|A. candida on Capsella bursa-pastoris|
Aecidium candidum Pers. (1797)
Albugo candida commonly known as white rust, is a species of oomycete in the family Albuginaceae. It is sometimes called a fungus, but in fact forms part of a distinct lineage of fungus-like microorganisms, Oomycetes, commonly known as water moulds. A. candida is an obligate plant pathogen that infects Brassicaceae species and causes the disease known as white rust or white blister rust. It has a relatively smaller genome than other oomycetes.
A. candida has a cosmopolitan distribution and is known from many countries where cruciferous crops are grown in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australasia, North, Central, and South America. Areas, where it has not been recorded, include northern Scandinavia, northern and central Siberia, northern China, western and central Africa, Alaska, northern and central Canada, and southern and western South America.
This pathogen infects plants in the family Brassicaceae; the growth stages involved include the seedling stage, the growing stage, the flowering stage, and the fruiting stage. It has been recorded on almost all the varieties and species of the rapeseed-mustard group of crops as well as many wild brassicas. It has also been recorded on plants in the families Aizoaceae, Capparaceae, Cleomaceae, and Amaranthaceae. There are many different races and varieties of A. candida, each infecting its own group of species; for example, one infects Capsella, Arabis, and Lepidium, while another infects Brassica, Diplotaxis, and Sinapis.
White rust can infect plants both locally and systemically. On stems, leaves, and inflorescences it appears as a mass of white or cream-coloured pustules, each about 2 mm (0.08 in) in diameter, packed with sporangia. The systemic version causes distortion, abnormal growth forms, and sterile inflorescences. The abnormal growth forms are sometimes known as "stagheads". Infection with white rust predisposes a crop to develop downy mildew, caused by another oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora nicotianae.
When liberated, the sporangia inside the pustules are spread by wind, rain, and insects. After landing on a susceptible plant, each sporangium gives rise to about six zoospores which, under suitable conditions of moisture and light, form germ tubes which invade the plant's tissues. Thick-walled sexual spores, called oospores are produced which germinate, producing either vesicles inside the plant tissue, exit tubes with vesicles at the tip, or germ tubes. Further zoospores develop inside the vesicles. The infection is spread by either oospore-infected seed or by mechanical movement of sporangia.
- "Albugo candida (Pers.) Roussel: Synonymy". Species Fungorum. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
- Saharan, Govind Singh; Verma, Prithwi Raj; Meena, Prabhu Dayal; Kumar, Arvind (2014). White Rust of Crucifers: Biology, Ecology and Management. Springer. p. 7. ISBN 978-81-322-1792-3.
- Links, Matthew G.; Holub, Eric; Jiang, Rays HY; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Hegedus, Dwayne; Beynon, Elena; Sillito, Dean; Clarke, Wayne E.; Uzuhashi, Shihomi (2011). "De novo sequence assembly of Albugo candida reveals a small genome relative to other biotrophic oomycetes". BMC Genomics. 12: 503. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-12-503. ISSN 1471-2164. PMC 3206522. PMID 21995639.
- "Albugo candida (white rust of crucifers)". Factsheet. CABI. 27 March 2018. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
- Saharan, G.S.; Mehta, Naresh; Sangwan, M.S. (2005). Diseases of Oilseed Crops. Indus Publishing. p. 40–41. ISBN 978-81-7387-176-4.
- Ferreira, Stephen A.; Boley, Rebecca A. (1 November 1991). "Albugo candida". Knowledge Master. Hawaii Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
- Saharan, G.S.; Mehta, Naresh; Sangwan, M.S. (2005). Diseases of Oilseed Crops. Indus Publishing. p. 57. ISBN 978-81-7387-176-4.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Albugo candida.|
- Choi, Young-Joon; Thines, Marco (2011). "Morphological and molecular confirmation of Albugo resedae (Albuginales; Oomycota) as a distinct species from A. candida". Mycological Progress. 10 (2): 143–148. doi:10.1007/s11557-010-0683-4.
- Choi, Young-Joon; Shin, Hyeon-Dong; Ploch, Sebastian; Thines, Marco (July 2011). "Three new phylogenetic lineages are the closest relatives of the widespread species Albugo candida". Fungal Biology. 115 (7): 598–607. doi:10.1016/j.funbio.2011.02.006. PMID 21724165.
- Links, Matthew G.; Holub, Eric; Jiang, Rays H. Y. (13 October 2011). "De novo sequence assembly of Albugo candida reveals a small genome relative to other biotrophic oomycetes". BMC Genomics. 12: 1–12. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-12-503. PMC 3206522. PMID 21995639.
- Thines, Marco (March 2014). "Phylogeny and evolution of plant pathogenic oomycetes-a global overview". European Journal of Plant Pathology. 138 (3): 431–447. doi:10.1007/s10658-013-0366-5.