (1943)
- Bernardine (1944)
- I Love You (1944)
- Grandpa and the Statue (1944)
- The Philippines Never Surrendered (1944)
- The Guardsman (1944, based on Ferenc Molnár's play)
- The Story of Gus (1947)
- The Hook (1947)
- All My Sons (1948)
- Let's Make Love (1960)
- The Misfits (1961)
- Death of a Salesman (1985)
- Everybody Wins (1990)
- The Crucible (1996)
- Focus (novel, 1945)
- "The Misfits" (short story, published in Esquire, October 1957)
- I Don't Need You Anymore (short stories, 1967)
- Homely Girl: A Life (short story, 1992, published in UK as "Plain Girl: A Life" 1995)
- "The Performance" (short story)
- Presence: Stories (2007) (short stories include The Bare Manuscript, Beavers, The Performance, and Bulldog)
- Situation Normal (1944) is based on his experiences researching the war correspondence of Ernie Pyle.
- In Russia (1969), the first of three books created with his photographer wife Inge Morath, offers Miller's impressions of Russia and Russian society.
- In the Country (1977), with photographs by Morath and text by Miller, provides insight into how Miller spent his time in Roxbury, Connecticut, and profiles of his various neighbors.
- Chinese Encounters (1979) is a travel journal with photographs by Morath. It depicts the Chinese society in the state of flux which followed the end of the Cultural Revolution. Miller discusses the hardships of many writers, professors, and artists as they try to regain the sense of freedom and place they lost during Mao Zedong's regime.
- Salesman in Beijing (1984) details Miller's experiences with the 1983 Beijing People's Theatre production of Death of a Salesman. He describes the idiosyncrasies, understandings, and insights encountered in directing a Chinese cast in a decidedly American play.
- Timebends: A Life, Methuen London (1987) ISBN 0-413-41480-9. Like Death of a Salesman, the book follows the structure of memory itself, each passage linked to and triggered by the one before.
- Abbotson, Susan C. W. (ed.), Arthur Miller: Collected Essays, Penguin 2016 ISBN 978-0-14-310849-8
- Centola, Steven R. ed. Echoes Down the Corridor: Arthur Miller, Collected Essays 1944–2000, Viking Penguin (US)/Methuen (UK), 2000 ISBN 0-413-75690-4
- Kushner, Tony, ed. Arthur Miller, Collected Plays 1944–1961 (Library of America, 2006) ISBN 978-1-931082-91-4.
- Martin, Robert A. (ed.), "The theater essays of Arthur Miller", foreword by Arthur Miller. NY: Viking Press, 1978 ISBN 0-14-004903-7
- "Website of St. Louis Literary Award". Archived from the original on August 23, 2016. Retrieved July 25, 2016.
- Saint Louis University Library Associates. "Recipients of the Saint Louis Literary Award". Archived from the original on July 31, 2016. Retrieved July 25, 2016.
- Associated Press, "Citing Arts' Power, Arthur Miller Accepts International Prize." Los Angeles Times, 4 September 2002
- Ratcliffe, Michael (February 12, 2005). "Arthur Miller". The Guardian. Retrieved May 8, 2018.
- Miller, Gerri (March 14, 2018). "Daughter Documents the Inner Arthur Miller". Jewish Journal. Retrieved May 8, 2018.
- Kampel, Stewart (September 19, 2013). "Q&A with Rebecca Miller". Hadassah Magazine. Retrieved May 8, 2018.
- Campbell, James (July 26, 2003). "Arthurian legends". The Guardian. Retrieved May 8, 2018.
- Arthur Miller's Intermarriages Archived December 22, 2015, at the Wayback Machine Golin, Paul. Published February 16, 2005. Accessed December 12, 2015.
- "Marilyn Monroe's Jewish Wedding 'Cover Up'" Ghert-Zand, Renee. Published December 28, 2012. Accessed December 12, 2015.
- "A World in Which Everything Hurts; Arthur Miller's Struggle With Jewish Identity May Be Responsible for His Best Work" Eden, Ami. Published July 30, 2004. Accessed December 12, 2015.
- Arthur Miller, Timebends: A Life, A&C Black, 2012. p. 539.
- BBC TV Interview; Miller and Yentob; 'Finishing the Picture,' 2004
- Miller, Arthur (June 22, 1998) American Summer: Before Air-Conditioning. The New Yorker. Retrieved on October 30, 2013.
- Garner, Dwight (June 2, 2009). "Miller: Life before and after Marilyn". The New York Times. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- The Times Arthur Miller Obituary, (London: The Times, 2005)
- Applebome, Peter. "Present at the Birth of a Salesman", The New York Times, January 29, 1999. Accessed February 8, 2019. "Mr. Miller was born in Harlem in 1915 and then moved with his family to the Midwood section of Brooklyn."
- Hechinger, Fred M. "Personal Touch Helps", The New York Times, January 1, 1980. Accessed September 20, 2009. "Lincoln, an ordinary, unselective New York City high school, is proud of a galaxy of prominent alumni, who include the playwright Arthur Miller, Representative Elizabeth Holtzman, the authors Joseph Heller and Ken Auletta, the producer Mel Brooks, the singer Neil Diamond and the songwriter Neil Sedaka."
- Page, Myra; Baker, Christina Looper (1996). In a Generous Spirit: A First-Person Biography of Myra Page. University of Illinois Press. p. 145. ISBN 9780252065439. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- "A Brief Chronology of Arthur Miller's Life and Works". The Arthur Miller Society. Archived from the original on October 2, 2006. Retrieved September 24, 2006.
- For Rowe's recollections of Miller's work as a student playwright, see Kenneth Thorpe Rowe, "Shadows Cast Before," in Robert A. Martin, ed. (1982) Arthur Miller: New Perspectives, Prentice-Hall, ISBN 0130488011. Rowe's influential book Write That Play (Funk and Wagnalls, 1939), which appeared just a year after Miller's graduation, describes Rowe's approach to play construction.
- Arthur Miller, Timebends: A Life. New York: Grove Press, 1987, pp. 226–227
- "Arthur Miller Files (UM days)". University of Michigan. Retrieved September 24, 2006.
- "Arthur Miller and University of Michigan". University of Michigan. Archived from the original on September 13, 2006. Retrieved September 24, 2006.
- Ratcliffe, Michael (February 11, 2005). "Obituary: Arthur Miller". The Guardian. London. p. 25. Archived from the original on July 23, 2012. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- Royal National Theater: Platform Papers, 7. Arthur Miller (Battley Brothers Printers, 1995).
- Shenton, Mark (March 14, 2008). "The man who HAS all the luck..." The Stage. The Stage Newspaper Limited. Archived from the original on May 19, 2009. Retrieved May 6, 2009.
- Bigsby, C. W. E. (2005). Arthur Miller: A Critical Study. Cambridge University Press. p. 301. ISBN 978-0-521-60553-3.
- Rifkin, Ron, "Arthur Miller", BOMB Magazine Fall, 1994. Retrieved on July 18, 2012.
- "Obituary: Arthur Miller". BBC News. BBC. February 11, 2005. Retrieved September 21, 2010.
- Dan Isaac, Founding Father: O'Neill's Correspondence with Arthur Miller and Tennessee Williams, The Eugene O'Neill Review, Vol. 17, No. 1/2 (Spring/Fall 1993), pp. 124–33
- Miller, Arthur (1988) Introduction to Plays: One, London: Methuen, p. 51, ISBN 0413175502.
- Meyers, Jeffrey. The Genius and the Goddess: Arthur Miller and Marilyn Monroe. University of Illinois Press (2010) ISBN 978-0-252-03544-9
- Çakırtaş, Önder. "Double Portrayed: Tituba, Racism and Politics." International Journal of Language Academy. Volume 1/1 Winter 2013, pp. 13–22.
- Monroe, Marilyn (2010). Fragments: Poems, Intimate Notes, Letters. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. 89–101. ISBN 9780374158354.
- Celizic, Mike (June 2, 2008). "New footage of Marilyn Monroe, Clark Gable revealed". Today. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
- Grobel, Lawrence. The Hustons, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York (1989) p. 489
- "Marilyn Monroe is found dead". HISTORY. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
- Badman, Keith. The Final Years of Marilyn Monroe: The Shocking True Story, Aurum Press (2010) ebook, ISBN 9781781310519
- Andrews, Suzanna (September 2007). "Arthur Miller's Missing Act". Vanity Fair. Retrieved August 17, 2007.
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- For a frequently cited study of Miller's use of the Salem witchcraft episode, see Robert A. Martin, "Arthur Miller's The Crucible: Background and Sources", reprinted in James J. Martine, ed. (1979) Critical Essays on Arthur Miller, G. K. Hall, ISBN 0816182582.
- "Are you now, or were you ever?". University of Pennsylvania. Archived from the original on September 10, 2006. Retrieved September 25, 2006.
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- "Arthur Miller Files". University of Michigan. Retrieved April 2, 2016.
- Barthel, Joan:A Death in Canaan. New York: E.P. Dutton. 1976
- A Death in Canaan |url = https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0077412/
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- "Up from Paradise – Review". The New York Times. Retrieved January 11, 2009. (subscription required)
- Martin, Robert A. (1978) ed., The Theater Essays of Arthur Miller. Viking, ISBN 0670698016.
- The Cambridge History of American Theatre: Post-World War II to the 1990s, page 296 (Cambridge University Press, 2006).
- "Tony Awards 1999". tonyawards.com. Retrieved October 28, 2006.
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- Jefferson Lecturers at NEH Website. Retrieved January 22, 2009.
- Arthur Miller, "On Politics and the Art of Acting", text of Jefferson Lecture at NEH website.
- Bruce Craig, "Arthur Miller's Jefferson Lecture Stirs Controversy," in "Capital Commentary" Archived November 22, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, OAH Newsletter [published by Organization of American Historians], May 2001.
- Nordlinger, Jay (April 22, 2002) "Back to Plessy, Easter with Fidel, Miller's new tale, &c." National Review.
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- William Wrigg (January 12, 2003). "On Inge Morath's death". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved January 21, 2007.
- "At 89, Arthur Miller grows old romantically". The Daily Telegraph. December 11, 2004. Retrieved September 3, 2014.
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- "Arthur Miller creates a new work". USA Today. Chicago. October 10, 2004. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
And in the play's sweetest moments, he's found a new romance – Kitty's tenderhearted secretary, played by Fisher, a union perhaps mirroring Miller's reported new relationship with Agnes Barley, a 34-year-old artist.
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- AP. "Playwright Arthur Miller dies at age 89 – THEATER – Today.com". Today.com. Retrieved January 11, 2009.
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- "Legacy of Arthur Miller". BBC. February 11, 2005. Retrieved January 21, 2007.
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- "U-M celebrates naming of Arthur Miller Theatre". University of Michigan. Archived from the original on December 11, 2007. Retrieved November 12, 2007.
- "Theater Hall of Fame members".
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- Arthur Miller Foundation, summary report and legitimacy information, guidestar.org
- The Arthur Miller Foundation, arthurmillerfoundation.org
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- "Playwright Arthur Miller's archive comes to the Harry Ransom Center". sites.utexas.edu. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
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- "Playwright Arthur Miller's archive opens to researchers". sites.utexas.edu. Retrieved December 14, 2019.
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- Wald, Alan M (2007). "7". Trinity of passion: the literary left and the antifascist crusade. NC: University of North Carolina Press. pp. 212–221. ISBN 978-0-8078-3075-8. Retrieved May 6, 2009.
- Paul Kengor (October 16, 2015). "Arthur Miller – Communist". The American Spectator. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
Wald discovered that Miller published in New Masses under the pseudonym of 'Matt Wayne' from March 1945 to March 1946.
- Hitchens, Christopher (April 18, 1999). "Bill Clinton: Is He the Most Crooked President in History?". The Guardian. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
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- Bigsby, Christopher (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Arthur Miller, Cambridge 1997 ISBN 0-521-55992-8
- Gottfried, Martin, Arthur Miller, A Life, Da Capo Press (US)/Faber and Faber (UK), 2003 ISBN 0-571-21946-2
- Koorey, Stefani, Arthur Miller's Life and Literature, Scarecrow, 2000 ISBN 978-0810838697
- Moss, Leonard. Arthur Miller, Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1980.
- Critical Companion to Arthur Miller, Susan C. W. Abbotson, Greenwood (2007)
- Student Companion to Arthur Miller, Susan C. W. Abbotson, Facts on File (2000)
- File on Miller, Christopher Bigsby (1988)
- Arthur Miller & Company, Christopher Bigsby, editor (1990)
- Arthur Miller: A Critical Study, Christopher Bigsby (2005)
- Remembering Arthur Miller, Christopher Bigsby, editor (2005)
- Arthur Miller 1915–1962, Christopher Bigsby (2008, U.K.; 2009, U.S.)
- The Cambridge Companion to Arthur Miller (Cambridge Companions to Literature), Christopher Bigsby, editor (1998, updated and republished 2010)
- Arthur Miller 1962–2005, Christopher Bigsby (2011)
- Nelson, Benjamin (1970). Arthur Miller, Portrait of a Playwright. New York: McKay.
- Arthur Miller: Critical Insights, Brenda Murphy, editor, Salem (2011)
- Understanding Death of a Salesman, Brenda Murphy and Susan C. W. Abbotson, Greenwood (1999)
- Robert Willoughby Corrigan, ed. (1969). Arthur Miller: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 978-0135829738. OL 5683736M.
- Arthur Miller Journal, published biannually by Penn State UP. Vol. 1.1 (2006)
- Radavich, David. "Arthur Miller's Sojourn in the Heartland". American Drama 16:2 (Summer 2007): 28–45.
This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. (August 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- Arthur Miller Papers at the Harry Ransom Center
- "Playwright Arthur Miller’s archive comes to the Harry Ransom Center"
- Finding aid to Arthur Miller papers at Columbia University. Rare Book & Manuscript Library.
- Arthur Miller at the Internet Broadway Database
- Arthur Miller at the Internet Off-Broadway Database
- Arthur Miller at IMDb
- Arthur Miller at Curlie
- Arthur Miller at Find a Grave
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- A Visit With Castro – Miller's article in The Nation, January 12, 2004
- Works by Arthur Miller at Open Library
- Joyce Carol Oates on Arthur Miller
- Arthur Miller Biography
- Arthur Miller and Mccarthyism
- Carlisle, Olga & Styron, Rose (Summer 1966). "Arthur Miller, The Art of Theater No. 2". The Paris Review Interview. Summer 1966 (38).
- Bigby, Christopher (Fall 1999). "Arthur Miller, The Art of Theater No. 2, Part 2". The Paris Review. Fall 1999 (152).
- Miller interview, Humanities, March–April 2001
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