|Molar mass||270.33 g·mol−1|
|Appearance||pale yellow to dark yellow crystalline powder|
|Density||1.0717 g·cm−3 bei 25 °C|
|Melting point||* 125–126 °C|
|Solubility in acetonitrile, benzene, dichlormethane, chloroform, dimethylsulfoxide, tetrahydrofuran or toluene||soluble|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
1,3-Diphenylisobenzofuran is a highly reactive diene that can scavenge unstable and short-lived dienophiles in a Diels-Alder reaction. It is furthermore used as a standard reagent for the determination of singlet oxygen, even in biological systems. Cycloadditions with 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran and subsequent oxygen cleavage provide access to a variety of polyaromatics.
The first synthesis of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran was reported in 1905 by A. Guyot and J. Catel. Phenylmagnesium bromide was reacted with 3-phenylphthalide (the latter accessible from the methyl ester of 3-hydroxyphthalide with phenylboronic acid in 95% yield) to a lactol, which gives with mineral acids upon an elimination of water 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran in 87% yield.
The patent literature describes the preparation of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran by [4+2]cycloaddition of 1,3-butadiene and dibenzoylethylene (1,4-diphenyl-2-butene-1,4-dione, accessible from fumaroyl chloride and benzene in the presence of aluminum chloride.). Dibenzoylethylene is predominantly present in the trans-configured but it can be converted into the needed cis configuration by simple heating.
The 4,5-dibenzoylcyclohexene formed previously is cyclized with acetic anhydride to the dihydroisobenzofuran. By bromine addition and hydrogen bromide elimination, 1,2-dibenzoylbenzene is formed and recyclized with zinc acetic acid to the final product 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran. A publication from 1940 describes high yields for the individual stages of the extensive reaction sequence.
The (much cheaper) phthaloyl chloride gives also access to 1,2-dibenzoylbenzene via Friedel-Crafts acylation with benzene, which is reduced to 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran in 78% yield by potassium borohydride.
just like the synthesis from salicylaldehydes via phenacylhydrazones, which undergo oxidation with lead(IV) acetate to give ortho-diketones, followed by the reaction with an aryl Grignard compound.
1,3-Diphenylisobenzofuran is a yellow, light- and air-sensitive, crystalline solid that is soluble in many organic solvents with a maximum absorption around 420 nm (in solution), which generates intense fluorescence. Fluorescence measurements can be performed in DMF and DMSO because of the stability of 1,3-DPBF, in these solvents. In CHCl3 and CCl4, the dissolved 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran is rapidly photolyzed by attack of CHCl2 and CCl3 radicals, even in the absence of oxygen. [24 ]
With ethanol, 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran forms an orange-yellow, fluorescent solution. On irradiation, it forms a colorless photodimer (upon with exclusion of oxygen), upon disscolouration of the solution.
The compound's refractive index is 1,6700 at 25 °C and 589 nm.
Reagent for determination of singlet oxygen
In the presence of methylene blue irradiated with red laser light, 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran reacts with intermediate singlet oxygen 1O2, forming an unstable peroxide that decomposes into (colorless) 1,2-dibenzoylbenzene.
The detection of singlet oxygen by 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran is based on this reaction, even in biological systems. For biological systems, water-soluble derivatives of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran were developed.
Dienophile in Diels-Alder reactions
Isobenzofurans like 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran are among the most reactive Diels-Alder dienes known to date, and are useful for scavenging short-lived and unstable olefins and alkynes. The group led by Georg Wittig made important contributions to this topic.
Cyclopropenone (which is unstable above its melting point of -29 °C) reacts quantitatively at room temperature with 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran to form a Diels-Alder adduct, which is exclusively an exo isomer.
Molecular building block for polyaromatics
Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of great interest as precursors to graphite, but especially as environmental pollutants with pronounced persistence and carcinogenicity. 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran reacts quantitatively with acenaphthylene when heated to 160 °C to give 7,12-diphenylbenzo[k]fluoranthene.
The twice occurring Diels-Alder reaction of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran with p-benzoquinone yields virtually quantitative a product that can be reacted further with p-toluenesulfonic acid to give a pentacene derivative in 49% yield.
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