A bottle of Cypriot Zivania.
|Country of origin||Cyprus|
|Alcohol by volume||43-60%|
|Flavour||Alcoholic with a light aroma of raisins|
Zivania or zivana (Greek: ζιβανία, ζιβάνα) is a Cypriot pomace brandy produced from the distillation of a mixture of grape pomace and local dry wines made from Xynisteri and Mavro grapes.Zivania is colourless and alcoholic with a light aroma of raisins. Its alcohol content varies, with 45% by volume being the typical value. Zivania contains no sugars and has no acidity.
The name of zivania is derived from zivana (Greek: ζίβανα) which means pomace in the Greek dialect of Cyprus. It is believed that Zivania has been produced in Cyprus since the time the Republic of Venice ruled the island, around the end of the 15th century. Evidence of its continued production during Ottoman and British rule of the island comes from writers such as the British writer Samuel Baker who in 1879 reports: "...the refuse of skins and stalks is laid upon one side to ferment for the manufacture of raki, or spirit, by distillation...".
According to the law regarding the regulation and control of grape products of 1965 (52/1965) (Greek: Ο περί Ρυθμίσεως και Ελέγχου της Βιομηχανίας Αμπελουργικών Προϊόντων Νόμος του 1965 (52/1965) zivania is defined as "an alcoholic drink containing no more than 60% alcohol per volume which is produced exclusively from the first distillation of wine, grapes and pomace that went through fermentation or raisins or any other remains of the same" (Greek: "ζιβανία" σημαίνει οινοπνευματώδες ποτόν περιέχον ουχί πέραν των 60% οινόπνευμα παραγόμενον αποκλειστικώς και μόνον διά της πρώτης αποστάξεως οίνων, τρυγίας, σταφυλών αι οποίαι υπέστησαν ζύμωσιν ή σταφίδων ή οιωνδήποτε υπολειμμάτων τούτων).
The production of zivania starts with the pressing of mature healthy grapes to produce must. The density of the grape must is then checked with a Baumé hydrometer to ensure it has a density value of less than 13° Baumé. This is necessary for the must to achieve complete and proper fermentation. The grape must, together with pomace, are then placed in large containers and let to ferment. Traditionally, the must-pomace mixture was placed in large clay containers (pithos, Greek: πιθάρι). As soon as the fermentation process completes (i.e. the fermented must is checked to have a value of less or equal to 0° Baumé), the fermented must-pomace mixture is transferred to the main container of the still (kazani, Greek: καζάνι) for the distillation.
The still is called lampikos (Greek: λαμπίκος) in the Greek dialect of Cyprus. In some villages of Cyprus, a single lampikos was usually shared and used by all of the villagers. It is noteworthy that zivania stills are similar to those used for tsikoudia in Crete.
Once the main container of the still is hermetically shut, fire is set under it. The fire is monitored and maintained in order to produce constant heat. The first zivania that comes from the still has the highest alcohol content, while the last taken out of the apparatus has a low alcohol content and it is called porakos (Greek: πόρακος).
Depending on the pre-distillation mixture, different qualities of zivania are produced:
- Zivania produced using only wine for the distillation
- Zivania produced using wine and pomace for the distillation
- Zivania produced using pomace, water and weak zivania
Storage and transportation
Consumption and other usage
Cypriots consume zivania throughout the year. During the summer, zivania is served ice cold. Zivania is not usually consumed alone and it is typically served with dried nuts, Turkish delight, soutzoukos or small appetizers like Cypriot loukaniko, lountza and tsamarella.
Before the introduction of beer and other alcoholic drinks in Cyprus, the main alcoholic drinks Cypriots consumed were wine and zivania. In some villages of Cyprus, cinnamon is added to zivania giving it a distinct red colour, aroma and flavour. When zivania is left to age, it gains stronger flavour and aroma. Aged zivania is highly valued and is kept for consumption during special occasions or as a welcoming treat for visitors.
Zivania, in addition to its use as an alcoholic beverage, is used to treat wounds, for massaging sore body parts, as a remedy for colds and toothaches, or as a warming-up drink during the cold months of winter, especially in the villages of the Troodos mountains.
To establish the authenticity of zivania, chemical studies were contacted to investigate which of the metals analyzed constitute diagnostic parameters that establish authenticity. The results of the studies establish that zivania is related to the unique geological and climatic conditions existing on the island of Cyprus.
Xynisteri grapes used in the production of zivania.
Mavro grapes used in the production of zivania.
Distillation apparatus (kazani) found in the village of Amiras, Crete.
- Pomace brandy
- Chacha (brandy)
- "Ζιβανία ή ζιβάνα". foodmuseum.cs.ucy.ac.cy (in Greek). Cyprus Food Virtual Museum. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
- "Xynisteri". vounipanayiawinery.com. Vouni Panaya Winery. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
- Samuel W. Baker (1879). Cyprus, as I Saw it in 1879. Project Gutenberg (Etext edition, 2003). p. 120. ISBN 978-1-84637-912-3.
- "Ο περί Ρυθμίσεως και Ελέγχου της Βιομηχανίας Αμπελουργικών Προϊόντων Νόμος του 1965 (52/1965)". Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- " The name 'grape marc' or 'grape marc spirit' may be replaced by the designation Zivania solely for the spirit drink produced in Cyprus." "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 15, 2011. Retrieved November 12, 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Authenticity of the Traditional Cypriot Spirit "Zivania" on the Basis of H NMR Spectroscopy Diagnostic Parameters and Statistical Analysis 
- Authenticity of the traditional Cypriot spirit zivania