|Introduced||18 April 1989|
|TLD type||Country code top-level domain (ccTLD)|
|Intended use||Entities connected with Brazil|
|Actual use||Very popular in Brazil (largest Portuguese language Web presence)|
|Registered domains||4,837,316 (18 August 2021)|
|Registration restrictions||Varying restrictions based on which second-level name registration is within. In all cases the registrant must have either a CPF or CNPJ, documents usually granted only to Brazilian residents or recognized companies|
.br is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Brazil. It was administered by the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee (Comitê Gestor da Internet no Brasil) until 2005 when it started being administered by Brazilian Network Information Center (Núcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto br). A local contact is required for any registration. Registrations of domain names with Portuguese characters are also accepted.
With the exception of universities, the second-level domain is fixed and selected from a list that defines the category. For example, site.art.br is in the art (music, folklore etc.) category, and site.org.br is in the non-governmental organization category. Institutions of tertiary education were allowed to use the ccSLD .edu.br, although some use .com.br and others (mainly public universities) use .br. There are also some other few exceptions that were allowed to use the second level domain until the end of 2000. As of April 2010, most domain registrations ignore categories and register in the .com.br domain, which has over 90% of all registered domains. The .jus.br (Judiciary), and .b.br (banks) domains have mandatory DNSSEC use.
Created and delegated to Brazil in 1989 by Jon Postel, initially the domain was operated manually by Registro.br and administered by the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP). Originally, only researchers and institutions to which they belonged had the interest and ability to adopt the new system and register domains under .br.
At the time, networks prevalent in the Brazilian academic setting were the BITNET ("Because It's Time NETwork"), the HEPnet ("High Energy Physics Network") and the UUCP ("Unix-to-Unix Copy Program"). As such, even before Brazil officially connected to the Internet in 1991, the .br domain was used to identify the machines participating in networks already in use by academics.
In 1995 the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee (Portuguese: Comitê Gestor da Internet no Brasil, or simply CGI.br) was created with an objective to coordinate the allocation of Internet addresses (IPs) and the registration of .br domain names. There were 851 domains registered with the Brazilian DNS by the beginning of 1996, thereafter experiencing rapid growth with the mass arrival of companies, Internet providers and media onto the Internet. The registration system was automated in 1997 and was developed using open source software.
In 2005, CGI.br created his own executive arm, the Brazilian Network Information Center (Portuguese: Núcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto BR, or simply NIC.br), which currently serves in both administrative and operational capacity for the registry.
In 2017, accounts associated with DNS records of Brazilian banks were hacked. Kaspersky's researchers pointed out to a vulnerability in NIC.br's website and suggested its infrastructure had been compromised. NIC's director at the time, Frederico Neves, denied that NIC.br was "hacked", although NIC.br admitted the vulnerability.
To register any domains under .br, it is necessary to enter into contact with Registro.br. Entities legally established in Brazil as a company ("pessoa jurídica") or a physical person ("profissional liberal" and "pessoas físicas") that has a contact within Brazil can register domains. Foreign companies that have a power-of-attorney legally established in Brazil can also do it by following specific rules.
The registration of domains with special Portuguese characters (à, á, â, ã, é, ê, í, ó, ô, õ, ú, ü and ç) is accepted since 2005.
Syntactic rules for .br domains
- Minimum of 2 and maximum of 26 characters, not including the category. For example, in the field XXXX.COM.BR, this limitation relates to the XXXX.
- Valid characters are [A-Z, 0-9], the hyphen, and the following accented characters: à, á, â, ã, é, ê, í, ó, ô, õ, ú, ü, ç.
- Domains cannot contain only numbers.
- To maintain the integrity of the registry, Registro.br sets up an equivalence mapping to compare domain names with and without accented characters. The mapping is done by converting accented characters and the cedilla for their non-accented versions and "c", respectively, and discards hyphens. A new domain will only be allowed to be registered when there is no equivalent to a pre-existing domain, or when the applicant is the same entity that owns the domain equivalent.
- Note: Specifically for the domain .NOM.BR, it is necessary to choose two names, i.e.: NAME1.NAME2.NOM.BR.
In 1991, it was decided that universities and research institutes would be allowed second-level .br domains directly. For example: Federal University of Rio de Janeiro got ufrj.br; University of São Paulo got usp.br; National Institute for Space Research got inpe.br; and so on.
In late 2000, the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee (CGI.br) reported abuse in this system, and called for all institutions directly under .br to be moved to .edu.br – so, for example, ufrj.br would become ufrj.edu.br. During a meeting in early 2001, however, the Committee decided it would be of public interest to not move every second-level domain as to avoid confusion, but instead established rules regarding their registration:
- No longer accepting automatic registration of second-level domains, and evaluating every request for one individually;
- Creating edu.br, and forwarding requests from education and research institutions to it;
- Concession to education and research institutes that already had a second-level .br domain, as long as its usage is appropriate and that domain name is related to the institution's name or acronym. Domains approved are automatically duplicated under edu.br as well, and both may exist concurrently – for example, the still existing ufrj.br also has a registered ufrj.edu.br, although the latter is not used;
- Other institutions not approved above must be migrated permanently to edu.br (but would be given sufficient time for the transition).
As of August 2021, Registro.br reports 1207 domains registered directly under .br.
As of August 2021, there are 140 different second-level domains of .br under which custom domains can be registered, and they are divided into six categories: "Generic", "Cities", "Universities", "Professionals", "Natural persons" and "Legal persons". They are the following:
|"Generic" second-level .br domains|
|ART.br||Arts: music, painting, folklore|
|DEV.br||Developers and development platforms|
|ECO.br||Eco- or environment focused activities|
|EMP.br||Small and micro-enterprises|
|LOG.br||Transport and logistics|
|"Universities" second-level .br domains|
|EDU.br||Higher education institutions|
|"Natural persons" second-level .br domains|
|"Legal persons" second-level .br domains|
|AGR.br||Agriculture- or farm-related companies|
|ESP.br||Sport in general|
|ETC.br||Companies that do not fit into other categories|
|FAR.br||Pharmacies and drugstores|
|IMB.br||Real estate agencies|
|INF.br||Media and information (radios, newspapers, libraries, ...)|
|RADIO.br||"Companies wishing to transmit audio through the network"|
|REC.br||Recreational activities, games|
|SRV.br||Work for hire|
|TMP.br||Temporary events, such as fairs and expos|
|TV.br||"Internet transmission of sounds and images"|
|G12.br||Primary or secondary schools (K–12 equivalent)|
|GOV.br||Federal government institutions|
|MIL.br||Brazilian Armed Forces|
|ORG.br||Not-for-profit non-governmental organizations|
|PSI.br||Internet service providers|
|MP.br||Public Ministry institutions|
|TC.br||Tribunal de Contas da União|
|"Cities" second-level .br domains|
|9GUACU.br||Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro|
|ABC.br||ABC Region, São Paulo|
|APARECIDA.br||Aparecida, São Paulo|
|BARUERI.br||Barueri, São Paulo|
|BHZ.br||Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais|
|BOAVISTA.br||Boa Vista, Roraima|
|BSB.br||Brasília, Federal District|
|CAMPINAGRANDE.br||Campina Grande, Paraíba|
|CAMPINAS.br||Campinas, São Paulo|
|CAXIAS.br||Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro|
|CONTAGEM.br||Contagem, Minas Gerais|
|CUIABA.br||Cuiabá, Mato Grosso|
|FEIRA.br||Feira de Santana, Bahia|
|FLORIPA.br||Florianópolis, Santa Catarina|
|FOZ.br||Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná|
|GRU.br||Guarulhos, São Paulo|
|JAB.br||Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Pernambuco|
|JAMPA.br||João Pessoa, Paraíba|
|JDF.br||Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais|
|JOINVILLE.br||Joinville, Santa Catarina|
|MORENA.br||Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul|
|NATAL.br||Natal, Rio Grande do Norte|
|NITEROI.br||Niterói, Rio de Janeiro|
|OSASCO.br||Osasco, São Paulo|
|POA.br||Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul|
|PVH.br||Porto Velho, Rondônia|
|RIBEIRAO.br||Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo|
|RIO.br||Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro|
|RIOBRANCO.br||Rio Branco, Acre|
|RIOPRETO.br||São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo|
|SAMPA.br||São Paulo, São Paulo|
|SANTAMARIA.br||Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul|
|SANTOANDRE.br||Santo André, São Paulo|
|SAOBERNARDO.br||São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo|
|SAOGONCA.br||São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro|
|SJC.br||São José dos Campos, São Paulo|
|SLZ.br||São Luís, Maranhão|
|SOROCABA.br||Sorocaba, São Paulo|
|UDI.br||Uberlândia, Minas Gerais|
|VIX.br||Vitória, Espírito Santo|
Special second-level domains
From 2000 until 2009, during election cycles, electoral candidates could register domains under CAN.br, with the format [name][number].can.br – where the name is the registered candidate name, and the number is the identification number for that candidate in the election (related to the party's identification number). The second-level domain was in a category of its own, called "natural persons, special".
- Marcelo Déda had the website deda13.can.br (his surname and Worker's Party's identification number, 13);
- Susana Azevedo had the website susana23.can.br (her first name and Cidadania's identification number, 23);
- Jorge Alberto had the website jorgealberto15.can.br (his name and MDB's identification number, 15).
Domains were free for registered candidates. Additionally, domains were automatically cancelled at the end of the first round if the candidate lost, and remaining ones were cancelled after the end of the second round.
No new .can.br domains have been registered since 2009.
There are multiple agencies registered directly under .br, as second-level domains, that aren't higher education or research institutions. The following list might not be exhaustive:
|CGI.br||Acronym for "Comitê Gestor da Internet" (lit. 'Internet Administration Committee')||The Committee establishes strategic directives related to the use and development of the internet in Brazil, directives for the registration of domain names, IP allocation and administration regarding the .br TLD|
|NIC.br||Acronym for Network Information Center||Created to implement decisions and projects of the Committee (CGI.br)|
|IX: Acronym for Internet eXchange
PTT: Acronym for "Ponto de Troca de Tráfego" (lit. 'Traffic Exchange Point')
|Handles the internet exchange point system of Brazil|
|REGISTRO.br||Portuguese for "registration"||.br registry|
|CETIC.br||Acronym for "CEntro de Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação" (lit. 'Center of Information and Communications Technology')||Officially called "Centro Regional de Estudos para o Desenvolvimento da Sociedade da Informação", it monitors the adoption of information and communications technology in Brazil|
|CEPTRO.br||Acronym for "Centro de Estudos e Pesquisas em Tecnologia de Redes e Operações" (lit. 'Center for Studies and Research in Network Technology and Operations')||Responsible for initiatives and projects that support or perfect the internet infrastructure in Brazil|
|CERT.br||Acronym for Computer Emergency Response Team||Has the mission to increase the security levels and incident handling capabilities regarding networks conected to Brazil's internet|
|CEWEB.br||Acronym for "Centro de Estudos sobre Tecnologias Web" (lit. 'Center for Studies on Web Technologies')||Has the mission to enable the participation of the Brazilian community in the global development of the web|
|W3C.br||W3C||Brazilian branch of the World Wide Web Consortium|
|NTP.br||Acronym for Network Time Protocol||Provides the legal, standard time for Brazil|
|IPV6.br||IPv6||Promote and disseminate IPv6 usage in Brazil|
|ANTISPAM.br||Anti-spam||Has the mission to inform users and network administrators about spam, its implications and forms of protection and combat|
|INTERNETSEGURA.br||Portuguese for "Safe Internet"||Has the mission to incentivize the safe use of the internet|
|ZAPPIENS.br||Named after Portugal's now defunct Zappiens.pt, managed by the FCCN||Has the mission to be a free service for the aggregation and distribution of audiovisual scientific, educational, artistic and cultural content in Portuguese|
Most of these agencies are subsidiaries of CGI.br and, as such, they follow a similar corporate identity. The "logos" are combinations of the names of the agencies with the logo for .br, all of which are simply typed out with Brandon Schoech (Tepid Monkey)'s freeware font "Qhytsdakx":
There are multiple networks registered directly under .br, usually of academic nature. Again, this list may not be exhaustive:
|RNP.br||Acronym for "Rede Nacional de ensino e Pesquisa" (lit. 'National Network of Education and Research')||An academic backbone of Brazilian internet|
|REDERIO.br||"Rede Rio" (lit. 'Rio Network')||Academic network for the state of Rio de Janeiro|
|Acronym for "Research and EDucation NEtwork at São Paulo"||Academic network for the state of São Paulo|
|TCHE.br||"Rede Tchê" (lit. 'Tchê Network'), named after the interjection common in the South of Brazil, tchê||Academic network of the South Region of Brazil|
- As of 18 August 2021, Google showed 2.76 billion pages for site: .br, 351 million for site: .pt (Portugal) and 6.16 million for site: .ao (Angola). Portuguese pages in the .com domain were 2.19 billion.
- "Estatísticas" [Statistics]. Registro.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 18 August 2021.
- IANA - Informações sobre a delegação do .br
- NIC.br - CGI.br comemora os 20 anos do ".br"
- "Comunicado ao Público". CGI.br. 14 February 2006. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
- Andy Greenberg (4 April 2017). "How Hackers Hijacked a Bank's Entire Online Operation". Wired.
Kaspersky believes the attackers compromised NIC.br (...) Kaspersky points to a January blog post from NIC.br that admitted to a vulnerability in its website (...) [Frederico Neves] denied that NIC.br had been "hacked." But he conceded that accounts may have been altered
- Registro.br - Tips and Rules
- Getschko, Demi (1 April 2006). "Nomes de domínio na internet". Pesquisa sobre o uso das tecnologias da informação e da comunicação 2005 (in Portuguese). São Paulo: CGI.br. pp. 21–24. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
- "Nota de Esclarecimento sobre utilização do DPN .edu". NIC.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 18 August 2021.
- "Categorias de domínios .br" [Categories of .br domains]. Registro.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 17 August 2021.
- "Duque de Caxias terá domínios 'caxias.br'" [Duque de Caxias will have 'caxias.br' domains]. NIC.br (in Portuguese). 1 September 2017. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
- Santos, Leonardo (22 September 2017). "Ribeirão Preto ganha próprio domínio de internet" [Ribeirão Preto gets its own internet domain]. NIC.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 18 August 2021.
- Januário, Larissa (24 March 2008). "Eleições 2008: candidatos terão domínio can.br" [2008 Elections: candidates will have can.br domain]. NIC.br (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 19 August 2021. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
- "Ata da Reunião de 28 de fevereiro de 2002" (in Portuguese). 28 February 2002. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
- "Resolução CGI.br/RES/2008/008/P". CGI.br (in Portuguese). 28 November 2008. Archived from the original on 21 April 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
- Franciscato, Carlos Eduardo (11 September 2004). "Como a Internet está ajudando eleitores e candidatos". Infonet (in Portuguese). Retrieved 18 August 2021.
- "can.br - 31/12/1995 a 17/08/2021". Registro.br (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 19 August 2021. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
- IANA .br whois information
- Registro.br : Brazil's official registry administrator
- Second-level domain statistics for .br
- .br Registration
- TepidMonkey's archived website (source of the font used in the logos, "Qhytsdakx")