|Honorary Chairman||Alexander Gauland|
|Founded||6 February 2013|
|Youth wing||Young Alternative for Germany|
|European Parliament group|
88 / 709
0 / 69
243 / 1,868
11 / 96
^ a: The AfD is considered part of the radical right, a subset of the far right that does not oppose democracy.
Alternative for Germany (German: Alternative für Deutschland, AfD) is a German nationalist and right-wing populist political party, known for its opposition to the European Union and immigration. It is often characterized as being on the far-right of the political spectrum.
Established in April 2013, the AfD narrowly missed the 5% electoral threshold to sit in the Bundestag during the 2013 federal election. In 2014, the party won seven seats in the European election as a member of the European Conservatives and Reformists. After securing representation in 14 of the 16 German state parliaments by October 2017, in the 2017 federal election the AfD became the third-largest party in Germany after winning 94 seats in the Bundestag. It was the first time they had been represented there. The party is chaired by Jörg Meuthen and Tino Chrupalla; its lead candidates in the 2017 elections were AfD Co-Vice Chairman Alexander Gauland and Alice Weidel, who now serves as the party group leader in the Bundestag. In 2017 the AfD also became the largest opposition party in the Bundestag.
The AfD was founded by Bernd Lucke, Alexander Gauland, and former members of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) to oppose the policies of the eurozone. The party presented itself as a moderately eurosceptic and centre-right conservative movement in its early years. It subsequently expanded its policies under successive leadership to include opposition to mass immigration, Islam, the European Union, and has gradually moved to the far-right since its founding. Presently, the AfD is often described as a German nationalist, national-conservative, and Eurosceptic party. Since 2017, the AfD has been increasingly open to working with far-right extremist groups such as Pegida. Factions of the AfD have racist, Islamophobic, antisemitic, and xenophobic tendencies with links to neo-Nazism and the Identitarian movement. Party leaders have denied accusations of racism.
In March 2021, most of Germany's major media outlets reported that the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution (BfV) had placed the AfD under surveillance as a suspected extremist group. In March 2021, courts blocked the surveillance of AfD to give equal opportunities among political parties in a key election year .
In September 2012, Alexander Gauland, Bernd Lucke, and journalist Konrad Adam founded the political group Electoral Alternative 2013 (German: Wahlalternative 2013) in Bad Nauheim, to oppose German federal policies concerning the eurozone crisis, and to confront German-supported bailouts for poorer southern European countries.
Their manifesto was endorsed by several economists, journalists, and business leaders, and stated that the eurozone had proven to be "unsuitable" as a currency area and that southern European states were "sinking into poverty under the competitive pressure of the euro".
Some candidates of what would become the AfD sought election in Lower Saxony as part of the Electoral Alternative 2013 in alliance with the Free Voters, an association participating in local elections without specific federal or foreign policies, and received 1% of the vote. In February 2013 the group decided to found a new party to compete in the 2013 federal elections. The Free Voters leadership declined to join forces, according to a leaked email from Bernd Lucke. Advocating the abolition of the euro, Alternative for Germany (AfD) took a more radical stance than the Free Voters. Likewise, the Pirate Party of Germany opposed any coalition with the AfD at their 2013 spring convention.
The AfD's initial supporters were the same prominent economists, business leaders, and journalists who had supported the Electoral Alternative 2013, including former members of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), who had previously challenged the constitutionality of the German government's eurozone policies at the Federal Constitutional Court.
On 14 April 2013, the AfD announced its presence to the wider public when it held its first convention in Berlin, elected the party leadership, and adopted a party platform. Bernd Lucke, entrepreneur Frauke Petry and Konrad Adam were elected as speakers. The AfD federal board also chose three deputy speakers: Alexander Gauland, Roland Klaus, and Patricia Casale. The party elected treasurer Norbert Stenzel and the three assessors Irina Smirnova, Beatrix Diefenbach, and Wolf-Joachim Schünemann. The economist Joachim Starbatty, along with Jörn Kruse, Helga Luckenbach, Dirk Meyer, and Roland Vaubel, were elected to the party's scientific advisory board. Between 31 March and 12 May 2013, the AfD founded affiliates in all 16 German states in order to participate in the federal elections. On 15 June 2013, the Young Alternative for Germany was founded in Darmstadt as the AfD's youth organisation. In April 2013, during David Cameron's visit to Germany, the British Conservative Party was reported to have contacted both AfD and the Free Voters to discuss possible cooperation, supported by the European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR) group of the European Parliament. In June 2013, Bernd Lucke gave a question and answer session organised by the Conservative Party-allied Bruges Group think tank in Portcullis House, London. In a detailed report in the conservative Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung in April 2013, the paper's Berlin-based political correspondent Majid Sattar revealed that the SPD and CDU had conducted opposition research to blunt the growth and attraction of the AfD.
2013 federal election
On 22 September 2013, the AfD won 4.7% of the votes in the 2013 federal election, just missing the 5% barrier to enter the Bundestag. The party won about 2 million party list votes and 810,000 constituency votes, which was 1.9% of the total of these votes cast across Germany.
2013 state elections
The AfD did not participate in the 2013 Bavaria state election held on 15 September 2013. The AfD gained its first representation in the state parliament of Hesse with the defection of Jochen Paulus from the Free Democratic Party (FDP) to the AfD in early May 2013, who was not re-elected and left office in January 2014. In the 2013 Hesse state election held on 22 September 2013, the same day as the 2013 federal election, the AfD failed to gain representation in the parliament with 4.0% of the vote.
2014 European Parliament election
In early 2014, the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany ruled the proposed 3% vote hurdle for representation in the European elections unconstitutional, and the 2014 European Parliament election became the first run in Germany without a barrier for representation.
The AfD held a party conference on 25 January 2014 at Frankenstolz Arena, Aschaffenburg, northwest Bavaria. The conference chose the slogan Mut zu Deutschland ("Courage [to stand up] for Germany") to replace the former slogan Mut zur Wahrheit (lit. "Courage [to speak] the truth" or, more succinctly, "Telling it as it is"), which prompted disagreement among the federal board that the party could be seen as too anti-European. Eventually a compromise was reached by using the slogan "MUT ZU D*EU*TSCHLAND, with the "EU" in "DEUTSCHLAND" encircled by the 12 stars of the European flag. The conference elected the top six candidates for the European elections on 26 January 2014 and met again the following weekend to choose the remaining euro candidates. Candidates from 7th–28th place on the party list were selected in Berlin on 1 February. Party chairman Bernd Lucke was elected as lead candidate.
In February 2014, AfD officials said they had discussed alliances with Britain's anti-EU UK Independence Party (UKIP), which Bernd Lucke and the federal board of AfD opposed, and also with the ECR group, to which the British Conservative Party belongs. In April 2014 Hans-Olaf Henkel, AfD's second candidate on the European election list, ruled out forming a group with UKIP after the 2014 European election. stating that he saw the British Conservatives as the preferred partner in the European Parliament. On 10 May 2014 Bernd Lucke had been in talks with the Czech and Polish member parties of ECR group.
In the 25 May 2014 European election, the AfD came in fifth place in Germany, with 7.1% of the national vote (2,065,162 votes), and seven members of the EU parliament. On 12 June 2014 it was announced that the AfD had been accepted into the European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR) group in the European Parliament. The official vote result was not released to the public, but figures of 29 votes for and 26 against were reported by the membership.
2014 state elections
On 31 August 2014, the AfD scored 9.7% of the vote in the Saxony state election, winning 14 seats in the Landtag of Saxony. and on 14 September 2014 they obtained 10.6% of the vote in the Thuringian and 12.2% in the Brandenburg state election, winning 11 seats in both state parliaments.
2015 state elections
On 15 February 2015 AfD won 6.1% of the vote in the 2015 Hamburg state election, gaining the mandate for eight seats in the Hamburg Parliament, winning their first seats in a western German state.
Petry assumes leadership, Lucke quits
After months of factional infighting and a cancelled party gathering in June 2015, on 4 July 2015 Frauke Petry was elected as the de facto principal speaker of the party with 60% of the member votes ahead of Bernd Lucke at a party congress in Essen. Petry was a member of the national-conservative faction of the AfD. Her leadership was widely seen as heralding a shift of the party to the right, to focus more on issues such as migration, Islam and strengthening ties to Russia, a shift which was claimed by Lucke as turning the party into a "Pegida party". In the following week, five MEPs exited the party on 7 July, the only remaining MEPs being Beatrix von Storch and Marcus Pretzell and on 8 July 2015, Lucke announced that he was resigning from the AfD, citing the rise of xenophobic and pro-Russian sentiments in the party. At a meeting of members of the Wake-up call (Weckruf 2015) group on 19 July 2015, the founder of the AfD Bernd Lucke and former AfD members announced they would form a new party, the Alliance for Progress and Renewal (ALFA), under the founding principles of the AfD.
Co-operation with FPÖ and exclusion from ECR group
In February 2016, the AfD announced a cooperation pact with the Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ). On 8 March 2016, the bureau of the ECR Group began motions to exclude the AfD from their group due to its links with the far-right FPÖ, inviting the two remaining AfD MEPs to leave the group by 31 March, with a motion of exclusion to be tabled on 12 April if they refuse to leave voluntarily. While MEP Beatrix von Storch left the ECR group on 8 April to join the Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy group, Marcus Pretzell let himself be expelled on 12 April 2016.
2016 state elections
With the migrant debate remaining the dominant national issue, on 13 March 2016 elections held in the three states of Baden-Württemberg, Rhineland-Palatinate and Saxony-Anhalt saw the AfD receiving double-digit percentages of the vote in all three states. In the 2016 Saxony-Anhalt state election, the AfD reached second place in the Landtag, receiving 24.2% of the vote. In the 2016 Baden-Württemberg state election, the AfD achieved third place, with 15.1% of the vote. In the 2016 Rhineland-Palatinate state election, the AfD again reached third place, with 12.6% of the vote. In Angela Merkel's home state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, her CDU was beaten into third place following a strong showing of the AfD, who contested at state level for the first time, to claim the second-highest polling with 20.8% of the vote in the 2016 Mecklenburg-Vorpommern state election. However, AfD voter support in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania appears to have come from both left- and right-wing parties, with support for the SPD down 4.9%, CDU down 4.1%, The Left down 5.2%, Alliance '90/The Greens down 3.9%, and support for the National Democratic Party of Germany halved, dropping 3.0%. Rising support for the AfD meant that The Greens and the NDP failed to reach the 5% threshold to qualify for seats in the Landtag of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, and consequently lost their seats. In the 2016 Berlin state election, which the AfD also contested for the first time, they achieved a vote of 14.2%, making them the fifth largest party represented in the state assembly. Their vote seems to have come equally from the SPD and CDU, whose votes declined 6.7% and 5.7% respectively.
2016 party congress
At the party congress held on 30 April to 1 May 2016, the AfD adopted a policy platform based upon opposition to Islam, calling for the ban of Islamic symbols including burkhas, minarets and the call to prayer, using the slogan "Islam is not a part of Germany".
2017 federal election
At the party conference in April 2017, Frauke Petry announced that she would not run as the party's main candidate for the 2017 federal election. This announcement grew out of internal power struggle as the party's support had fallen in polls from 15% in the summer of 2016 to 7% just before the conference. Björn Höcke from the far-right wing of the party and Petry were attempting to push each other out of the party. Petry's decision was partly seen as a step to avoid a vote at the conference on the issue of her standing. The party chose Alexander Gauland, a stark conservative who worked as an editor and was a former member of the CDU, to lead the party in the elections. Gauland supported the retention of Höcke's party membership. Alice Weidel, who is perceived as more moderate and neoliberal, was elected as his running mate. The party approved a platform that, according to The Wall Street Journal: "urges Germany to close its borders to asylum applicants, end sanctions on Russia and to leave the EU if Berlin fails to retrieve national sovereignty from Brussels, as well as to amend the country's constitution to allow people born to non-German parents to have their German citizenship revoked if they commit serious crimes.
In the 2017 German federal elections, the AfD won 12.6% of the vote and received 94 seats; this was the first time it had won seats in the Bundestag. It won three constituency seats, which would have been enough to qualify for proportionally-elected seats in any event. Under a long-standing law intended to benefit regional parties, any party that wins at least three constituency seats qualifies for its share of proportionally-elected seats, regardless of vote share.
At a press conference held by AfD the day after the election, Frauke Petry said that she would participate in the Bundestag as an independent; she said she did this because extremist statements by some members made it impossible for AfD to function as a constructive opposition, and to make clear to voters that there is internal dissent in the AfD. She also said that she would be leaving the party at some future date. Petry formed the Blue Party in September 2017. Four members of the AfD in the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania legislature, including Bernhard Wild, also left the AfD to form their own group, which folded in December 2018. On 6 November 2019, Petry announced that the Blue Party would dissolve by the end of the year 
In 2018, André Poggenburg, the AfD's regional leader of the eastern Saxony-Anhalt state, resigned his post after making racist remarks concerning Turks and immigrants with dual citizenship. Poggenburg gave as reasons for his resignation a shift to the left in the AfD when it jettisoned from extremists in order to appear more moderate to voters. In 2019, Poggenburg started a new far-right party, Aufbruch deutscher Patrioten – Mitteldeutschland ("Dawn of German Patriots", AdP), which planned to field candidates in state elections in Saxony, Thuringia, and Brandenburg in Fall 2019. In August 2019, party founder Poggenburg left the AdP because his internal call to support the AfD in the upcoming state elections of fall 2019 was denied.
Ideology and policies
The AfD was founded as a liberal conservative party of the middle class with a tendency toward soft Euroscepticism, being generally supportive of Germany's membership in the European Union but critical of further European integration, the existence of the euro currency and the bailouts by the Eurozone for countries such as Greece. At that time, the party already advocated support for Swiss-style semi-direct democracy, dissolution of the Eurozone, opposition to immigration and opposed same-sex marriage. During this period, the party espoused libertarian, ordoliberal and national liberal policy stances. Former party MEP Hans-Olaf Henkel likened the AfD's early platform to the British Conservative Party rather than hard Eurosceptic or nationalist parties such as the UK Independence Party or the French National Front. The AfD was also compared to the US Tea Party Movement by some media outlets due to its campaigns against Eurozone bailouts, although the AfD's early leadership disputed this and claimed it was not looking to attract right-wing extremists into the party.
In 2015, more moderate members left AfD to found a new party, the Alliance for Progress and Renewal, which was renamed the Liberal Conservative Reformers in November 2016. at this point the AfD was performing poorly in opinion polls, polling at around 3 percent. However, later in 2015 an influx of refugees boosted their support, with the party turning to focus on opposing gender equality, refugees and in particular Muslims and Muslim immigration.
The AfD underwent a further shift to the right after Petry left the party in 2017 and formed The Blue Party, following the AfD's adoption of more hardline anti-Islam and anti-immigration positions and historical revisionist remarks by leading AfD figures. The party now resembles other populist radical right parties in Europe but is somewhat unusual because it maintains visible ties to even more extreme groups.
In March 2020, the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution (German: Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz) classified the far-right nationalistic faction known as Der Flügel as "a right-wing extremist endeavor against the free democratic basic order" and as "not compatible with the Basic Law" and therefore placed it under intelligence surveillance. In early March 2021, most of Germany's major media outlets reported that the Bundesverfassungsschutz had placed the whole AfD under surveillance as a "suspected extremist group". In response to claims from AfD members that the move was intended to damage the party's chances in the upcoming federal election, the agency stated it will not make public announcements regarding investigations into the AfD or its candidates for the foreseeable future.
Political commentators and analysists have described the party as containing two prominent factions: subscribers to more moderate right-wing and national-conservative policies, such as parliamentarians Jörg Meuthen, Alice Weidel and Beatrix von Storch, and the more hardline identitarian Der Flügel wing, comprising figures at state level such as Thuringia state leader Björn Höcke.
Over time, a focus on German nationalism, on reclaiming Germany's sovereignty and national pride, especially in repudiation of Germany's culture of shame with regard to its Nazi past, became more central in AfD's ideology and a central plank in its populist appeals.
For example: Petry, who led the moderate wing of the party, said that Germany should reclaim the German word "völkisch" from its Nazi connotations, while Björn Höcke, who is an example of the more right-wing or national conservative ideology, regularly speaks of the "Vaterland" ("father land") and "Volk" ('nation', 'people', but with a strong ethnic/racial connotation).
In January 2017, Höcke in a speech stated, in reference to the Berlin Holocaust Memorial: "Germans are the only people in the world who plant a monument of shame in the heart of the capital" and criticized this "laughable policy of coming to terms with the past". Höcke continued that Germany should make a "180 degree" turn with regard to its sense of national pride.
Immigration and multiculturalism
Former leader Petry said in March 2016: "I'm not against immigration, but (...) the economic and social consequences of migration on both home and host countries are equally momentous (...) The immigration of so many Muslims will change our culture. If this change is desired, it must be the product of a democratic decision supported by a broad majority. But Ms. Merkel simply opened the borders and invited everybody in, without consulting the parliament or the people."
In its program, the party wants to end what it describes as mass immigration and focus on taking in small numbers of skilled immigrants who are expected to integrate into society and speak German. It also encourages German nationals to have more children, as opposed to trying to boost the German population through foreign migration. The AfD also wants to review EU freedom of movement rules and states that immigrants must be employed and contribute to social security through paying taxes for at least four years before being allowed to receive state benefits. The AfD also calls for mass deportation of foreign born criminals with multiple citizenship or permanent residency. The AfD also describes the Geneva Convention on Refugees as "outdated" in the present day, calls for stricter vetting of refugees and believes the German government should invest in special economic and safe zones in third world nations as opposed to taking in large numbers of asylum seekers without background checks.
The AfD is critical of multiculturalism in Germany, stating that "the concept of a multi-cultural society has failed." The party also favours banning the burqa, the Islamic call to prayer in public areas and the construction of new minarets, ending foreign funding of mosques and putting imams through a state vetting procedure.
Homosexuality and feminism
According to its interim electoral manifesto, the party is against same-sex marriage and favours civil unions. The party is also against adoption for same-sex couples. The left-leaning newspaper Die Tageszeitung described the group as advocating "old gender roles". Wolfgang Gedeon, an elected AfD representative, has included feminism, along with "sexualism" and "migrationism", in an ideology he calls "green communism" that he opposes, and argues for family values as part of German identity. As AfD has campaigned for traditional roles for women, it has aligned itself with groups opposed to modern feminism. The youth wing of the party has used social media to campaign against aspects of modern feminism, with the support of party leadership. One prominent leader in the party, Alice Weidel is a lesbian and is in a civil union with a female Sri Lankan-born Swiss film producer. Despite her party's policy against gay and lesbian adoption, Weidel has two adopted children with her partner.
The party has a platform of climate change denial. AfD opposes energy transformation policies (Energiewende) they want to scrap the German Renewable Energy Act, German Energy Saving Regulations and the German Renewable Energy Heat Act. They also want to end bioenergy subsidies and restrict "uncontrolled expansion of wind energy". The AfD wants to reinstate Germany's nuclear plants, arguing that closures between 2002 and 2011 were "economically damaging and not objectively justified". The party argues that the government should "allow a lifetime extension of still operating nuclear power plants on a transitional basis".
The party is pro-NATO, pro-USA and strongly pro-Israel, but is significantly divided on whether to support Russia, and has opposed sanctions on Russia supported by NATO and the United States. It is also divided on free-trade agreements. In March 2019, party leader Alexander Gauland said in an interview with the Russian newspaper Komsomolskaya Pravda that they consider the War in Donbas to be a Ukrainian internal matter, and that Germany should not get involved in the internal affairs of Ukraine or Russia. He also said the AfD is against Western sanctions imposed on Russia.
AfD initially held a position of soft Euroscepticism by opposing the euro currency and Eurozone bailouts (which the party saw as undermining European integration) but was otherwise supportive of German membership of the European Union. Since 2015, the party has shifted to a more purely Eurosceptic and nationalist position against the EU. AfD now calls for an end to German Eurozone membership, withdrawal from the common European asylum and security policy, significant reform of the EU and a repatriation of powers back from Brussels with some party members endorsing a complete exit from the European Union if these aims are not achievable. During the 2021 party conference in Dresden, a majority of AfD members voted to include more hardline policies against the European Union including German withdrawal from the block in the party's manifesto ahead of the 2021 German federal election.
Because the 2013 federal election was the first attempt to join by the party, the AfD had not received any federal funds in the run-up to it, but after receiving 2 million votes it crossed the threshold for party funding and was expected to receive an estimated 1.3 to 1.5 million Euros per year of state subsidies. After joining the parliament after the election of 2017 with more than 90 representatives, the party received more than 70 million Euros per year. This will probably rise to more than 100 million Euros per year from 2019 onward. Further, the party has established and acknowledged a foundation for political education, and other purposes, close to the party but organized separately, which may be able to claim up to 80 million Euro per year. This foundation would need to be acknowledged by the federal parliament in Germany first, but it generally has a legal claim to these subsidies.
In 2018 the Alternative for Germany donation scandal became public: federal and European politicians Alice Weidel, Jörg Meuthen, Marcus Pretzell and Guido Reil had profited from illegal and unnamed donations from non-EU countries. The acceptance of donations from non-EU countries is prohibited for German parties and politicians.
In February 2016, the AfD announced a closer cooperation with the right-wing populist party Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ), which is a member of the Europe of Nations and Freedom (ENF) group. On 8 March 2016, the bureau of the ECR Group began motions to exclude AfD MEPs from their group due to the party's links with the far-right FPÖ and controversial remarks by two party leader, about shooting immigrants. MEP Beatrix von Storch pre-empted her imminent expulsion by leaving the ECR group to join the Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy group on 8 April, and Marcus Pretzell was expelled from the ECR group on 12 April 2016. During the AfD party convention on 30 April 2016, Pretzell announced his intention to join the Europe of Nations and Freedom group, although he subsequently left the AfD to join Petry's Blue Party.
In April 2019, Jörg Meuthen appeared alongside Northern League leader Matteo Salvini, National Rally leader Marine Le Pen and politicians from the Danish People's Party and Freedom Party of Austria to announce the formation of a new European political alliance. The AfD later joined this group in the European Parliament, which was ultimately named the Identity and Democracy group.
At the outset AfD presented itself as conservative and middle-class, catering to a well-educated demographic; around two-thirds of supporters listed on its website in the early days held doctorates, leading to AfD being nicknamed the "professors' party" in those early days. The party was described[who?] as professors and academics who dislike the compromises inflicted on their purist theories by German party politics. 86% of the party's initial supporters were male.
Relationship with far-right groups
Outside the Berlin hotel where the party held its inaugural meeting, it has been alleged that copies of Junge Freiheit, a weekly that is also popular with the far-right were being handed out. The Rheinische Post pointed out that some AfD members and supporters write for the conservative paper. There was also a protest outside the venue of the party's inaugural meeting by Andreas Storr, a National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD) representative in the Landtag of Saxony, as the NPD sees the AfD as a rival for Eurosceptic votes.
In 2013, Alternative for Germany party organisers sent out the message that they are not trying to attract right-wing radicals, and toned down rhetoric on their Facebook page following media allegations that it too closely evoked the language of the far-right. At that time, the AfD checked applicants for membership to exclude far-right and former NPD members who support the anti-Euro policy. The former party chairman Bernd Lucke stated that "The applause is coming from the wrong side" in regards to praise his party gained from the National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD).
Following the German Federal Election 2013, the anti-Islam German Freedom Party unilaterally pledged to support Alternative for Germany in the 2014 elections and concentrate its efforts on local elections only. Bernd Lucke responded by saying that the German Freedom Party's support was unwanted and sent a letter to AfD party associations recommending a hiring freeze.
Stern reported that among 396 AfD candidates for the 2017 Bundestag, 47 candidates did not distance themselves from right-wing extremism. Although a large proportion of the candidates are not openly racist, some relativize Germany's role in World War II or call for the recognition of a "Cult of Guilt". 30 candidates claimed to tolerate right-wing friends in their profile or were themselves members of groups associated with such people. Others said that they mourned the German Reich or used their symbols.
AfD deputy leader and Member of the European Parliament, Beatrix von Storch opposes same-sex marriage. She has accused support networks for young gay people at German schools as the "forced sexualisation" of German students.
In 2016, AfD Member of the European Parliament, Marcus Pretzell was expelled from the party after he said that German borders should be defended from incursion by refugees "with armed force as a measure of last resort".
Later that same year former AfD party chair and Member of the European Parliament, Frauke Petry told a reporter from the regional newspaper Mannheimer Morgen that the German Border police must do their jobs by "hindering illegal entry of refugees" and that they may "use firearms if necessary" to "prevent illegal border crossings". Petry later stated that no policeman "wants to fire on a refugee and I don't want that either" but that border police must follow the law to maintain the integrity of European borders. Afterwards, Petry made several attempts to justify these statements.
In response to the Pegida movement and demonstrations, members of AfD have expressed different opinions of it, with Lucke describing the movement as "a sign that these people do not feel their concerns are understood by politicians". In response to the CDU Interior Minister Thomas de Maizière alleging an "overlap" between Pegida rallies and the AfD, Alexander Gauland stated that the AfD are "natural allies of this movement". However, Hans-Olaf Henkel asked members of the party not to join the demonstrations, telling Der Tagesspiegel that he believed it could not be ruled out that they had "xenophobic or even racist connotations". A straw poll by The Economist found that nine out of ten Pegida protesters would back the AfD.
In May 2018, a statue of the founding father of communism Karl Marx, donated by the Chinese government, was unveiled in Marx's hometown of Trier. AfD leader Alexander Gauland said the city should not accept the statue, saying that it disrespects victims of communism. AfD staged a silent march to remember the victims of communist regimes.
Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe
Björn Höcke, one of the founders of AfD, gave a speech in Dresden in January 2017, in which, referring to the Holocaust memorial in Berlin, he stated that "we Germans are the only people in the world who have planted a memorial of shame in the heart of their capital", and suggested that Germans "need to make a 180 degree change in their politics of commemoration".
The speech was widely criticized as antisemitic, among others by Jewish leaders in Germany. Within the AfD, he was described by his party chairwoman, Frauke Petry, as a "burden to the party", while other members of the party, such as Alexander Gauland, said that they found no antisemitism in the speech.
As a result of his speech, the leaders of the AfD have asked in February 2017 that Björn Höcke be expelled from the party. The arbitration committee of the AfD in Thuringia is set to rule on the leaders' request. As of August 2017, Höcke remains "a part of the soul of the AfD".
Junge Alternative youth organisation
The Young Alternative for Germany (German: Junge Alternative für Deutschland or JA), was founded in 2013 as the youth organisation of the AfD, while remaining legally independent from its mother party.
In view of the JA's independence it has been regarded by some in the AfD hierarchy as being somewhat wayward, with the JA repeatedly accused of being "too far-right", politically regressive and antifeminist by the German mainstream media.
Federal Parliament (Bundestag)
|2013||810,915||1.9 (#8)||2,056,985||4.7 (#7)||
0 / 631
|2017||5,316,095||11.5 (#3)||5,877,094||12.6 (#3)||
94 / 709
7 / 96
11 / 96
State parliaments (Landtage)
17 / 143
22 / 205
25 / 160
23 / 88
5 / 84
7 / 121
19 / 137
|Lower Saxony||2017||235,840||6.2 (#5)||
9 / 137
18 / 71
|North Rhine-Westphalia||2017||624,552||7.4 (#4)||
16 / 199
9 / 101
3 / 51
38 / 119
23 / 97
3 / 73
22 / 90
- (in German). 25 May 2021 https://www.welt.de/politik/deutschland/article231349031/AfD-Der-Sieg-des-Duos-Weidel-Chrupalla-ist-eine-Schlappe-fuer-Meuthen.html. Missing or empty
- Taub, Amanda; Fisher, Max (18 January 2017). "Germany's Extreme Right Challenges Guilt Over Nazi Past". The New York Times.
- "Understanding the 'Alternative for Germany': Origins, Aims and Consequences" (PDF). University of Denver. 16 November 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
- Beyer, Susanne; Fleischhauer, Jan (30 March 2016). "AfD Head Frauke Petry: 'The Immigration of Muslims Will Change Our Culture'". Der Spiegel.
- Arzheimer, Kai (4 May 2015). "The AfD: Finally a Successful Right-Wing Populist Eurosceptic Party for Germany?" (PDF). West European Politics. 38 (3): 535–556. doi:10.1080/01402382.2015.1004230. S2CID 14613344.
- Lux, Thomas (June 2018). "Die AfD und die unteren Statuslagen. Eine Forschungsnotiz zu Holger Lengfelds Studie Die "Alternative für Deutschland": eine Partei für Modernisierungsverlierer?". KZFSS Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie. 70 (2): 255–273. doi:10.1007/s11577-018-0521-2. S2CID 149934029.
- Schmitt-Beck, Rüdiger (2 January 2017). "The 'Alternative für Deutschland in the Electorate': Between Single-Issue and Right-Wing Populist Party". German Politics. 26 (1): 124–148. doi:10.1080/09644008.2016.1184650. S2CID 156431715.
- Johannes Kiess; Oliver Decker; Elmar Brähler (2016). "Introduction | German perspectives on right-wing extremism: challenges for comparative analysis". In Johannes Kiess; Oliver Decker; Elmar Brähler (eds.). German Perspectives on Right-Wing Extremism: Challenges for Comparative Analysis. Routledge. pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-1-317-23184-4.
- Frank Decker (2015). "Follow-up to the Grand Coalition: The Germany Party System before and after the 2013 Federal Election". In Eric Langenbacher (ed.). The Merkel Republic: An Appraisal. Berghahn Books. pp. 34–39. ISBN 978-1-78238-896-8.
- Hans-Jürgen Bieling (2015). "Uneven development and 'European crisis constitutionalism', or the reasons for and conditions of a 'passive revolution in trouble'". In Johannes Jäger; Elisabeth Springler (eds.). Asymmetric Crisis in Europe and Possible Futures: Critical Political Economy and Post-Keynesian Perspectives. Routledge. p. 110. ISBN 978-1-317-65298-4.
- Egbert Jahn (2015). German Domestic and Foreign Policy: Political Issues Under Debate. Springer. p. 30. ISBN 978-3-662-47929-2.
- *Lansford, Tom, ed. (2014). Political Handbook of the World 2014. SAGE. p. 532. ISBN 978-1-4833-3327-4.
- Dervis, Kemal; Mistral, Jacques (2014). "Overview". In Dervis, Kemal; Mistral, Jacques (eds.). Europe's Crisis, Europe's Future. Brookings Institution Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-8157-2554-1.
- Ladrech, Robert (2014). "Europeanization of National Politics: the centrality of politics parties". In Magone, José M. (ed.). Routledge Handbook of European Politics. Routledge. p. 580. ISBN 978-1-317-62836-1.
- William T. Daniel (2015). Career Behaviour and the European Parliament: All Roads Lead Through Brussels?. Oxford University Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-19-871640-2.
- Nordsieck, Wolfram (2017). "Germany". Parties and Elections in Europe.
- Simon Franzmann (2015). "The Failed Struggle for Office Instead of Votes". In Gabriele D'Ottavio; Thomas Saalfeld (eds.). Germany After the 2013 Elections: Breaking the Mould of Post-Unification Politics?. Ashgate. pp. 166–167. ISBN 978-1-4724-4439-4.
"Thousands rally in Hanover against anti-Islam AfD party". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
... rally in Hanover against anti-Islam AfD party
Ellyatt, Holly. "Germany's far-right AfD party: 5 things you need to know". CNBC. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
Nowadays, the AfD is mainly known for its anti-immigration (namely, anti-Islamic)
- Dancygier, Rafaela. "The anti-Muslim AfD just scored big in Germany's election. What does this mean for German Muslims?". The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
Pfaffenbach, Kai. "German Election: Anti-Islam AfD Party That Worked With U.S. Ad Agency Predicted To Take Third Place". Newsweek. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
Sunday's election in Germany is expected to bring big gains for the hard-right, anti-Islam Alternative for Germany (AfD) party,
- Zeller, Frank. "Anti-migrant, anti-Muslim and anti-Merkel, Germany's AfD set to enter parliament". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
- Horn, Heather (27 May 2016). "The Voters Who Want Islam Out of Germany". The Atlantic. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
The AfD's founder Bernd Lucke, an economics professor, left the party last summer, condemning rising xenophobia.
- "Germany's far-right AfD: Victim or victor?".
The AfD ran a politically savvy campaign. It tapped into historical grievances in former communist eastern Germany, by co-opting phrases from the dissident movement that brought down the Berlin Wall 30 years ago. The AfD posters demanded a "Wende 2.0", using the German word for the peaceful revolution that brought down East German communism, and the AfD leaders compared Mrs Merkel's government to the Stasi secret police.
- "German election: Why this vote matters". BBC News. 15 September 2017. Retrieved 20 September 2017.[better source needed]
"Germany's far-right party will make the Bundestag much noisier". The Economist. 24 August 2017. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
- Ehrhardt, Sabine (2 December 2017). "Germany's far-right AfD chooses nationalist as co-leader". Reuters. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
- "German election: How right-wing is nationalist AfD?". BBC News. 13 October 2017.
Is it far-right? Yes.
- Eddy, Melissa (24 October 2017). "Far Right Upsets Tradition of Consensus in New German Parliament". The New York Times.
the Alternative for Germany, the first far-right party to enter Parliament in decades
- Chase, Jefferson Chase (24 September 2017). "AfD: What you need to know about Germany's far-right party". Deutsche Welle.
- Schuetz, Simon (10 October 2017). "The 'Very Different' Leaders of Germany's Far-Right AfD Party". NPR.
- Rainer, Buergin (19 November 2017). "German Far-Right AfD Is in Parliament. Now What?". Bloomberg.
- Farand, Chloe (21 November 2017). "Germany's far-right AfD says it is 'ready' to take advantage of political stalemate". The Independent.
- Oltermann, Philip (3 December 2017). "Germany's far-right AfD sidelines moderates as police and protesters clash". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
- Ellyatt, Holly (25 September 2017). "Germany's far-right AfD party: 5 things you need to know". CNBC.
- Kamran Khan; Tim McNamara (2017). "Citizenship, immigration laws, and language". In Canagarajah, Suresh (ed.). The Routledge Handbook of Migration and Language. Taylor & Francis. p. 464. ISBN 978-1-317-62434-9.
- Jon Nixon (2017). "Introduction: Thinking Within, Against, and Beyond Austerity". In Jon Nixon (ed.). Higher Education in Austerity Europe. Bloomsbury. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-4742-7727-3.
- "Just how far to the right is AfD?". 13 October 2017. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
- Mudde, Cas (2016). "Introduction to the populist radical right". In Mudde, Cas (ed.). The Populist Radical Right: A Reader. Routledge. pp. 1–10. ISBN 978-1-315-51456-7.
- Hülya Ecem Çalişkan (July 2018). The Rise of Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe: The Case of the Alternative for Germany (AfD) (PDF) (MSc). Middle East Technical University. p. 26.
- Schmitt-Beck, Rüdiger (2 January 2017). "The 'Alternative für Deutschland in the Electorate': Between Single-Issue and Right-Wing Populist Party". German Politics. 26 (1): 124–148. doi:10.1080/09644008.2016.1184650. S2CID 156431715.
- Arzheimer, Kai; Berning, Carl C. (2019). "How the Alternative for Germany (AfD) and their voters veered to the radical right, 2013–2017". Electoral Studies. 60: 102040. doi:10.1016/j.electstud.2019.04.004.
- "Germany's AfD: How right-wing is nationalist Alternative for Germany?". BBC News. 11 February 2020. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
After the election result he insisted the AfD did not accept racism or xenophobia, but in the same breath complained that "in some German cities, I struggle to find Germans on the streets".
- Gabriele D'Ottavio; Thomas Saalfeld (2015). "Introduction: Breaking the Mould of Post-Unification German Politics?". In Gabriele D'Ottavio; Thomas Saalfeld (eds.). Germany After the 2013 Elections: Breaking the Mould of Post-Unification Politics?. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-4724-4439-4.
- Hans-Georg Betz; Fabian Habersack (2020). "Regional Nativism in East Germany: the case of the AfD". In Reinhard Heinisch; Emanuele Massetti; Oscar Mazzoleni (eds.). The People and the Nation: Populism and Ethno-Territorial Politics in Europe. Taylor & Francis. pp. 115–116. ISBN 978-1-351-26554-6.
- "AfD embraces Pegida ahead of German election". The Irish Times. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
- Meaker, Morgan. "How Two Cities Encapsulate the Battle for Germany's Identity". The Atlantic. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
- "Waving German flag, far-right and anti-Islam groups rally together before vote". Reuters. 19 September 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
- "AfD's Alice Weidel called German government 'pigs' in racist email". Deutsche Welle. 20 September 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
- "Meet the far-right party that's bringing racism and xenophobia back to Germany". Vox. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
- Ellyatt, Holly. "Germany's far-right AfD party: 5 things you need to know". CNBC. Retrieved 22 January 2018."The German far right is running Islamophobic ads starring women in bikinis". Vox. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
- Eddy, Melissa (25 September 2017). "Alternative for Germany: Who Are They, and What Do They Want?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
- "Anti-Semitism row splits German party". BBC News. 6 July 2016. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
- Aderet, Ofer (24 September 2017). "'Nazis in the Reichstag': All Eyes on Far-right AfD Party as Germans Vote in National Election". Haaretz. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
Zeller, Frank. "Anti-migrant, anti-Muslim and anti-Merkel, Germany's AfD set to enter parliament". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
"the AfD is an anti-establishment party that harnesses xenophobia and popular discontent about what it labels unaccountable political and media elites.
- "Meet the far-right party that's bringing racism and xenophobia back to Germany". Vox. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
- Ellyatt, Holly. "Germany's far-right AfD party: 5 things you need to know". CNBC. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
Lucke told Reuters at the time that he was leaving amid rising xenophobia and Islamophobia in the party…
- "A neo-Nazi party now controls one-eighth of German Parliament, and here's how that happened". Newsweek. 25 September 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
- "Identitarian movement - Germany's 'new right' hipsters". Deutsche Welle. 23 June 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
- "German right-wing Identitarians 'becoming radicalized'". Deutsche Welle. 20 March 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
- "Germany to spy on far-right AfD party, reports say". 4 March 2021.
- "Germany places entire far-right AfD under surveillance — reports". Deutsche Welle. 3 March 2021.
- "German court bars surveillance of far-right AfD". www.ft.com. Retrieved 29 March 2021.
- "German court blocks surveillance of far-right AfD". The Local Germany. 5 March 2021. Retrieved 29 March 2021.
- "German court suspends surveillance of far-right AfD, for now". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 29 March 2021.
- "Why AFD was created". BBC World news. 4 September 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
- Lachmann, Günther (3 March 2013). "Anti-Euro-Partei geißelt die Politik der Kanzlerin" [Anti-euro party lashes out at politics of Chancellor Merkel]. Die Welt (in German). Retrieved 2 May 2013.
"Die Bundesrepublik Deutschland ist in der schwersten Krise ihrer Geschichte. Das Euro-Währungsgebiet hat sich als ungeeignet erwiesen. Südeuropäische Staaten verarmen unter dem Wettbewerbsdruck des Euro. Ganze Staaten stehen am Rande der Zahlungsunfähigkeit." [The Federal Republic of Germany is in the gravest crisis of its history. The euro currency area has shown itself to be unfit for purpose. Countries in southern Europe are sinking into poverty under the competitive pressure of the euro. Whole countries are on the brink of bankruptcy.]
- Frymark, Kamil (10 April 2013). "German Euro-sceptics to establish a political party". CeWeekly: The Centre for Eastern Studies (Ośrodek Studiów Wschodnich). Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- "Here comes ... the German Anti-Euro Party". Open Europe (Think Tank) Blog. 28 February 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- Pop, Valentina (12 March 2013). "New anti-euro party forms in Germany". EUobserver. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- Scholz, Kay-Alexander (13 May 2013). "German Pirate Party in uncharted waters". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 24 May 2013.
- Czuczka, Tony (4 March 2013). "German Euro Foes to Found Party in Merkel Election Challenge". Bloomberg.
Winand von Petersdorff-Campen (4 March 2013). "Die neue Anti-Euro-Partei". Frankfurter Allgemeine (in German).
- Boesler, Matthew (4 March 2013). "A small band of German professors is the hottest new threat to the future of the Euro". Business Insider.
- "Southern Europe out of euro says Alternative For Germany". BBC Daily Politics. 13 June 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
- Jahn, Joachim (14 April 2013). "Aufstand gegen Merkels 'alternativlose Politik'". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German).
Vasagar, Jeevan (14 April 2013). "1,000 Germans abandon Angela Merkel for Eurosceptic party". The Daily Telegraph. London.
- "Bernd Lucke und die wilde Jugend" (in German). N24. 13 June 2014. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
- Tories build secret alliance with Eurosceptics behind Merkel's back, The Daily Telegraph, UK, 12 April 2013.
- "Germany and the euro — with Professor Bernd Lucke". The Bruges Group. Archived from the original on 13 June 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- Weinthal, Benjamin (3 May 2013). "The Rise of Germany's Tea Party". Foundation for Defense of Democracies. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- "German Euroskeptic Party AFD Could Unravel After Election". Der Spiegel. 25 September 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- Paulick, Jane (5 May 2013). "German Euro-Skeptic Party Gaining Ground". Spiegel Online International: German Election Blog. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- Marcus Janz (10 March 2014). "Ex-Abgeordneter fehlte acht Monate im Landtag – keine Sanktionen". Hessische/Niedersächsische Allgemeine. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
- Demuth, Norbert (26 February 2014). "Germany's top court scraps 3 percent vote threshold for EU poll". Reuters. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- Benzow, Gregg (26 January 2014). "Germany's euroskeptic party revamps its image". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
- Lachmann, Günther (26 January 2014). "Wie die AfD ihr inhaltliches Vakuum füllen will". Die Welt (in German). Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- Czygan, Michael (26 January 2014). "Die Alternative für Deutschland nominiert in Aschaffenburg Kandidaten für Europa". Main Post (in German). Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- "Unsere Kandidaten für Europa" (in German). Alternative für Deutschland. Retrieved 3 February 2014.[permanent dead link]
- Marsh, Sarah (13 February 2014). "German anti-euro party says won't team up with xenophobes". Reuters. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- Waterfield, Bruno (24 April 2014). "EU elections: German Eurosceptics snub 'ridiculous' Ukip". The Telegraph. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- Barker, Alex (11 May 2014). "David Cameron's European Parliament group fights for survival". Financial Times. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
- Der Bundeswahlleiter (n.d.). "Endgültiges Ergebnis der Europawahl 2014". Archived from the original on 5 July 2015.
- Nicolaou, Anna; Barker, Luke (12 June 2014). "Anti-euro German AfD joins Cameron's EU parliament group". Reuters. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- "Landtagswahl 2014" (in German). Free State of Saxony. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- Torry, Harriet (31 August 2014). "Alternative for Germany Party Takes Its First Seats in a State Parliament". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- "Anti-euro party makes big leap in Thuringia, Brandenburg state elections". Deutsche Welle. 14 September 2014. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- Exner, Ulrich; Sturm, Daniel Friedrich (15 February 2015). "Wer bei Scholz Führung bestellt, wird sie bekommen". Die Welt (in German). Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- "Setback for SPD after narrow win in Bremen". Deutsche Welle. 11 May 2015. Retrieved 11 May 2015.
- "Germany's Far-Right Populists Have an Infighting Problem". The Atlantic. 22 September 2017. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
- "Germany's euroskeptic AfD elects conservative leader Petry". Deutsche Welle. 4 July 2015.
- Schneider, Jens (6 July 2015). "Lucke und der Auszug der Gemäßigten". Süddeutsche Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 6 July 2015.
- "Nach "Richtungsentscheidung" AfD meldet Hunderte Austritte" (in German). N-TV. 7 July 2015. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
- Barkin, Noah (8 July 2015). "German AfD founder leaves party decrying xenophobic shift". Reuters. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
- "Ousted chief of Germany's euroskeptic AfD sets up new political party". Deutsche Welle. 19 July 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
- Deutsche AfD und FPÖ beschließen Zusammenarbeit (in German). Der Standard. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
- Crisp, James. "AfD links to Austrian far-right 'final straw' for ECR MEPs –". Euractiv.com. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
- Peter Teffer (9 March 2016). "EU parliament group tells German AfD party to leave". EU Observer. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
- Peter Teffer (8 April 2016). "Right-wing German MEP quits parliament group". EU Observer. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
- "German AfD lawmaker joins eurosceptic group in European Parliament". Europe online. 8 April 2016. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
- "German AfD lawmaker evicted from conservative group in EU legislature". Europe online. 12 April 2016. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016.
- Philip Oltermann (13 March 2016). "Anti-refugee AfD party makes big gains in German state elections". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
- "Landtagswahlen 2016: Die sechs Datenanalysen zur Wahl". Der Spiegel. 14 March 2016.
- "Nationalists overtake Merkel's party in German state vote | Fox News". Fox News Channel. Associated Press. 4 September 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
The three-year-old Alternative for Germany, or AfD, won 21 to 22 percent of votes in the election for the state legislature in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, according to projections for ARD and ZDF television based on exit polls and partial counting. They put support for Merkel's Christian Democrats between 19 and 20 percent, their worst result yet in the state.
- "Berlin 2016". 19 September 2016.
- Ruth Bender (1 May 2016). "Germany's AfD Adopts Anti-Islam Stance at Party Conference". The Wall Street Journal.
- "Germany's AfD party adopts anti-Islamic manifesto". Financial Times.
- Tina Bellon (1 May 2016). "Anti-immigrant AfD says Muslims are not welcome in Germany". The Independent.
- "German fury at AfD Hoecke's Holocaust memorial remark". BBC. 18 January 2017.
- Huggler, Justin. "German far-right leader stuns party by quitting chancellor race". The Telegraph.
- Wehner, Markus. "AfD-Vizechef im Porträt - Die drei Leben des Alexander Gauland". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German).
- Troianovski, Anton (23 April 2017). "Head of Germany's Upstart Anti-Immigrant Party Pushed Aside". The Wall Street Journal.
- "CDU/CSU remains strongest parliamentary group in the Bundestag despite losses". German Bundestag. 27 September 2017.
- "Bundestagswahl am 24. September 2017". Wahlrecht.de (in German). Retrieved 26 September 2017.
- "Frauke Petry, co-chair of the far-right AfD, to quit the party | Germany". Deutsche Welle.
- Elwazer, Schams; Clarke, Hilary. "German far-right party AfD in disarray". CNN.
- "Germany: Frauke Petry's Blue Party dissolves after election routs". Deutsche Welle. 6 November 2019.
- "Sensation: Poggenburg verlässt seine eigene Partei und ruft zur Wahl der AfD auf" [Sensation: Poggenburg leaves his own party and calls for the election of the AfD]. Compact (in German).
- Payerhin, Mayek (2017). Nordic, Central, and Southeastern Europe 2017-2018. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 254.
- "German party says 'no' to the euro, 'yes' to the EU". Deutsche Welle. 11 March 2013.
- Stijn van Kessel (2015). Populist Parties in Europe: Agents of Discontent?. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 61–62. ISBN 978-1-137-41411-3.
- Wayne C. Thompson (2014). Nordic, Central, and Southeastern Europe 2014. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 283. ISBN 978-1-4758-1224-4.
- Lee McGowan; David Phinnemore (2015). A Dictionary of the European Union. Taylor & Francis. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-1-317-44515-9.
- Arzheimer, Kai (2015). "The AfD: Finally a Successful Right-Wing Populist Eurosceptic Party for Germany". West European Politics. 38 (3): 535–556. doi:10.1080/01402382.2015.1004230. S2CID 14613344.
- Wayne C. Thompson, ed. (2015). Nordic, Central, and Southeastern Europe 2015–2016. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 246. ISBN 978-1-4758-1883-3.
- Muzergues, Thibault (2019). The Great Class Shift: How New Social Class Structures are Redefining Western Politics. Routledge.
Created in 2013, first and foremost as a libertarian and Eurosceptic party
- "The rise of Germany's AfD: From ordoliberalism to new right nationalism and into the Bundestag?". LSE. 27 June 2017.
- "AfD vor dem Parteitag: National-sozial vs. national-liberal". TAZ.de. 29 June 2016.
- "German Eurosceptic leader Lucke sets up Alfa party". BBC. 20 July 2015.
- Werner, Alban. "Germany's Shift to the Right". Jacobin. Retrieved 2 October 2017.
- "Bavarian AfD wants to shut down mosques". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2 October 2017.
- "German Muslims fear more radical AfD without Petry in election race". Reuters. 20 April 2017.
- "Germany: Former AfD leader Frauke Petry charged with perjury". BBC. 4 October 2017.
- "The leader of Germany's far-right party quit hours after its election success—because it's too radical". Quartz.
- Arzheimer, Kai (2019). "Don't mention the war! How populist right-wing radicalism became (almost) normal in Germany". Journal of Common Market Studies. 57: 90–102. doi:10.1111/jcms.12920.
- DER SPIEGEL. "Verfassungsschutz stuft "Flügel" als rechtsextrem ein - DER SPIEGEL - Politik" (in German).
- Bennhold, Katrin (3 March 2021). "Germany Places Far-Right AfD Party Under Surveillance for Extremism". The New York Times.
- "'Nazi word' revived by German AfD chief". BBC News. 12 September 2016.
- Chambers, Madeline (18 January 2017). "German AfD rightist triggers fury with Holocaust memorial comments". Reuters. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
- Dearden, Lizzie (19 January 2017). "German AfD politician 'attacks Holocaust memorial' and says Germans should be more positive about Nazi past". Independent. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
- "Manifesto for Germany" (PDF).
- "Entwurf für AfD-Programm: Neue Asylpolitik, alte Genderrollen". die tageszeitung. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
- Heni, Clemens (1 August 2016). "Germany's Hot New Party Thinks America is 'Run by Zionists'". Tablet Magazine.
- Kemper, Andraes (March 2014). "Keimzelle der Nation? Familien- und geschlechter-politische Positionen der AfD – eine Expertise" [Germ cell of the nation? Family and gender political positions of the AfD – an expertise] (PDF). Friedrich Ebert Stiftung Forum Politik und Gesellschaft (in German).
- "Anti-euro party turns anti-feminist". Thelocal.de. 31 March 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
- "AfD-Kandidatin Alice Weidel mit Coming-out auf der Wahlkampf-Bühne: "Ich bin homosexuell"". RTL Next (in German). 21 September 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
- Steiner, Thomas (23 April 2017). "Das neue Gesicht der AfD: Wer ist eigentlich Alice Weidel?". Badische Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 6 February 2021.
- "AfD-Frontfrau Alice Weidel hat einen Wohnsitz in der Schweiz". Die Welt (in German). 29 April 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
- Knight, Ben (7 March 2016). "What does the AfD stand for?". Deutsche Welle.
It's skeptical of climate change and against Germany's energy transition
- "Alternative für Deutschland Zurück zur Wehrpflicht". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). 9 March 2016. ISSN 0174-4909. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
- "German far-right MP pushes recognition of Jerusalem as Israel's capital". The Times of Israel. 17 April 2018.
In a press release, Petr Bystron, one of the party’s chief foreign policy spokespeople, explained that his faction is strongly supportive of the State of Israel and US President Donald Trump’s December 6 decision to recognize Jerusalem as Israel’s capital.
- "AfD: A New Hurdle in the German-Israeli Relationship?". besacenter.org. Begin–Sadat Center for Strategic Studies. 28 November 2017.
- Brandt, Linda (2015). "Populist Parties in Germany, France, and the UK: Growing Support for a Radical Rejection of Globalization?". International ResearchScape Journal. 3: 19.
Likewise, the AfD professes its desire to maintain an intimate security relationship with the US, stating NATO is, and remains, the bond of a transatlantic security architecture, whose crucial anchor is the alliance with the USA.”38 However, it also expresses a need for a closer relationship with Russia to resolve problems in Eastern Europe. However, a resolution passed that calls for an end to European sanctions imposed on Russia, and to abstain from further measures designed to bind Ukraine and EU or Ukraine and Russia closer together, has led some to charge the party with anti-Americanism.39 The debate about a more pro-American or pro-Russian course appears to divide the AfD deeply, and opinions differ significantly among even the party leadership, as a Die Welt article reports.
- Chesnokov, Edvard (9 March 2019). Глава партии «Альтернатива для Германии» Александр Гауланд: Ситуация в Донбассе — это внутреннее дело России и Украины (in Russian). Komsomolskaya Pravda. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
- "AfD chief Lucke denies plans to split the party". Deutsche Welle. 19 May 2015.
- "The Far Right Wants to Gut the EU, Not Kill It". The Atlantic. 7 May 2019.
- "AfD party congress over "Dexit"". Zeit Online. 12 January 2019.
- "AfD party congress: Back to a 'Europe of nations'". Euractiv. 14 January 2019.
- Bildung, Bundeszentrale für politische. "Mitgliederentwicklung der Parteien | Infografiken | Parteien in Deutschland | bpb". bpb.de (in German). Retrieved 21 August 2018.
- "Home - Alternative für Deutschland". www.afd.de (in German). Retrieved 21 August 2018.
- "Home - Alternative für Deutschland". www.afd.de (in German). Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- https://www.tagesschau.de/inland/afd-parteimitglieder-rueckgang-101.html. Missing or empty
- "Party members: Greens gain, AfD and SPD lose". RedaktionsNetzwerk Deutschland (in German). 14 February 2021.
- Petterdorff-Campen, Winand von (21 April 2013). ""Alternative für Deutschland" Haste mal 'ne Mark?" (in German). Retrieved 21 September 2013.
- Verzählt – Nachschlag für die AfD in Frankfurt (in German, Subsidies for AfD). Die Welt. 28 September 2013
-  AfD erhält rund 400 Millionen Euro vom Staat
- "German AfD lawmaker to align with faction of France's National Front".
- "AfD: EU-Abgeordneter Pretzell wechselt zur Front-National-Fraktion". Die Zeit. 30 April 2016.
- "Frauke Petry founded 'Blue party' ahead of national elections - reports". Deutsche Welle. 12 October 2017.
- "Germany's AfD joins Italy's League in new populist coalition". Deutsche Welle. 8 April 2019.
- "Far-right parties form new group in European Parliament". Deutsche Welle. 14 June 2019.
- Wittrock, Philipp (12 April 2013). "The Know-It-All Party: Anti-Euro 'Alternative for Germany' Launches". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
- Nicholas Kulish and Melissa Eddy, German elites drawn to anti-Euro party, spelling trouble for Merkel The New York Times (15 April 2013)
- Connelly, Kate (14 April 2013). "Leading German economist calls for dissolution of eurozone to save EU". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- Scally, Derek (13 April 2013). "Upstart political party challenges Germany's consensus on the euro". The Irish Times. Retrieved 16 May 2013.
- Barkin, Noah (14 April 2013). "Analysis: Don't underestimate Germany's new anti-euro party". Reuters. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- Mayntz, Gregor (24 April 2013). "AfD hat schon fast 10.000 Mitglieder". Rheinische Post (in German). Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- Schneider, Theo. "Neo-Nazis rally against Alternative for Germany party congress". demotix.com. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- Alling, Daniel (13 March 2013). "Nytt eurokritiskt parti i Tyskland". Sveriges Radio (in Swedish). Retrieved 19 May 2013.
- Alexander, Harriet; Jeevan Vasagar (7 April 2013). "Bernd Lucke interview: 'Why Germany has had enough of the euro'". The Sunday Telegraph. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
- Heine, Friederike (14 August 2013). "Hard Knocks for Anti-Euro Party". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- Hebel, Christina (1 October 2013). ""Die Freiheit": Anti-Islam-Partei will sich der AfD anschließen". Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved 15 November 2013.
- Leber, Fabian (1 October 2013). "Alternative für Deutschland und "Die Freiheit" Islamkritiker empfehlen jetzt die AfD". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Retrieved 15 November 2013.
- Stern (14 September 2017). "SPD fällt in Umfrage auf 20 Prozent". Stern. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
- Philip Oltermann. "Liberals quit Alternative for Germany party as it embraces a domestic agenda". The Guardian.
- Beale, Charlotte (31 January 2016). "Refugees should be shot "if necessary", says party leader in Germany". The Independent.
- Mack, Steffen; Serif, Walter (30 January 2016). "Sie können es nicht lassen!". Mannheimer Morgen (in German). Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- Huggler, Justin (10 December 2014). "German Eurosceptics embrace anti-Islam protests". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- Withnall, Adam (15 December 2014). "Germany sees 'visible rise' in support for far-right extremism in response to perceived 'Islamisation' of the West". The Independent. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
- "Gone boy on the right: How an anti-foreigner, anti-establishment group is changing German politics". The Economist. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
- "Scharfe Kritik an Marx-Denkmal von der AfD". Focus.de. 5 May 2018.
- "Karl Marx statue from China adds to German angst". BBC News. 5 May 2018.
- Polke-Majewski, Karsten (18 February 2016). "Björn Höcke: Mein Mitschüler, der rechte Agitator". Die Zeit.
- "Landtagswahl 2014: Welche Koalitionen sind in Thüringen möglich?"". Thüringische Landeszeitung. 16 July 2014.
- "AfD Vorstand Thüringen".
- "Thüringen: Ausschuss hebt Immunität von AfD-Fraktionschef Höcke auf". Der Spiegel. 3 July 2015.
- "AfD-Mann Höcke löst mit Kritik an Holocaust-Gedenken Empörung aus". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). 18 January 2017.
- Matthias Kamann (19 January 2017). "Was Höcke mit der "Denkmal der Schande"-Rede bezweckt". Die Welt (in German).
- "AfD-Chefin Petry: "Höcke ist eine Belastung für die Partei"". Junge Freiheit (in German). 18 January 2017.
- "Germany's right-wing AfD seeks to expel state leader over Holocaust remarks". Deutsche Welle.
- "Gauland open for Höcke as federal board". 30 August 2017.
- Lamparski, NIna (12 May 2014). "Germany's youth rebels against EU". BBC News. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- Krass, Sebastian (31 March 2014). "Zu weit rechts". Süddeutsche Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- White, J. Arthur (31 March 2014). "Anti-euro party turns anti-feminist". The Local (de). Retrieved 11 May 2014.
- "Anti-feminist campaign targets German gender quota proposal". Al Jazeera. 1 April 2014. Archived from the original on 23 May 2014. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- "Bundestagswahl am 22. September 2013". Wahlrecht.de (in German). Retrieved 25 April 2017.
- "Wahlergebnisse – Europawahl (Europaparlament)". wahlrecht.de (in German). Retrieved 25 April 2017.
- "Election results PDF" (PDF) (in German). 15 October 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 October 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
- "Abgeordnetenhauswahl in Berlin am 18. September 2016". Wahlrecht.de (in German). Retrieved 25 April 2017.
- "Bürgerschaftswahl Land Bremen". wahlen-bremen.de (in German). Retrieved 31 May 2019.
- "Landtagswahl in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern am 4. September 2016". Wahlrecht.de (in German). Retrieved 25 April 2017.
- "Landtagswahl am 14. Mai 2017 in Nordrhein-Westfalen". Wahlrecht.de (in German). Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- "Landtagswahl im Saarland am 26. März 2017". Wahlrecht.de (in German). Retrieved 25 April 2017.
- "Landtagswahl am 7. Mai 2017 in Schleswig-Holstein". Wahlrecht.de (in German). Retrieved 8 May 2017.
- Arzheimer, Kai. "The AfD: Finally a successful right-wing populist Eurosceptic party for Germany?." West European Politics 38.3 (2015): 535-556 online
- Arzheimer, Kai, and Carl C. Berning. "How the alternative for Germany (AfD) and their voters veered to the radical right, 2013–2017." Electoral Studies 60 (2019): 102040.
- Berbuir, Nicole, Marcel Lewandowsky, and Jasmin Siri. "The AfD and its sympathisers: Finally a right-wing populist movement in Germany?." German Politics 24.2 (2015): 154-178 online.
- Diermeier, Matthias. "The AfD’s Winning Formula—No Need for Economic Strategy Blurring in Germany." Intereconomics 55.1 (2020): 43–52. online
- Franz, Christian, Marcel Fratzscher, and Alexander Kritikos. "At opposite poles: How the success of the Green Party and AfD reflects the geographical and social cleavages in Germany." DIW Weekly Report 9.34 (2019): 289–300. online
- Pfahl-Traughber, Armin (2019). Die AfD und der Rechtsextremismus: Eine Analyse aus politikwissenschaftlicher Perspektive. Springer VS, ISBN 978-3-658-25179-6.
- Hansen, Michael A., and Jonathan Olsen. "Flesh of the same flesh: A study of voters for the alternative for Germany (AfD) in the 2017 federal election." German Politics 28.1 (2019): 1-19. online
- Havertz, Ralf. "Right-wing populism and neoliberalism in Germany: The AfD’s embrace of ordoliberalism." New Political Economy 24.3 (2019): 385–403.
- Rosellini, Jay. The German New Right: AfD, PEGIDA and the Re-Imagining of National Identity (Hurst, 2020) online review
- Spiegel Online's Guide to German Political Parties: Alternative for Germany
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alternative for Germany.|
- Official website (in German)
- Manifesto for Germany: The Political Programme for the Alternative for Germany (2017, English translation)