|Zucchini yellow mosaic virus|
|ZYMV on courgette|
Group IV ((+)ssRNA)
Zucchini yellow mosaic virus
ZYMV affects all cucurbits including pumpkins, squashes, vegetable marrows, courgettes, melons, watermelons, cucumbers, gherkins and various gourds especially zucchinis. The effects are severe leaf mosaic, yellowing and eventually "shoestring" symptoms in the leaves. The fruits are stunted, twisted and deformed by raised protuberances, which reduces yield and makes them unmarketable in some cultures. In cultivated crops plants cease producing marketable fruits within 1–2 weeks of infection and serious financial losses can occur, particularly in courgette and marrow crops.
The disease may be introduced in infected seed, so sourcing clean seed can help prevent the disease. Control is largely dependent on using insecticides to control the aphid vectors. A form of "inoculation" or cross protection may also be used where seedlings are inoculated with a non-virulent strain of the virus (ZYMV-WK); this prevents infection with the severe strain.
A biotech yellow crookneck squash has been developed to resist zucchini yellow mosaic virus (and watermelon mosaic virus (WMV)). This contains the coat protein genes of the viruses. In 2009, relatively small amounts of this were grown commercially in the US.
- Provvidenti, R.; Gonsalves, D. (May 1984). "Occurrence of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus in Cucurbits from Connecticut, New York, Florida, and California" (PDF). Plant Disease. 68 (5): 443–446. doi:10.1094/pd-69-443. ISSN 0191-2917.
- "Pocket K No. 2: Plant Products of Biotechnology". International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications. July 2012. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
- "Field areas 2009: Genetically modified plants: Global cultivation on 134 million hectares". GMO Compass. March 29, 2010. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
- Thomson, K. G.; Dietzgen, R. G.; Gibbs, A. J.; Tang, Y. C.; Liesack, W.; Teakle, D. S.; Stackebrandt, E. (September 1995). "Identification of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Potyvirus by RT-PCR and Analysis of Sequence Variability". Journal of Virological Methods. 55 (1): 83–96. doi:10.1016/0166-0934(95)00047-x. PMID 8576311.